Skip to main content

Full text of "The Geography Of Strabo Vol. Iv"

See other formats


THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 


EDITED B\ 

E. CAPPS j PHI), LLD T. E PAGE, litt.d. 
W H D ROUSE, LITT D. 


THE GEOGRAPHY OF STRABO 
IV 



THE GEOHRAPHY 
OF STRABO 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BT 
HORACE LEONARD JONES, Ph D., LL D 

tOKM'lI ONrnFRSIlY 


i 


l! 

II 

it 


IN EIGHT VOLUMES 
IV 



LONDON . WILLIAM HEINEMANN 
NEW YORK • G. P, PUTNAM’S SONS 

51CMXXVII 



Pi inted in Gieat B) Uain 



CONTENTS 

PAOt 

BOOK yiii 3 

BOOK IX 2S9 

A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 457 


V 




THE 

GEOGRAPHY OF STRABO 

BOOK VIII 


VOL. IV 


B 



2TPABQN02 rEQrPA«I)IKQN 
H 

I 


C 332 1. ’ETrel Be eTTiovre^ airo t&v icnrepicov T 7?9 

Eupol>7r^79 /JL€p&v, oaa rfj OakdTrrj irepiix^rai rfi 
6 Z/T 09 fcal TTf iicTo^iy rd re ^dpjSapa edvrj Trepico- 
Bevcrapiev irdvra ev avrf} '^ov HavdiBoc; /cal 

rrj^ 'EA.XaSo9 ov ttoXv pepo^j r^v MaxeBoviav,^ 
aTToBdoaopev vvvX rh \ 0 t 7 rd 7^9 ^ ^XKaBLf€ri<; yeco- 
rypa(j)[a9* direp ^^Opr)po<i pev 7rpa>T09, eireira /cal 
aWoi TrXeiov^; iTrpayparevcravTo, oi pev IBC^ 
JXipeva^ ^ YlepL'n‘Xov<; rj TJepLoBovf; 7 % ri 
roiovrov dXXo eTTcypayfravre^, iv oh fcal rd 
XaBi/cd Treptix^rat, oi S’ iv Kotvfj icrropia^s 
ypa^fj %(ypl9 anroBeL^avre^ ttjv t&v ^ireLpo^v 
ro7roypa(pLav, Kaddirep ^E<j>op6<; re irroLijcT^ Kal 
TloXv0iQ<^, dXXoL S’ eh rov cj>vac/cbv roirov /cal 
TOP pad7)pari/cov irpctreXa^ov riva Kal r&v roiov'* 
rmv, Kaddrrep IlocreLBd>vi6^ re Kal ''Iwrrapxo^* 
rd pev otv r&v aXXcov evBvairrjrd ig^^, rd S’ 
^OpYfpov aKeyjr€ 0 )<; Belrai KpiriKrj^;, 7 ro/.rjTiK<d^ re 
Xeyovro<i kclI ov rd vvv, oKXd ra dpxcucf >9 

^ r^v Ma/ceSowW, Oasaabon, for rris MaKeBoutas^ which latter 
Meiueke ejects 


1 The Mediterranean and Atlantic. 
2 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF STRABO 
BOOK VIII 


I 

1. I BEGAN my description by going over all the 
western parts of Europe comprised between th^ 
inner and the outer sea , ^ and now that I have 
encompassed in my survey all the barbarian tribes 
in Europe as far as the Tanais and also a small pait 
of Greece^ Macedonia^^ I now shall give an account 
of the remainder of the geography of Greece. This 
subject was first treated by Homer , and then, after 
him, by several otheis, some of whom have written 
special tieatises entitled Harbours, or Coasting 
Voyages, or General Descnpiions oj the Earth, or 
the like ; and in these is comprised also the descrip- 
tion of Greece. Others have set foith the topo- 
graphy of the continents in separate parts of their 
general histones, for instance, Ephorus and Polybius. 
Still others have inserted certain tilings on this 
subject in their treatises on physics and mathematics^ 
for instance, Poseidonius and Hippaichus. Now 
although the statements of the others are easy to 
pass judgment upon, yet those of Homer require 
critical inquiry, since he speaks poetically, and not 
of things as they now are, but of things as they 
were m antiquity, which foi the most part have been 

* See Book 7, Fmg, 9, m Vol. III. 


B 2 


3 



STRABO 


0 %/)oz^09 rjfjiavpoyfce ra ttoWu, 0)9 S’ ovv hvvarov 
iy)(€ipr}reov, ap^afiivoL^; a(j)* &vTrep arreXiTTopev* 
ereXevra S^ v]p,lv 6 X 6 yo<i dirb fiev t);9 ecriripa^; 
fcal tS>v dpKTCov eh rd 'ilTretpcoTi/cd Wvrj jcal 
rd tS>v ^IXXvpi&p, diro Be t 7 ]<; eco eh rd t&p 
X lafceBovcov p»ixP^ Hv^avrlov. fierd pAv ovv tou^ 
^VLiretpcoTa^ /cal rou9 ^lXXvpLov<; t&v ^EXX^ijvcov 
^A/capvdvh elcn /cal AircoXol /cal Ao/cpol oi 
^O^dXar irph Be rovroi^ ^co/ceh re /cal Boicoror 
TOVToi^ S’ dvriTTOpOpof; iariv 0) UeXoTrovvrjao^, 
aTToXap^dvovaa pera^v top Kopivdia/cbv /coXirov 

C 333 /cal (TXTjparL^ovad re tovtov /cal arxvP'^ri^opevr) 
VTT avrov* perd Be M.aKeBovLav ©erraXol pixP^ 
yiaXietov /cal rd ^ r&v dXXcov r&v 6/CT09 ^laffpov 
/cal avT&v T&v €vt 6 <;. 

2 . ^EXXaSo9 pbv odv ^ TroXXd eOvrj fyeyevr)rat, id 
8’ dvcordro) rocravraf bcra<; /cal BcaXe/ciov^ rrapet” 
XTjipapev Ta 9 ^ EXXrjviBaf;’ rovrcov 8’ avr&v 
recradpwv ova&v, ttjv pev ’laSa rfj ivaXaia 
’At ^604 r^-)V avT't]v <papev (/cal 'ydp''lo)V€<; eicaXovvro 

01 rare ^ArTi/coLf /cal eiceWev elaiv oi rijv ^ Acriav 
i7roc/CT]cravT€<s ’la)2^€9 /cal xpV^dpevot ry vvv XC 70 - 
pevy rfKcbiry ’laSi), ryv Be AcopiBa ly AloXiBr 
'7rdvre<} yap oi e/crb^ ^ladpov irXyv ^ AdrjvaiCDv 
/cal Meyapecov /cal r&v irepl rbv TLapvacra-bv 
Atopieodv /cal vvv ert AloXeh /caXovf^ait /cal 
TO 1)9 Acopcea9 Be oXCyov^ 6Vra9 /cal rpax^rdryv 

^ before riav ^KKtov, Muller-Dubiier insert, following 
conj of Memeke. 

® *EA.\<£5os' fikv olv E, 254 oliv B, l5ob o"tv G'dv, 
iittdQvojui>y olv Ag, Oorais follows B, and Kramer and Muller- 
' Dubner read tiJs *^Xk6.^os fi\v ody , but Memeke, *iindoyo /lep 
o^y 

4 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. i 1-2 


obscured by time. Be this as it may, as far as I can 
J must undeitake the inquiry; and I shall begin 
where I left off My account ended, on the west 
and the north, with the tribes of the Epeirotes and 
of the Illyrians, and, on the east, with those of the 
Macedonians as far as Byzantium. After the Epei- 
rotes and the Illyrians, then, come the following 
peoples of the Gieeks the Acarnanians, the 
Aetolians, and the Ozohan Locrians ; and, next, 
the Phocians and Boeotians, and opposite these, 
across the arm of the sea, is the Peloponnesus, which 
with these encloses the Corinthian Gulf, and not 
only shapes the gulf but also is shaped by it ; and 
after Macedonia, the Thessalians (extending as far 
as the Mahans) and the countries of the rest of 
the peoples outside the Isthmus,^ as also of those 
inside 

2. There have been many tribes in Greece, but 
those which go back to the eailiest times are only 
as many 111 number as the Gieek dialects which 
we have learned to distinguish. But though the 
dialects themselves are four in number,^ we may 
say that the Ionic is the same as the ancient Attic, 
for Iche Attic people of ancient times were called 
lonians, and from that stock sprang those lonians 
who colonised Asia and used what is now called 
the Ionic speech ; and we may say that the Doric 
dialect IS the same as the Aeolic, for all the Greeks 
outside the Isthmus, except the Athenians and 
the Megarians and the Dorians who live about 
Parnassus, are to this day still called Aeolians. And 
it is reasonable to suppose that the Dorians too, 
since they were few in number and lived in a most 

^ ze. north of the Isthmus ® See 14. 5. 26. 


5 



STRABO 


olfCovvra<; X^pav €Ik 6 <; iarc avmiiiif<r(p irapa- 
TpB'^ai rrjv yX&r rav real ra aXXa edr)'^ Trph to 
/XT) 6 /jboy€vi<i 9 opLoyevels wporepov 6 vra<i, tovto 
S’ avro fcal roi^ ^ABy]vaLOt<; avvi^T]^ XeirToyeiav 
re Kul Tpax^iciv oltcovvra^ x^P^^ (iTropS^rov^ 
pLGLvaL^ Sia rovro, /cal avroxBova^ vopiaBypal 
(j>r}(Tiv 6 @ov/cvBlSi]<;j /carixoPTa^; rrjv avTrjv dev, 
fjv 7 ]Bevo<^ i^eXavvovro^ avTOv<; i7nBvfjLovi/70<; 

eX^^P i/C€bVCOp* TOVTO TOIVVV aVTO /cal TOV 

iTepoyXcoTTov /cal tov eTepoeBov^ ^ alriov, ce)9 
elKO^, VTTTjp^e, /cavTTGp dXvyoi<; oiavv. ovtco Be 
TOV AloXi/cov TrX 7 }dov<; i 7 rifcpaTovP 7 o<; iv tov<; 
i/CTO^ *laB/jbOv, /cal ol evTO^ AloXet^ Ttporepov 
Tjaav, evT ipvx^-qcrav, ^Icovcov /ah in: t?}? ^Attl/C 7 ]<s 
TOP AiyvaXop /caTaerxoprooP, t&p S’ 'Hpa/cXevB&v 
Tov^ Acoptia<; /caTayayoPTCopf v<j> &v rd re Xleyapa 
/pKLcrBr] /cal rroXXal t&p iv rfj HeXoTrovvrjTCp 
TToXecop, oi pvev odp e^erreTov iraXw Tap^e<09 

vTto ^Axoit'^v* AldXi/cov edvov<;' eXevjiBt] S’ ev rfj 
TI^ottoppt^o' ( p rd Bvo e 6 p'>i» to re AloXi/cou^ Kal 
TO AcopiKop, ocrov pvev oi/p ?}TT 0 P rol<i Ampievavv 
eTterrXe/covTO (KaBdrrep crope^i] toc^ re ^Ap/cdcri 
/cal TOi9 ’HX6toi9, To?9 jjvh opeipol^ reXioof; odcri 
/cal QVK eixTreirrcoKoatP eh tov /cXrjpop, T0Z9 S’ 
lepoh vopbicrBeiav tov ^OXvpvTTvov Aio^ Kal /caB^ 

1 ^07} (n), for %0ini ; so the editors. 

® fjt,e7vai, MuUer-iiibner, for juev ehai, 

® irepo^Oovs, Mein eke, for irepoedvovs ; see /car^ , , , 
^dTj, 14 5 . 26 . 

6 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. i 2 


rugged country, have, because of their lack of inter- 
course with others, changed their speech and their 
other customs to the extent that they are no longer 
a part of the same tribe as before. And this was 
precisely the case with the Athenians ; tliat is, they 
lived in a countiy that was both thin-soiled and 
rugged, and for this reason, according to Thucydides,^ 
their country remained free from devastation, and 
they were regaided as an indigenous people, wdio 
always occupied the same country, since no one 
drove them out of their country or even desired 
to possess it. This, therefore, as one may suppose, 
was precisely the cause of their becoming different 
both in speech and in customs, albeit they were few 
in number. And just as the Aeolic element pre- 
dominated in the parts outside the Isthmus, so too 
the people inside the Isthmus were m earlier times 
Aeolians ; and then they became mixed with other 
peoples, since, m the hist place, lonians from Attica 
seized the Aegialus,^ and, secondly, the Heracleidae 
brought back the Dorians, who founded both Megara 
and many of the cities of the Peloponnesus. The 
lonians, however, were soon driven out again by the 
Aclfaeans, an Aeolic tribe ; and so there were left in 
the Peloponnesus only the two tribes, the Aeolian 
and the Dorian. Now all the peoples who had less 
intercourse with the Dorians — as was the case with 
the Arcadians and with the Eleians, since the former 
were wholly mountaineers and had no share in the 
allotments® of territory, while the latter were 
regarded as sacred to the Olympian Zeus and hence 


1 1 2 and 2. 36 


2 The Peloponnesian Achaea. 
3 Cp 8 0 6 


1 



STRABO 


avTOV<i elprjVTjv a^ovat irdXvv ^(povoVt aXXci)^; re 
Kal rou AIo\l/cov y€vov<; o^aL fcal BeBeypuivoc^ rrjv 
^O^v\(p (TvyKaTeXOovaav arpariav irepl rrjv t&v 
' H pafcXeiBcov fcddoBov), oitTot AloXtarl SieXe^- 
6r]aaVi oi S’ aXKob fJbLKTfj tcvI ixp^o-avTO 
d/jL(j)otv, oi pLev pbdWov oi S’ fjrrov alo\i^ovre<i, 
(TX^^ov Be TL teal vvv Kard iroXec^ aXKoi dX\(o<; 
BcaXiyovraii Bokovcti Be Bdopi^eiv airavre^ Bid rrjv 
C 334 (TvpbiSdarav eTn/cpdreiav, Totavra piev oiv rd r&v 
^'EA'Kkrjvcdv edvrj /cal ovreo^, eS)9 TV7r(p elirelv^ 
d^copLcrpiha. Xeycopiev Br) IBia^ Xa^ovre^; hv XPV 
TpoTTov rfj rd^eij irepl avr&v, 

3 . ''E<^o /)09 piev oifv dpxv^ elvav rrj^ 'EXXaSo 9 
T 7 )V ^ A/capvavLav <j>r}cr\v diro t&v eairepicov piep&v* 
ravTrjV yap crwairreLv •jrpcorrjv toI<; 'HTreipcoTi/coh 
edvecTLV. aXX’ Scrirep ovto<; jf} irapaXiq perptp 
Xpd>pevo^ evrevdev Troietrai rrjv dpxVPs fjyepiovtKOv 
TL rr}V ddXarrav /cpCvcov 77/309 t ^9 TOiroypa^La^) 
€ 7 rel dXXco<; y evex^^p^c /card rrjv Xia/ceBovcov Kal 
@€TTaXS>v yrjv ^ dpxw diro^aLvea-dai rrj<; y^X- 
XaSo 9 ' ovreo Kal rjplv nrpoaijKec aKoXovdovai rfj 
<f>va 60 Tcav rowcov crvp^ovXov rromcrdai rrjv 
ddXaacrav, avrrj S’ eK rov 'ZiKeXcKOV rr€Xdyov<; 
rrpoirearovaa^ rfj pev 77/309 rov KoyOfy- 

OiaKov KoXirov, rfj S’ drroreXel x^PP^^W^^ peyd^- 
XifjV rTjv TJeXonrovvrjaov^ laOp^ errev^ KXecopevrjv, 
eari Se ravra ^ Bvo pey terra avem^para T7j<; 

^ iSitf ?iap6vr€Sy Meineke emends to Biaha^6vr€S 
® For yriv, Memeke reads 
® irpoviffovcra (BE^), Jones, for 7rpo(nr6(rov<ra, 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. r. 2-3 

have long lived to themselves in peace, especially 
because they belonged to the Aeolic stock and had 
admitted the army which came back >vith Oxylus^ 
about the time of the return of the Hex*acleidae — 
these peoples, I say, spoke the Aeolic dialect, 
whereas the rest used a sort of mixture of the two, 
some leaning more to the Aeolic and some less. 
And, I might almost say, even now the people of 
each city speaks a different dialect, although, because 
of the predominance winch has been gained by the 
Dorians, one and all are leputed to speak the Doric. 
Such, then, are the tubes of the Greeks, and such 
m general terms is their ethnographical division. 
Let me now take them separately, following the 
appropriate order, and tell about them. 

3 . Ephorus says that, if one begins with the 
western parts, Acarnania is the beginning of Greece ; 
for, he adds, Acainania is the dist to border on the 
tribes of the Epeirotes. But just as Ephorus, using 
the sea- coast as his measuimg-hne, begins with Acar- 
nania (for he decides m favour of the sea as a kind 
of guide m his description of places, because other- 
wise he might have repiesented parts that border 
on 1fl:ie land of the Macedonians and the Thessalians 
as the beginning), so it is proper that I too, follow- 
ing the natural charactei of the regions, should 
make the sea my counsellor. Now this sea, issuing 
forth out of the Sicilian Sea, on one side stretches 
bo the Corinthian Gulf, and on the other forms 
a large peninsula, the Peloponnesus, which is closed 
by a narrow isthmus. Thus Greece consists of two 

1 Cp S 3 33 


* TaOra, Meineke emends to rd. 


9 



STRABO 


^EX,XaSo9, TO T€ eVro? ^ladfjbov /cal to €/cto 9 
IIuXwj/ i/c^o\rj<; rov Hrjimov {koI 

TOVTO S’ eVri to @6TTaXi/eoz/ ^). earc Be Kal 
fjLei^ov /cal eTTL^ave/TTepov to evro^ To-^/xoO* 
a')(eBov Be ri /cal a/cpoTroXi^; eariv rj TLeXoirowriao^^ 
T?}? avpLTrdcn]<; 'EXXaSo?, XoDph yap Xapirpo- 
T 9 ;to 9 /ca\ Bvvdpeca^i t&p hvoiKrjcxdvrcov edv&v 
avTv^ 7 } T&v TOTTCDV ^€0*49 vTTOjpdcjiei TTjv rjyepovLav 
TavrrjVi koXttol^ re /cal d/cpat^ TroXXal^ /cal, 
T049 crr}p€icoB€crrdTot<i, X€ppov'qGrot<; peydXaig Bia- 
TreTTOi/ccXpevT}, d)v i/c BiaBox^^ erepa ttjv irepav 
exGi* earc Be Trpcori] puev rmv x^PP^^W^^ V 
XleXoTTovvTja'o^, ladp^ /cXecopevyj reTrapdfcovra 
crraBtcov. Bevrepa Be fj /cal ravryv Treptixovaa, 
^9 I<r6p6<; iariv 6 i/c Hay&v^ r&v Meyapt/c&v 
€49 NioralaVa TO Mey apicov iTriveiov, v7rep0oXf} 
araBtcop i/cuTov et/cocnv aTro BaXarr^]^ iirl dd* 
Xarrav. TpCrrj S’ ^7 /cal Tavrrjv TrepUxovaa, i]<i 
icrdp6<; dirb rov pvxov rov Kptaaiov /coXrrov 
p^xp/^ @eppoTrvX5)Vj t) S’ ^ eirLvoovpcev'/'] evdeia 
ypappr) ocrov rrevra/cocTLcov ofcrco^ araBicov r^v 
pev Boicorlav dr/raaav ivro^ diroXap^difovaa/n^rbv 
Be ^co/ciBa repyovoa Xo^rjv /cal tou 9 'Etti/cvijpc- 
Biov<^, rerdprrj Be dir o rov ^Ap^pa/ci/cov /coXrrov 
Bid Tij 9 O4T779 /cal T?j 9 TpaxcvLa^ eh rov MaXia/cov 

^ SicJ, before Jones inserts Meuiekc ejects Uv^wy, 

Tor the readings of the other editors, see 0 Muller, Ind 
Far. ZecLi p. 989. 

® Meineke ejects the words in parenthesis 

® Uay^y^ Zpit. and man. see, in C, for irdyroiv ( ABCE/) ; so 
other editors. 

^ A omits 

® 6kt<& probably should be emended to ef/fo<rt {tc') or 
irevr'fiKovra (/), as 0. Muller suggests, 
lo 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. i. 3 

very large bodies of land, the part inside the 
Isthmus, and the part outside, which extends 
thiough Pylae^ as far as the outlet of the Peneius 
(this latter is the Thessalian part of Gieece);^ but 
the part inside the Isthmus is both larger and more 
famous. I might almost say that the Peloponnesus 
IS the acropolis of Greece as a whole ; ® for, apart 
from the splendour and power of the tribes that 
have lived in it, the very topography of Greece, 
diversified as it is by gulfs, many capes, and, what 
ai e the most significant, large peninsulas that follow 
one another in succession, suggests such hegemonj^ 
for it. The first of the peninsulas is the Pelo- 
ponnesus, which is closed by an isthmus foity stadia 
m width. The second includes the first, and its 
isthmus extends in width from Pagae m Megans to 
Nisaea, the naval station of the Meganans, the 
distance across being one hundred and twenty stadia 
fiom sea to sea The thud likewise includes the 
second ; and its isthmus extends in width from the 
recess of the Crisaean Gulf as far as Thermopylae — 
the imagmaiy straight line, about five hundred and 
eigljt stadia in length, enclosing within the peninsula 
the whole of Boeotia and cutting obliquely Phocis and 
the country of the Epicnemidians ^ The fourth is the 
peninsula whose isthmus extends from the Ambiacian 
Gulf through Oeta® and Tiaclunia to the Maliac 

^ Thermopylae 

2 That IS, from Pylae to the outlet of the Peneius. 

® Gioskurd, Kramer and Curtins think that somethiiig 
like the following has fallen out of the MSS . “ and that 
Greece is the acropolis of the whole woild.” 

* The Epicnemidian Locnans 

® Now the Katavothra Mountain It forms a boundary 
between the valleys of the Speroheius and Cephissus Rivers. 


II 



STRABO 


KoXiTov Kad)jfcovra exovaa rov iad/jLov kul ra9 
®epfxoTTvka ^3 ocrov oicrafcocrLcov ovra crraUcov* 
ttXslovcov S’ ?) aXXo? ka-rlv airo rou avrov 

KoXirov rov ^Afi/SpaKtfcov Sia ©erraX&v fcal 
l^lafceBovcov eh t6v ©ep/ialov Sitj/ccov pv^ov* 
vrrayopevei Bt] riva rd^LV ov (^avKrjv y t&v 
'^eppoPTjcrcjv ScaSoxv' dyro iXa^^crTf}^ 

ap^aaOatj eTrK^avearaT'q^; SL 


II 

C 335 1 » "'Ecttl roivvv ^ ILe\oTr6vv)'}ao^ eoircvla ^vW(p 

TrXardvov to cr^j^Bov rt /card pijKO^ 

/cal /card rrXdro^i, ocrov %^ Xt . cwz ^ /cal rerpa/coamv 
crraBLcov' to pev drro rrj^ eaTrepa^ iirl rijv eco, 
TOVTo S ’ iorrl to drro rov X.6Xo>vdra Si ’ ^OXvpwLa^ 
/cal rrj9 MeyaXoTroXlrcSo'i irrl ^IcrOpov to S ’ 
diro rov vorov rrpo<i r^v apKrov, d ecrri to drro 
MaXecSz ^ Si ’ ^Ap/caBia^; eh Alytov rj Se irepipe-' 
rpo<; p7] /cara/coXTrl^ovri rerpa/cicrxiXicov orraBLcov^ 
609 noXv / 3i09 ' ^ AprepiBcopo^ Se /cal rerpa/cocriov<; 
TTpoorrid^jcrc* Kara/coXrri^ovri Se rrXetov^ r&v i^a- 
/cooricov im TOi9 rrevra/cLcrxfAioL^i, 6 S ’ ^laOph 
Kara rov BloXkov, Bi ov rd rropOpela virepvecoX- 
Kovcrtv drro rrj^ erepa^i eh rr]v irepav ddXarrav,^ 
eLprjrai on rerrapaKOvra araBCaov kcrriv, 

^ fcarh . . . Bdharrav, omitted by BG/so. 

1 Op. 2 1 30, 

® Cape Chelonatas, opposite the island Zacynthos ; now 
Gape Tornese. 


12 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. i. 3-2. i 

Gulf and Thermopylae — ^the isthmus being about 
eight hundred stadia in width. But there is another 
isthmus, nioie than one thousand stadia in widths 
extending from the same Ambracian Gulf thiough 
the countries of the Thessalians and the Macedonians 
to the recess of the Thermaean Gulf. So then, the 
succession of the peninsulas suggestsa kind of order, 
and not a bad one, for me to follow in my descrip- 
tion; and I should begin with the smallest, but 
most famous, of them 


II 

1 . Now the Peloponnesus is like a leaf of a 
plaiie-tiee in shape, ^ its length and bieadth being 
almost equal, that is, about fourteen hundred stadia. 
Its length is reckoned from the west to the east, 
that is, fiom Chelonatas^ thiough Olympia and 
Megalopolis to the Isthmus, and its width, from 
the south towards the 1101 th, that is, from Maleae ® 
thiough Aicadia to Aegiuiii ^ The peiimetei, not 
following the sinuosities of the gulfs, is four thousand 
stadia, accoid mg to Polybius, although Artemidorus 
addsffour hundred more;^ but following the sinu- 
osities of the gulfs, it IS more than five thousand six 
hundred The width of the Isthmus at the Diolcus,” ® 
where the ships aie hauled overland from one sea to 
the other, is forty stadia, as I have already said 

® Cape Maleae 

^ The Aegioii, 01 Aegium, of to day, though until recent 
times more generally known by its latei name Vostitza. 

® Polybius oounteil stadia to the mile (7 56) 

® Liteially, “ Haul- act oss” , the name of ‘‘the iiariowcst 
part of the I sthmus (8 6 4), and probably applied to the 
road itself 



STRABO 


2 . Se T?7? x^ppovriaov ravrrj^; to fiev 

kairepLov fiepo^ ’HXcfcOi koX M.ccr<Ti^vLOLf KXv^op^evoi 
r& %iKe\tfc& TreXafyef nr pocrXapi^dv overt Se /cal 
T)}? eKarepcodev TrapaXta?, yuei^ ’HXeta 7r/?o9 
apfCTQV iTrtcrTpi<f>ovo-a /cal rr^v dp'xrjv rov Kopiv- 
dia/cov Kok’jTov ptexpt> aicpa^ * Apatov, Ka& i]v 
dvTtTTopdpo^ iartv re ^Afcapvavta /cal at 
TTpo/ceifievai vrjaoi, Zd/cvvdo<; /cal ILe^aXkrivLa Kal 
^Idd/crj fcal &v icrrl /cal to AovXtxtov* 

T^9 Be M6crcr7}VLa<i to TrXiov dveepyptevov Trpo^ 
voTOv /cal TO Al/ 3 v/cov TreXayof; ptixp^ 

Xovpbivcov ©vptBcov TrXrjcriov Taivdpov, 6^779 Se 
fierd fxev rrjv ^HXetav icrrl to t&v ’A;j(;a4cov edvo^ 
TTpo^; dp/cTOV<} ^Xerrov Kal r^ KopevO/aK^ koXtt^ 
nrapaTetvov, TeXevra S’ el^ rrjv 'SiCKVcovtav* iv- 
revdev Se ' 2 ,tKvd)V Kal ^ 6 ptv 6 o<; eA:8e;\;eTai P'^XP^ 
Tov Tcr^/ioC’ pterd Be rrfv Meexar^vtav r) Aa/c<w- 
VLK^ Kal T) ’Apyeta, p^XP^ ^Icrdptov Kal aijTfj, 
KoXTTOt 8’ elalv evravda 0 re yieG‘(Tr}vtaKo^ Kal 6 
AaKcovLKo<; Kal rptro^ 0 ^ApyoXcKo^, rerapro^ S’ 
6 "^^pptLOviKO^^ Kal XapcoviKo^. ol Be XaXaptviaKOP 
KaXovertv* &v tov^ pev r) Al^vkit}^ tov^ 17 
YLprjTLK^ ddXacraa irX'qpot Kal to Xlvpr^oj^ m- 
Xayo^' TiP €9 Be Kal top XctpcoviKov iropov ^ ^ 
TriXayo^ ovopd^ovcri, peerr} S’ ecrrlp 37 ^ApKaBLa, 
irdaiv iTTiKeipepT} Kal yeiTVL&cra rot 9 dXXoi<i 
edveaiv, 

3 . Be KoptvdtaKo^ koXtto^ apy^rat pev dnro 

T&v €K^oX&P TOV Mv^jpov (tIP€ 9 06 fpaortV TOV 
^ after irtfpov, Groskurd inserts , so Meineke. 


14 


^ See 8. 5 1, and footnote. 




GEOGRAPHY, 8. 2* 2-3 

2 . The western part of this peninsula is occupied 
by the Eleians and the Messenians, whose countries 
are washed by the Sicilian Sea. In addition, they 
also hold a part of the sea-coast in both directions, 
for the Eleian country curves towards the north 
and the beginning of the Corinthian Gulf as far as 
Cape Araxus (opposite which, across the straits, he 
Acarnania and the islands off its coast — Zacynthos, 
Cephallenia, Ithaca, and also the Echinades, among 
which is Dulichium), whereas the greater part of 
the Messenian country opens up towards the south 
and the Libyan Sea as far as what is called Thy rid es,^ 
near Taenarum. Next after the Eleian country 
comes the tribe of the Achaeans,^ hose country faces 
towards the north and stretches along the Corinthian 
Gulf, ending at Sicyonia. Then come in succession 
Sicyon and Cormth, the territory of the latter ex- 
tending as fai as the Isthmus After the Messenian 
country come the Laconian and the Aigive, the 
latter also extending as far as the Isthmus. The 
gulfs on this coast are : fiibt, the Messenian; second, 
the Laconian; third, the Aigolic; fourth, the 
Hermiomc ; and fifth, the Saronic, by some called 
the^Salaminiac. Of these gulfs the first two are 
filled by the Libyan Sea, and the otheis by the 
Cretan and Myrtoan Seas Some, however, call the 
Saionic Gulf Strait” or Sea.” In the interior of 
the peninsula is Arcadia, which touches as next- 
door neighbour the countries of all those other 
tribes. 

3 . The Coiinthian Gulf begins, on the one side, at 
the outlets of the Evenus (though some sa}’' at the 

® See 8. 4 4, and footnote 

15 



STRABO 


Tov 6plfyvro<i ^ Afcapvava^ teal rov^ 
AlrwXov<;) fcal tov 'Apatov, ivravda yap TTpei)- 
Tov a^Lokoyov crvvaycoyrjv XapL^dvovaL irpo^ dX- 
X?;Xa 9 ai i/caripcodev dfcrat* irpocovaai Se TrXeov ^ 
T 6 \ea )9 (TV piriTTr overt fcard to ^Plov /cal to 'AvTup- 
pLOv, ocTOv hr) irkvTe cpTahmv dTroXeLirovaat 
iropOpov. €(jrt he to pev ^PLov t&v 'Axcttcov 
dXcT€vr}^ d/epat hpeTravoethi) Tivd i'7rtaTpo(j)7)v eh 
TO €vt6<^ e'xovcra (/cat Srj /cal /caXetTat Apeiravov), 
336 /cetrai Se pueTa^v UaTp&v /cal Aiyiov, Uoaethclyvo^ 
iepov exovera* to S’ ^Avrlppiov ev pedopLoi^ 
AlTcoXia^ /cal TYj<; Ao/cpiho^ tSpoTat, /eaXovert he ^ 
yioXv/cpLOV ^Plop, sIt evTevdev hdexTaTat TrdXtv 
'P 'irapaXLa peTpico^ ixaTepcodev, TrpoeXdovara S’ 
eh TOP Kpeeratop koXttop evTavda TeXevra, 
/cXetopeprj Toh TTpoereenrepLoL^^ t^9 Botft)Tta9 
/cal Trj<i Meyapi/crj<} TeppocriP, e%e4 Se Tr)p 'jrepi'- 
peTpop 0 K.opLv6caKO<i «oX7ro9 diro pev tov Ptvrivov 
pexpt ^Apd^ov aTaSicop htaxiAicov hia/cocricov 
Tptd/copTa* el S’ diro tov "‘Ax^Xepov, irXeopd^oi 
dp e/carop ttov CTahLot^;. diro pepTOi "Ax^Xoiov 
errl top Pivtjpop ^ A/capvdph elat^ elO' i^fj^ eV^ to 
’ApTLpptop AItcoXol, to he Xotirop p^XP^ ^ladpov 

^ Capps happily suggests that Stiabo probably wrote 
instead of 7r\iov or that (rxe5(iv has fallen out of the 
text after 'jr\4ov, 

^ Before UoX^Kpiop, Memeke inserts Kai, 


^ Cape Araxiis , now Kalogria, 

* Lit. “more completely” (see critical note) 

® Cape “Drepanum.” Strabo confuses Cape Rhium wuth 
Cape Drepanum, since the two were separated by the Bay of 
Panormus (see Frazer’s Famamas, notes on 7. 22. 10 and 
7 23. 4, and Curtius’ Pelo;po%nmSt I. p 447). 

i6 



GEOGRAPHY, 823 


outlets of the Achelous, the nver that separates the 
Acarnanians and the Aetolians), and, on the other, 
at Araxus;^ for here the shores on either side first 
draw notably nearer to one anothei ; then in their 
advance they all but^ meet at Rhium and Antir- 
rhium, where they leave between them a strait only 
about five stadia in width. Rhium, belonging to the 
Achaeans, is a low-lying cape , it bends inwaids 
(and it IS in fact called Sickle ^ It lies between 
Patrae and Aegium, and possesses a temple of 
Poseidon. Antirrhium is situated on the common 
boundary of Aetolia and Locris, and people call 
it Molycrian Rhium ^ Then, from here, the shore- 
line on either side again draws moderately apart, 
and then, advancing into the Crisaean Gulf, it comes 
to an end there, being shut in by the westerly 
limits of Boeotia and Megans.® The perimeter of 
the Corinthian Gulf, if one measures from the 
Evenus to Araxus, is two thousand two hundred 
and thirty stadia , but if one measures from the 
Achelous, it IS about a hundred stadia more. Now 
from the Achelous to the Evenus the coast is 
occupied by Acarnanians , ® and thence to Antir- 
rhium, by Aetolians ; but the remaining coast, as 
far as the Isthmus, belongs to^ the Phocians, the 

^ After Molyoreia, a small Aetohan town near by. 

® “Orisaean Gulf” (the Gulf of Salona of to-day) was 
often used m this broader sense. Op. 8. 6 21 

^ Strabo thus commits himself against the assertion of 
others, (see at the beginning of the paragraph) that the 
Achelous separates the Acarnanians and the Aetolians. 

^ The Greek for “ the Loorians and” seems to have fallen 
out of the MSS at this point ; for Strabo has just said that 
“Antirrhium is on the common boundary of Aetolia and 
Locus” (see 9 3 1). 


VOL. IV 


c 


17 



STRABO 


^coKecov iarl ^ Kai Boccar&v fcal rfj<? Meyapi8o<;y 
crrd^iot 'xJ'Klol e/carov etfcoat Svetv Siovre^s* 7) Se 
ttTTo Tov ^AvTippLov ^Idd pov ffaXaTTa ^ 

^AX/cvovl<; fcaXetrai, pipo^ ovaa rov Kpiaaiov 
koXttov* diro Se Tov^ ^ladpov iTTL rov Apatov 
rpioLKOvra irr\ rol<: co? pev ti] rvrrqi 

eirrelv T0cavT7] ri^ fcal roaavTTj t >;9 IleXoTroz'- 
VTjaov diaL^ kol t^9 avrnropdpov P^XP^ 
pvxoVi roiovro9 Be /cal 6 pera^v dp<f>oXv koXtto^. 
elra rd^ /cad' e/caara ipovpev, rrjv dpxh^ dirb rP/<^ 
’HXeia9 rrocrjcrdpevoc. 


III 

1 . N5z^ pev Bt] Traaav 'HXelav bvopd^ovai rrjv 
pera^v 'Axcci&v re /cal Mecrarjviojv TrapaXiav, 
dvexovaav eh ttjv pecroyatav rrjv 7r/>09 'Ap/caUa 
rfi Kara ^oX6r)v koX 'A^dva^ Kal UappaaLov^;. 
rovro Be to rraXaiov eh irXeLov^ Bvvacxrela^ 
BiTj^rfrOj elr eh Bvo, rrjv re r&v 'EirreL&v koI rrjv 
VTTO Necrropt r^ NrjX€co<;* KaOdirep Kal ^'(ypy]po<; 
eiprjKe, rrjv pev robv 'Eireicov ovopd^oov 

^ ^(aK4(i}v ^(Trl, Pletho, Corais, and Forbiger would emend 
to AoKpcHtf icrrl Kal 

2 After edXarra Groskiird, Kramer and others believe that 
words like the following have fallen out Kpi(ra7os KdkTros 
icrrlv *^56 hrrh KpeojJcr^y ■B-oA.eoJs edkarra, Meineke indicates 
a lacuna There is no lacuna in the MSS. 

® dvh Se TQv : the letters Trb $€ tov are supplied by Kramer, 
there being a lacuna of five or six letters in A 
^ Xikiois : lacuna supplied by Corais (see C. Muller, l7id. 
Far Zed,, p 989). 



GEOGEAPHY, 8. 2. 3-3. i 

Boeotians and Megaris — a distance of one thousand 
one hundred and eighteen stadia The sea from 
Antirrhmm as fai as the Isthmus ^ is called Alcyonian^ 
it being a part of the Cnsaean Gulf. Again^ from 
the Isthmus to Araxus the distance is one thousand 
and thirty stadia Such, then, in general terms, 
IS the position and extent of the Peloponnesus, and 
of the land that lies opposite to it across the arm of 
the sea as far as the lecess , and such, too, is the 
character of the gulf that lies between the two 
bodies of land. Now I shall describe each part 111 
detail, beginning with the Eleian country 


III 

1 . At the present time the whole of the seaboaid 
that lies between the countries of the Achaeans and 
the Messenians, and extends inland to the Arcadian 
districts of Pholoe, of the Azanes, and ol the 
Parrhasians, is called the Eleian country But in 
eaily times this country was divided into several 
domaiij^; and afterwards into two — that of the 
Epeians and that under the rule of Nestor the son 
of Neleus ; just as Homer, too, states, when he calls 
the land of the Epeians by the name of ^^Elis'’ 

^ Some of the editors believe that words to the following 
effect have fallen out at this point ** is the Cnsaean Gulf ; 
but the sea from the city Oreusa.’’ 


^ efra rd for the different readings, see 0. Muller, 
p. 989 

® Corais, for , so Memeke and others. 


19 




STRABO 


^Se Trap ^ Btav, o6i fcpariovaiv ’ETre^ot* 

rrjv S’ VTTO r& ^ecrTopL TlyXov, Be ?j<s top ^A\<j>6Lov 
pelv (j)r)(XLV, 

^A\<fi€iov, 09 T evpv peel Hvklcov Bia yatr]<;, 

TLvXop pep ovp Kal iroXip olBep o 7roi'qri)V 

ol Be Ilv\op, evKripePOp TtroXiedpop, 

l^OP' 

»^\ « /-V 5'V » >' e^f 

ov oia T^9 7roX€(M}<; oe ovoe Trap aur^p pei o 
’AX0€^o9, dXX^ Trap* avr^p pep erepo^, ov ol pev 
llapiaoVf ol Be "'ApaQop KaXov<nv, defi ov Kal o 
ni5Xo9 *iipa96u<^ elpYjardat ovro^ BoKei, Bed Sk T 7/9 
;^c6pa9 T^9 ni/X6a9 0 *AXj>et6^, 

2. ^HXi9 Be T) vvp 7roXi9 ovttco eKTiaro kuO' 
''Oprjpop, dXX* r] %copa KcoprjBop (pKeiTO* eKaXelro 
ol Ko 6 X ?7 '^HX49 diro rov crvp^efirjKOTOf;' roiavrrj 
yap ?jp rj TrXeierry] Kal dplcrr], o^jre Be Trore 
avpYjXdov eh ttjp vvv ttoXiv perd rd 

UepcriKa, eK ttoXX&p Bijpeov. ax^Bop Be Kal tov<; 
aXXoi'9 TOTTOV^ Toy 9 KUrd JleXoTr6ppr)(jov TrXijp 
C 337 oXlycdp, oS'9 KareXe^ev d ttoitjt'ij^;, ov 7rdX6i9T dXXd 
Xcopa^ opopd^ei? a-vcTTjpara B'^pcov exovaap 
eKacTTriv TrXela}, &p varepov al yvcopi^opevai 
Tr6Xet<; arvp^KladTjaav, olov ^ApKaBla^i Mav- 
TLveia pev Ik Trevre Brjpcdv vtt Wpyelcop crvvtpKLcrdrji 
Teyea S’ ivvea^ eK toctovtcop Be Kal ^Hipaia vtto 
KXeoyCi^pdrov ^ vtto KXeoovvpov* d)9 8’ avrw 

^ irap% the editors, for Bk irap\ 

^ ovofidCsi, Meineke emends to vojxlQeLvt Bet ; Bpopta^cov no. 


® Odymy 15. 298. 


20 


1 Se. ^Hheship.” 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 1-2 

and ^ passed goodly Elis, where the Epeians hold 
sway'*),^ and the land under the rule of Nestor, 
Pylus/’ through which, he says, the Alpheius flows 
of the Alpheius, that floweth m wide stream through 
the land of the Pylians ”).® Of course Homer also 
knew of Pylus as a city and they 1 cached Pylus, 
the well-built city of Nestor but the Alpheius 
does not flow through the city, nor past it either ; in 
fact, another river flows past it, a river which some 
call ^‘Pamisiis” and otheis ^'Amathus” (whence, 
apparently, the epithet ^^Emathoeis” winch has 
been applied to this Pylus), but the Alpheius flows 
through the Pyliaii country 

2 What is now the city of Elis had not yet been 
founded m Homer’s time ; in fact, the people of the 
country lived only in villages And the country was 
called Coel6 ® Elis from the fact in the case, for the 
most and best of it was ^^Coel^.” It was only 
relatively late, after the Persian wars, that people 
came togethei fiom many communities into what is 
now the city of Elis. And I might almost say that, 
with only a few exceptions, the other Peloponnesian 
places named by the poet were also named by him, 
not as* cities, but as countries, each country being 
composed of several communities, from which in 
later times the well-known cities were settled 
For instance, m Arcadia, Mantineia was settled 
by Argive colonists from five communities; and 
Tegea from nine; and also Heraea from nine, 
either by Cleombrotus or by Cleonymus. And in 

* Iliad 5 545. * Odyssey 3. 4. 

® Literally, ** Hollow ” ; that is, consisting of hollows. So 
“Coel$ Syria” (2, 5. 38), a district of Syria. 


21 



STRABO 


Al'ycov iirra rj ofcro) Stjiigov (TwerroXiadri, 
HaTpaL Se eirra, Avfjbrf Se e| orcrfo' ovrco Se /cal 
7;^HXa9 €/c r&v TrepioL/ciBcov avveiToXLcrdr}^ [fiia 

Tovrcov TT^oarKTia “’AyptdSe^:)*^ pel Be 

Bid T779 7r6\€co<; 6 Tl7}V6io^ Trora/no^ irapd to yvpL~ 
vcicnov aoT7;9. e^rpa^dv re tovto ’HXeZot 
varepov ttoXXoZ? eh avrov^ pLeTaardaeoo<i tS>v 

Xcoplcov T&V VTTO NicTTOpi* 

3 . Se ravra tj re IIi(TaTi<^, ^9 ^ ^OXvpLm'a 
piepo<^f Kal 77 Tpt(}>vXta /cal fj r&v Kav/cdovov, 
TpKpvXioi S’ i/cXi^dTjcrav drro rov cvpi^e^ri/coro^y 
d'rro rov rpLa (j>vXa avveXr)Xvdevai, to re r&v dir 
dpxv^ ’ETTezwv /cal to r&v i’TTOiKrjadvrcov vcrrepov 
Mivv&v /cal TO r&v varara emicparria'dvrcov 
'‘HXemv* 01 S’ dvrl r&v Mivv&v ’Ap/caSa9 (pacrivj 
dp(f)icT^r)r'^<javra<; t% p^ft)pa9 7roXXa/cz9, ac^’ ov 
Kal ^ApKaBiKO^ ni5Xo9 eKXrjdr] 6 avro<; Kal T/oz^v- 
XiaK6<^> '^Opirjpo^ Be ravrrjv aTracrav rr}V X&pav 
piexpt' M6cr(T'/]V7]<; KaXeiUvXov opicovvpia)^ rfj TroXei, 
on Be Sicopcaro rj Ko^Xt; '^HXz? diro r&v viro r^ 

^ After (rwenroXla-Bri Corais inseits oktS {rj') ; but^Curtms 
(Peloponnesos 11 . 99) dissents 

® fxla Toirwu Trpoa'Kria' *AypidBes ; SO in A, with 

lacuna of six or seven letters before ’Aypidtes, But the 
whole of jutia . . * Ay piddes 18 omitted by BC/m, with no 
lacuna. For the readings of gkhi (similar to A), see 0. 
Muller, p 989 Simply v-U ro{ircavt Aldine , fiia 
[oStra], Gorais ; Kramer follows A, supplying the lacuna thus: 
vpoo'KrtaidetcrSoy']} Meineke makes no effort to supply the 
lacuna. Jones conjectures ; fila 8k ro^roau wpo(r0Krh‘07}> 
'Aviypiddes. 


^ It seems impossible to restore what Strabo wrote here 
He appears to have said either (l)that Ehs was the name 


22 




GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3 2-3 

the same way the city Aegmm was made up of 
seven or eight communities, the city Patrae of 
seven; and the city Dym6 of eight And in this 
way the city Elis was also made up of the com- 
munities of the surioundmg country (one of these 
. . . the Agriades)A The Peneius River flows 
through the city past the gymnasium. And the 
Eleians did not make this gymnasium until a long 
time after the distiicts that were undei Nestor had 
passed into their possession. 

3 . These districts were Pisatis (of which Olympia 
was a part), Tiiphylia, and the countiy of the 
Cauconians The Tnphyhans ^ weie so called from 
the fact that three tribes of people had come together 
in that country — that of the Epeians, who were 
there at the outset, and that of the Minyans, who 
later settled there, and that of the Eleians, who 
last dominated the country. But some name the 
Aicadians in the place of the Minyans, since the 
Aicadians had often disputed the possession of 
the country; and hence the same Pylus was called 
both Arcadian Pylus and Tnphyhan Pylus ® Homei 
calls this whole country as far as Messen^ Pylus,’’ 
givir% it the same name as the city But Coel^ 
Ehs was distinct from the places subject to Nestor, 

of one of the original communities and that the community 
of the Agnades was later added, or simply (2) that one of 
the communities, that of the Agnades, was later added. 
But the Agnades” are otherwise unknown, and possibly, 
as C Muller (7nd. Var Lect, p 989) suggests, Strabo wrote 
‘‘Anigriades” — if indeed there was such a people (see 8. 3 
19) See critical note on opposite page. 

« ‘^Tri,” three, and phyla,” tribes. 

® Now Kakovatos (Dr. Blegen, KoraTcou^ p. 119, American 
School of Classical Studies, 1921). 


23 



STRABO 


TS^ecrropi roircov, 6 r&v ve&v /caraXoyo? ^rfKol Toh 
r&v '^ye/jLovcov koX t&v fcarobKC&v ovopaai, Xey© 
ravra, crvfi^dWcov rd re vvv Kal tA 
^Ofiijpov \€y6pL€va* dvdjfCT) yap dvre^erd^eo-dac 
ravra ^Keivoi^ Scd Trjv tov Trot'tjrov ho^av Kal 
<TVVTpo<^iav ^po9 rjpbd^, Tore vopbO^ovro^ eKdarov 
KaropdovdOai rrjv rrapovaav irpodeaiVi orav ^ 
firjhev avTLTTtTrrov roi? ovtcd (r<j>6Bpa mcTTevOelari 
rrepl r&v avr&v Xoyoi^i* Bet Brj rd re dvra \kyeiv 
Kai, rd rod Troirjrov rraparidevTa<;, i(l>^ oaov rrpQcrrj- 
Keii rrpofjGKorTelv. 

4. *'E<TTi Bi rtf> dxpa ttJ? ’HXeia? rrpocr^oppo^ 
drro e^rjKOvra ^A^atKrf<; TroXeto^;, "'Apa^o^* 

ravrrjv pev odv dp)(r}v riOepev r^^ r&v ^HXeioov 
rrapaXia^* pera Be ravrrfv icrrlv iirl rrjv earripav 
rrpoiovat to r&v ^HXeioov eirivetov fj KvXX'i^v'q, 
dvd^aaiv e^ovaa errl rrjv vvv rroXiv eKurov Kal 
eiKOCTb araBLcov, pepvrjrab Be tt}? 'KvXX'qvrj^; 
ravT'Tj^; Kal ^'Oprjpo^, Xeycov ^Slrov ^ KvXXrpaov 
dp')(pv ^^Trei&V' ov ydp diro rov ^ ApKaBiKOV opov^ 
ovra epeXXev r^yepova r&v '^irei&v aTTOcprjvai* 
eart Be Kcoprj perpua, rbv ^AcrKXrjrrbbv 6)(^ovo‘q^ rov 
KoXwtov, davpaarov IBelv ^oavov eXe(^ dvr Lvov, 
perd Be KvXXijvrjv dKpcorrjpiov ecrriv 6 ILeXcovdra^;, 
C 338 Bva piK&rarov TLeXoirowriaov crrjpetov, rrpoKei- 
rai S’ avTov vr}<rLov Kal ^pa^ka iv peOoploc^i t^9 
re KoiXrj^ ^HXiBos koX t ^9 TLcaar&v, o9ev eh 

^ *ilrov, Xylander, for Boiarrcov^ 


24 


1 lhad 15. 618. 

® Mt. Cyllen^, now Mt. Zyna. 




GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 3-4 

as is shown m the Caiahgiie of Skips by the names 
of the chieftains and of their abodes I say this 
because I am comparing present conditions with 
those described by Homer, for we must needs 
institute this comparison because of the fame of the 
poet and because of our familiarity with him from 
our childhood, since all of us believe that we have 
not successfully treated any subject which we may 
have in hand until there remains in our treat- 
ment nothing that conflicts with what the poet says 
on the same subject, such confidence do we have in 
his words. Accordingly^, I must give conditions as 
they now are, and then, citing the words of the 
poet, in so far as they bear on the matter, take them 
also into consideration 

4 . In the Eleian country, on the north, is a cape, 
Araxus, sixty stadia distant from Dym6, an Achaean 
city. This cape, then, I put down as the beginning 
of the seaboard of the Eleians After this cape, as 
one proceeds towards the w^est, one comes to the 
naval station of the Eleians, Cyllene, from which 
there is a road leadmg inland to the present city 
Elis, a distance of one hundred and twenty stadia. 
Homer, too, mentions this Cyllene when he says, 
^‘Otus, a Cyllenian, a chief of the Epeians,”^ for 
he would not have represented a chieftain of the 
Epeians as being from the Arcadian mountain.® 
Cyllen^ is a village of moderate size ; and it has the 
Asclepius made by Colotes — an ivory image that is 
wonderful to behold. After Cyllen^ one comes to the 
promontory Chelonatas, the most westerly point of 
the Peloponnesus. Off Chelonatas lies an isle, and 
also some shallows that are on the common boundary 
between Coel^ Elis and the country of the Pisatae ; 

25 



STRABO 


K€(f>aW7}VLav TrXeovrL elacv ov ttXglov^^ ardSioi 
oySo^jfcovra, avrov he ttov fcal 6 ’EXtcrojz/ ?} "'EXiaa 
pet TTorafJLOf; iv rfj XexOetcrr} ptedopLa. 

5. Merabi; he rov XeXcovdra /cal ri}? KvXX/jvrj^ 
0 re TLijvetb^; i/chthootrt rrora/jto^; /cal 6 ^eXX/jei^ 
VTTO rov TTOtrjTov Xey6iJLevo<i, picov e/c ^oXot]^* i(p^ 
m *'E(j)vpa 7r6Xt<;, ire pa ri]^ ©ecrrrpcort/cri^ Kal 
®€rraXt/c7j<^ /cal KoptvSov, rerdprr) ri^ erri 
rf} oh^ /cetfievr) rfj irrl rov Aacicova,^ yjrot rj 
avrrj o5<ra ry Boipboa^ (rrjv ydp Olv6r)V oiirco 
KaXetv eldbdacnv) ^ rcX^jaLov €/ceLvrj(^, hiexovcra 
rrj^ ’HXe/coi/ •roXeoo^i crrahLov^ i/carov etKocrtv* 
^ re TXrjiroXeptov rov ^Hpa/cXeov^ ho/cet Xeye^ 
crdat prjrrjp' i/cet yap ptdXXov at rov ^B.pa/cXiov<i 
crrparetat'^ 

rrjv dyer' e^ rrorapov dito '%eXXrjevro<;* 

rrpo^ i/ceivai^; ® ovhel^ rrorapo<s ^eXXrjet^" /cal o 
rov Mey7]ro<; dcopa^i^ 

rov TTore ^vXei/f; 

^yayev 'E<pvpr]<; rrorapov diro ^eXXrjevro<;* 

7^9 /cal rd <pdpptaKard dvSpocj)6va, eh '^Ecfxvpav 
yap a^r%0at (prjcrt rov 'OSvcraea ^ 

<j>dppta/cov dvSpo^ovov ht^TjpevoVi o<j>pa oi etr] 
lov9 

^ e[lcnv oh TrXetjovs : lacuna of about nine letters in A 
supplied by Kramer ; so Memeke. 

® iirl rhp Aacriccva, Muller- Dubner, for iTri$aha(r(rlu)ya (see 0, 
Miiller, Jnd. Var, Lectf p 990). 

® BotpStj^f Corais, for B&mvSa ; so Memeke, 

* ixei , . , arrpareTaif Memeke transposes to position after 

® 5^, Memeke emends to re. * Memeke inserts. 

26 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 4-5 

and from here the voyage to Cephallenia is not more 
than eight stadia Somewhere m this neighbour- 
hoodj on the aforesaid boundary-line, there also 
flows the River Elison or Elisa. 

5 . It IS between Chelonatas and Cyllene that the 
River Peneius empties , as also the River Selleeis, 
which IS mentioned by the poet and flows out of Plio- 
I06. On the Selleeis is situated a city Ephyra, which 
IS to be distmguishedfiomtheThesprotian, Thessalian, 
and Connthian Epbyras , ^ it is a fourth Ephyra, and 
is situated on the road that leads to Lasion, being 
either the same city as Boenoa (foi thus Oeno^ is 
usually called), or else near that city, at a distance 
of one hundred and twenty stadia from the city of 
the Eleians. This, apparently, is the Ephyra which 
Homer calls the home of the mother of Tlepole- 
miis the son of Heracles (for the expeditions of 
Heracles were m this region rather than in any 
of the other three) when he says, whom he had 
brought out of Ephyra, from the River Selleeis ^ 
and there is no River Selleeis near the other 
Ephyras. Again, he says of the corselet of Meges : 
" this corselet Phyleus once brought out of Ephyra, 
from the River Selleeis ’’ ^ And thirdly, the man- 
slaying drugs ; for Homer says that Odysseus came 
to Ephyra in search of a man-slaying drug, that he 
might have wherewithal to smeai his arrows ^ and 

^ The site of the Corinthian Ephyra is probably to be 
identified \vith that of the prehistoiic Korakou (Dr. Blegen, 

ciL, p 54). 

® Hied 2 659. The mother of Tlepolemuswas Astyocheia, 

8 Ihad 15 530 

* Odyssey 1 261 (Athen§ speaking) 

’ Memeke inserts ^ ’A$7}vci after 

27 


STRABO 


339 


Kal rov T7]\ifiaxov oi [ivrjar^ 

rjk Kal eh ^E<j)vp7]^ iOikec irieipav apovpav 
eXdetv, o<l>p^ evdev dvpLO(j>d6pa (f>dppaK ivecKj], 

Kal yap rtjv Avyeov dvyarepa rov tS>v 
^ aaCkeod^ 6 Necrrcop eu rfj Btijy-^cret. rov irpo^ 
avTOv^ iroXepLOV <f>apfiaKLBa eladyec, 

7rp&T09 eyoav eXov dvSpa, 

M.ovXcov al)(^fir)r7jvi yapL^po<; S’ Avyelao, 
nrpeajSvrdrrjv Se Bvyarp eZ^ex', 
fj Toora <j)dpfMaKa ocra Tpe<pei evpeta 

eart Se Kal nrepl %LKv&va SeXX77ex9 rrorapLO^ Kal 
''E<f)Vpa m-Xrjdiov Kcop^rj, Kal iv ry ^Kypaia t ^9 
AircoXia^ *'E<l>vpa Kcojir}, oi S’ dir avT7]<; ''E^vpoi* 
Kal dXXoi oi Ileppaifi&v irpo^ MuKeBovia, oi ^ 
Eipavvwvtoi, Kal oi @ecnrpaiTiKol ol i*c KL)(vpov 
T?}9 irporepov ^E^vpa^* 

6. ^AiroXXoBcopo^; Be BiBdaKcov, ov rpoirov o 
iroLrjrrj^ etcade BLacrreXXecrdai Ta9 ofMcowpia^y 
olov eirl rov ^Op^o/utvov rov piev ^ ApKaBiKov 
rroXvpirjXov KaX&v, rov Be BoLcoriaKov Mtvvetov, 
Kal XdfJLOv ©prjtKLTjv avvrideh 

fjbearcTTjyv^ re Xdfioio Kal "'IfijSpov, 

"‘(jjlPf^XcopiaT} diro t ?79 'lG)viK7]<:y ovrm ^Tjrl Kal 
rf}v ©errrpcoriKrjv ''E<f>vpav BiaareXXeadac r^ re 
rrfXoOev Kal r^ 

rrorapLOv arro XeXXi^evro^. 

^ &v^pay repeated after (p^(xasy Meineke deletes. 

® ttaf, before oly Meineke deletes. 


28 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 5-6 


in speaking of Telemachus the wooers say : or else 
he means to go to the fertile soil of Ephyia^ that 
from there he may bring deadly drugs ” ; ^ for 
Nestor, in his narrative of his war against the Epeians, 
introduces the daughter of Augeas, the king of the 
Epeians, as a mixer of diugs I was the first that 
slew a man, even the spearman Mulius; he was a 
son-in-law of Angelas, having married his eldest 
daughter, and she knew all drugs that are nourished 
by the wide earth ^ But there is another River 
Selleeis near Sicyon, and near the liver a village 
Ephyra. And in the Agraean district of Aetolia 
there is a village Ephyra ; its inhabitants are called 
Epliyri. And there are still other Ephyri, I mean the 
blanch of the Perrhaebians who live near Macedonia 
(the Crannonians),® as also those Thesprotian Ephyri 
of Cicherus,^ which in earlier times was called 
Ephyra 

6. Apollodorus, in teaching us how the poet is 
wont to distinguish between places of the same 
name, says that as the poet, m the case of Orcho- 
menus, for instance, refers to the Arcadian Orcho- 
menus as " abounding in flocks ” ® and to the Boeotian 
Orcliomenus as Minyeian,'" ® and refers to Samos as 
the Thracian Samos’ by connecting it with a neigh- 
bouiing island,® betwixt Samos and Imbros,*' ® in 
order to distinguish it from Ionian Samos — so too, 
Apollodorus says, the poet distinguishes the Thespro- 
tian Ephyra both by the word "distant” and by the 
phrase " from the River Selleeis ” In this, however, 

1 OdT/sse^ 2. 328. « Ilmd 11 738. 

8 See 7. 16. ^ See 7. 7 5. 

« Mtad2, 605 « Iliaa 2. 51L 

’ Samothrace. ® See 10. 2. 17- 

® Iliad 24. 78. Ihad 2. 659. Op. 7. 7. 10. 

29 



STRABO 


ravTa S* ov)( o/ioXoyei To2<i xjtto rov ^kii'^Lov 
A rj/jLTjrptov \€yofievoi<;, Trap' ov fjLeracjiipei ra 
m-Xetara, iK€LVo<i yap ov <f>i]aLv elvai SeXkijevra 
iv ©eaTTpcoTOL^ rrrorapLOVt aXX* iv tt} 'tiXela irapa 
Trjp ifcet "'E^vpaVi irpo^Liropiev, rovro re ovv 
€tp7)K€ CTfceyfreco^; Beo/ievov fcal irepl ri}? Oi^aXiat;, 
on (j>^]<TLp, ov pLta<; ovcr7)<;, ixLav elvat, ttoXlv Eu- 
pvTov Ol)(aXt^]0<;, Tr}v ©erraXifCJ^v, icj}" (prjcriv* 

OL T e^ov OlxaXL't]Vi iroXtv Evpvrov Ot%aXt^5o9. 
Tt9 odv iariv, ^79 opfjbrjdivra ai yiovaai tcara 
Acopiov 

avTopevat ©dpvpiv top ©pfjt/ca iravcrav docSf}<^ ; 
^r)crl yap* 

OlxaXirjOev lovra Trap Evpvrov Ol')(aXirio^?- 

el pev ykp rjv ^ ©erraXiKrj, ovk ev rrdXcp 6 
'ZK7]yfr(,o<;, ^Ap/caSiKijp nva Xiycop, fjp vvp *ApBaptap 
KoXovaip* el S’ o 5 to 9 ev, xal 77 ^ApKa^Lfcrj ttoXl^ 
Evpvrov etprjraL, &a-r ov pia popov* i/celvo^ Se 
piav <f)T)(iL, 

7. ^Aera^if Be ri}? rov Tlyjpeiov /cal rov SeX- 
Xi]€vro^ eV/8oX^9 IlyXo? w/celro /card rb '2t/c6XXiop, 
ovx V N6(7Topo9 7roXi9, aXX’ erepa rL<;, 
7 r /?09 TOP ’AX<^€£oz/ ovBep iart /coLPcoprjpa, ovBe 
TTpb^ TOP Uapcaov, ecTe A pad op xPV AraXetv, 
^cd^opTai S* ePLOL ppyjarevopevoc rrjv Nea'ropo<i 

^ 0770-1 . . OixctKiijos, Meineke ejects 

® ^p, Meineke emends to peiliaps rightly 
® I, Penzel, for ^ , 5s [AcyJuio) 

^ ‘‘Scepsis,” the Greek word here translated “percep- 
tion,” seems to be a pun on (Demetrius of) “Scepsis.” 

30 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3 6-7 

Apollodorus is not inagieement with what Demetrius 
of Scepsis says, from whom he borrows most of lus 
material , for Demetrius says that there is no River 
Selleeis among the Thesprotians, but says that it is 
in the Eleian country and flows past the Ephjra 
there, as I have said before In this statement, 
therefore, Apollodoius was in want of perception, ^ 
as also in Ins statement concerning Oechalia, because, 
although Oechalia is the name of not merely one 
city, he says that there is only one city of Eurytus 
the Oechalian, namely, the Thessalian Oechalia, 
111 refeience to which Homei says: Those that 
held Oechalia, city of Euiytus the Oechalian ^ 
What Oechalia, pray, was it from which Thamyris 
had set out when, near Donum, the Muses ^^met 
Thamyris the Thiaeian and put a stop to his sing- 
ing ” ? ® Eor Homer adds : as he was on lus way 
from Oechalia, from Eurytus the Oechalian.”^ For 
if it w^as the Thessalian Oechalia, Demetiius of 
Scepsis IS wiong again when he says that it w'as a 
certain Arcadian Oechalia, which is now called 
Andama ; but if Demetrius is right, Arcadian 
Oeclialia was also called ^^city of Eurytus,” and 
therefore there was not merely one Oechalia ; but 
Apollodorus says that there was one only. 

7 . It was between the outlets of the Peneius and 
the Selleeis, near the Scollium,® that Pylus was 
situated ; not the city of Nestor, but another Pylus 
which has nothing in common with the Alpheius, 
nor with the Painisiis (or Amathus, if we should 
call it that). Yet there aie some who do violence 
to Homer’s words, seeking to win for themselves 

2 Iliad 2. 730. » Iliad 2 595. * Iliad 2 596. 

® Soollis Mountain (see 8 3 10) ; now Santaraeriotiko. 

31 



STRABO 


So^av KoX t}]v €vjivetav* rpi&v fyap UvXcov 
IcTTopov/iiivcov iv HeXoTrovvrjcr^ {Kadori koX to 
eVo? eiprjrai rovri, 

ecTTL IliyXo? Trpo TlvXoio* IIvXo*? piv iari 
/cal aXko<;), 

TovTov T€ Aral rov AeTrpeart/cov tov iv rfj TpKjivXia 
/cal rp UicrdTcSi, rpLrov Se rov Mea-arjvia/cov rov 
/card Kopv<j>dcriop, €/cacrroi rov irapd (T<f>c<nv 
r/paOoevra rreip&vrai Bei/cvvvai, Kal rijv rov 
NeVropo? rrarpiBa rovrov aTrocpavvovcnv. oi pev 
ovv r/ToWol r&v vecorepcov ^ /cal (rvyypacl>ioi>v /cal 
irocTjr&v Meo'cT'^viov <paac rov Nicrropa, r^ 
arco^opivcp pixP^ avrov^ TTpocrriOipevoL* ol S' 
^OprjptKcorepoi, roc<; errecriv a/coXodovvre^, rovrov 
elvai (j)aac rov rov Necrropo? TivKoVi ov r^v 
Xjdpav Bii^eiaiv 6 ^A\(pet6<;* Bie^eicri Be rrjv 
Tli(rarip /cal rrjv Tpc(l>v\Lav, ol S’ ovv i/c 
K-oiXy}^ "'UXcBo^ /cal roiavrrjv ^iXoripiav irpoae- 
rLdeaav rep rrap^ avrot<; II /cal yvcoplcxpiara, 
0 340 Bei/cvvvre^ Vepr^vov roirov koX Vepovra TTorapov 
/cal dXXov Tepdviov, elr diro rovrcov im0ercio<i 
Tep'^viov elp^cOav marovpevov rov Niaropa* 
rovro Be ravro /cal ol Meercn^vioc 7 r€ 7 roti]/caai, 
/cal mdavcorepol ye (palvovrac* paXXov ydp 
yvd/pepd ^atxiv eivac rd irap e/ceivoc^ Teprjva^ 

^ yewrepuyj Corns, for erepwv ; so the later editors. 

^ A proverb. See Stephanus Byz. s.v. Kopvtpdcrtoy, and 
Eustathius on Od, 1, 93. 

32 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 7 

the fame and noble lineage of Nestor ; for^ since 
histoiy mentions three Pyluses in the Peloponnesus 
(as IS stated m this verse There is a Pyliis in 
front of Pylus ; yea^ and there is still another 
Pylus the Pylus m question, the Lepreatic Pylus 
in Triphylia and Pisatis, and a third, the Messenian 
Pylus neai Coryphasium/ the inhabitants of each 
try to show that the Pylus in their own country is 

emathoeis ” ® and declaie that it is the native place 
of N estor However, most of the more recent writers, 
both historians and poets, say that Nestor was a 
Messenian, thus adding their support to the Pylus 
which has been preserved down to then own times 
But the wiiters who follow the woids of Homer moie 
closely say that the Pj'lus of Nestor is the Pylus 
through whose territory the Alpheius flows. And the 
Alpheius flows through Pisatis and Triphylia How- 
ever, the writers from Coel^ Elis have not only 
supported their own Pylus with a similar zeal, but 
have also attached to it tokens of recognition,^ 
pointing out a place called Gerenus, a river called 
Geron, and another river called Geranius, and then 
confidently asserting that Homer’s epithet for Nestor, 
" Gerenian,” was derived from these. But the 
Messenians have done the self-same thing, and their 
argument appears at least more plausible ; for they 
say that their own Gerena is better known, and that 

® Gossehn identifies Coryphasium with the Navarino of 
to-day So Frazer, note on Pausanias 4 36 1. 

® The Homeric epithet of Pylus, translated sandy ” ; 
but see 8 3 14. 

^ As mothers who exposed their infants hung tokens about 
their necks, hoping that thus their parentage would be 
discovered. 

33 

VOL. IV D 



STRABO 


a‘vvoLKOVfievif}v wore ev, roiavra fiev ra irepl 
Tffv KolX7)p *liXiv vTrdpxovTU vvvL 

8. 'O Se TTOirjrrjf; eh rirrapa pipv BieXoov r^jvBe 
TTjv ^(apav, rerrapa^i Se A:ac tov<; rj^epova^ elirdiVy 
ov cra^w eUprj/cev* 

oi S’ dpa Hov’jrpdo'iov re teal ’^HX^Sa Blav 
evaiov, 

dacTov €(f> ^TppLvr} /cal Mvpcnvo<i icr)(aTi6cocra 
TTerpr] t ^SXXevLri /cal ^AXei/nov eprb<s iipyei, 

T&p a^f recraape<i dp^ol eaap, Bexa S’ dpBpl 
eicdcrcp 

vrje<i eiropTO doai* TroXee? S’ epBaivov ^^ireioL, 

T(p pkp ydp ’E7retoi»9 dp<j>OTepovf; wpoaayopeveip 
rov^ T€ BovTrpa 0-1619 /cal rov9 ^HXeiov^j ^liXeiov^ 
Be prjK6Ti KaXelp tov 9 TAovirpaa-iec^, ov rrjp ^HXeiap 
Bo^eiev dp eh reaorapa piprj Biaipecp, dXXd rijp 
T&p ^Biremv, fjp eh Bvo peprf BielXe irporepov' 
ovS’ dp pip09 etrj T^9 *'HXiSo9 to BovTrpdcrtov, 
dXXd T&p ^Eit€lS>v pdXXop. on yap ^^ireiov^ 
/caXei TOV9 Bovirpaa-iov^, BrjXov 

0)9 OTTore KpeiovT ^Apapvy/cea ddirrop ^Kireiol 
Bovirpaai^, 

TO Be Bovirpdaiop elvaL nva ’HXew 

/caroLKiav exovaav opdvvpop vvpI* ^aLverat, Trj 9 
*'HXtSo9 OP pipo^ Kal TovTo?- irdXiv Be 

^ rh S« BovTpdffioy . . . toSto, Memeke relegates to the 
foot of the page ov/c, before omit. Se, after 

yvyi, BEhtou insert 

^ lhad 2 015 Homer seems to speak of the four last- 
named places as the four corners of Coel0 Elis (Leaf, T7i^e 

34 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 7-8 

it was once a populous place. Such, then, is the 
present state of affaiis as legaids Coele Elis. 

8 But when the poet divides this country into 
four paits and also speaks of the leaders as four in 
number, his statement is not clear : And they too 
that inhabited both Biiprasium and goodly Elis, so 
much thereof as is enclosed by Hyrmine and 
Myrsinus on the borders, and by the Olenian Rock 
and Aleisium, — of these men, I say, there were four 
leaders, and ten swift ships followed each leader, and 
many Epeians embaiked thereon ^ For when he 
speaks of both the Buprasians and the Eleians as 
Epeians, but without going on and calling the 
Buprasians Eleians, it would seem that he is not 
dividing the Eleian country into four parts, but 
rather the country of the Epeians, which he had 
already divided into only two parts; and thus 
Buprasium would not be a part of Elis but rather of 
the countiy of the Epeians For it is clear that he 
calls the Buprasians Epeians ; as when the Epeians 
were burying lord Amarynces at Buprasium.”^ But 
Buprasium now appears to have been a territory of 
the Eleian country, having in it a settlement of 
the same name, which was also a part of Elis.® And 

Ihad^ vol i, p. 72), Elsewhere (11. 756) he refers to 

Buprasium, rich in wheat,” “the Olenian Rock” and 
“the hill called the hill of Aleisium” «is landmarks of the 
country 

» IliCLd 23 630 

® Most of the editors regaid this sentence as a gloss. 
Moreover, serious discrepancies in the readings of the MSS. 
lender the meaning doubtful (see critical note on opposite 
page). For instance, all but three MSS. read “ no settlement 
of the same name ” But see Curtius, Peloponnesos^ vol II, 
p. 36 , also Etym, Mag and Hesych. 5 . 1 ?, Boowpeia-toy. 


35 



STRABO 


crvyfcarapLdfietaOaL ^ovirpdcnov re koX ’'HX^Sa 
hlav Xeyovra^ elr eh recraapa^ Biaipelv piepvBa*;, 
ft)9 av KOLV(p BoKel rm re Bov7rpacrC<p Kal rr) 
''HXlSl avrdg VTTordrretv. Pjv B\ co? eoiKe, Ka- 
roLtcia Tr]<; ’HXeta? to "Bovrrpdcrtov d^i6\oyo<?, ^ 
vvv ovKer iarLv* rj Be %(lopa KoXelrai pLovov ovrcof; 
r) eTTi T^9 oBov T^9 eTTi Avp^rjv ef *^HX^So 9 t^9 
vvv 7roX6co9.^ vrroXd^ot S’ dv t 49 ica\ yrrepox^^v 
rtva ex^tjV rare to Sovirpaacov nrapd rtjv ^HXLVt 
&aTrep koX ol ^R'jrecol Trapd rovrov^* varepov S’ 
dvr 'ErreiSiv ’HXeZo^ ifck7]6r}aav, /cal to Bov- 
Trpdcriov fiev Bt] puepo^ fjv ’'HX^So9, iroLrjri/c^ 
Be Tivi (7)(^7]pbaTi (Tvy/caraXeyecv to piepo<$ oX(p 
(f>aal rov ''Opurjpov, C 09 to 

av’ ^EXXdBa /cal pieaov ^'Apyof;, 

/cal 

av 'EXXaSa re ^Oiirjv re, 

/cal 

Kovpijrh t’ epbdy^ovro /cal AlrcoXoCy 

/cal 

OL S’ i/c ^00X1^(1010 ^E)(Lvd(ov lepdcov* 

/cal yap to AovXl‘)(10v r&v ’E;\;ivaSwv. ')(p&vraL 
Be /cal OL vedrepoL* ^iTrrr&va^ piiv' 

K.V7rpi(ov ^e/co^ (f>ayovaL Kal ^ ApaOovaiwv 
TTVpOV* 

KvnpioL yap Kal oi ^ApLadovcrioi* Kal *AXKpav Be" 

341 KvTTpov IpLeprdv Xirrolcra Kal Ild<j)ov rrepip- 
pvrav" 

Kal Ala‘j(vXo^"^ 

^ •)] 

3<5 


7r6\€Q>Sy B omits. 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 8 

again, when he names the two togethei, saying 
both Buprasmm and goodly Elis,” and then divides 
the country into four parts, it seems as though he is 
classifying the four parts imdei the general designa- 
tion ^^both Buprasmm and goodly Elis” It seems 
likely that at one time theie was a considerable 
settlement by the name of Buprasium in the Eleian 
countiy which is no longei in existence (indeed, only 
that teintory which is on the road that leads to Dyme 
from the present city of Elis is now so called); and 
one might suppose that at that time Buprasium had 
a certain pre-eminence as compared with Ehs, just 
as the Epeians had in comparison with the Eleians , 
but later on the people were called Eleians instead of 
Epeians. And though Buprasium was a part of Elis, 
they say that Homer, by a sort of poetic figure, 
names the part with the whole^ as for instance when 
he says • throughout Hellas and mid- Argos,’’ ^ and 
'^throughout Hellas and Phthia,”^ and'‘ the Curetes 
fought and the Aetolians,’* ® and " the men of Duli- 
chmm and the holy Echinades,”^ for Dulichium is 
one of the Echmades And more recent poets also 
use this figure ; foi instance, Hipponax, when he 
says: "to those who have eaten the bread of the 
Cyprians and the wheaten bread of the Amathusians,” ^ 
for the Amathusians are also Cyprians ; and Aleman, 
when he says : " when she had left lovely Cypros 
and sea-girt Paphos ” , ® and Aeschylus,^ when he 

^ Odyssey 1 344 * Odyssey 11 496 

8 Iliad 9 5*29. ^ Iliad 2 625. 

® Frag 82 (Bergk) ® Frag 21 (Bergk) 

’ Meineke (Find. Strdb. p JOS) thinks Strabo wrote 
"Archilochus,^’ not "Aeschylus.” 


® For AfVx^Aos Meineke ( ViTid, Strak) proposes 'Apxt^oxos 

37 




STRABO 


KvTTpov Hd^ov r exovixa irdvra fcKrjpov, 

el S’ ovx eip'qicev ’HXetou? ^ TOt;? Bov^r/Dacrtoi;?, ouS’ 
aXKa TToiXd tS>v Svroav, (pijaofiev* dXXd tovt 
oif/c ecrriv dnv6hei^L<i rov fir) elvai, dXXd rod firj 
elrretv fiovov. 

9. ^E/caraJo? S’ 6 yLiXrjcno^ erepov^; Xeyei r&v 
’HXe/twz/ TOV<; ^'EiTreiov^* r& yovv ^^parcXel crvcrrpa- 
revcraL Tot >9 ’ETre^ou? irrl Avyeav /cal avvaveXeiv 
avr^ Tov re Avyeav /cal r^fv'^H.Xcv (j>r]crl Se /cal 
Tijv Avfirjv ^EiTredBa /cal ’A%aitSa. TroWa pev o5v 
/cal pf) Qvra Xeyovaiv oi dp^alot avyypa<^eh, 
(Tvvredpappevoi ^frevSei Sid rd<i pv6oypa<^iav 
Sid Se TOVTO /cal ov^ opoXoyovcri Trpo^ dXXijXov^ 
rrepl r&v avr&v ov pevroi diriarov, ouS’ ei Trore 
Sid(l>opoi Toh ’HXaof9 oVt €9 ol '‘ETreiol /cal ere- 
poedv€L<$ €19 ravTO avv'qp'xpvro Kar irriKpdreiav 
/cal KOLvrfv evepov rr)v^ iroXiretav* eire/cpdrovv 
Se /cal p^Xpt Avpr)<s. 6 pev yap iroir)rr)9 ov/c 
&v6pa/ce r}}V Avpijv' ov/c direi/co^ S’ iari, rore 
pev avrrjv vtto roi9 ^ETreioc^ vrrdp^ai, vcrrepov Se 
T019 'icoaiv, 7} pr)S^ i/C€iV0i9, dXXd rol9 rr)v i/ceivcov 
X<^P^^ /caraaxova-iv ’A%a4o?9. r&v Se rerrdpcov 
pepLScoVi &v ivros eari /cal to BouTr/jacrioi/, ?? pev 
^Tppivr] /cal M.vpcrivo9 t^9 ’HX€6a9 iariv, al 
Xonral Se irrl r&v optov ijSr) rrj 9 TlicrdriSo^f &9 
oiovrai rive^, 

10. ^Tppivr) pev odv rroXLxviov ^v, vvv S’ ov/c 
eariVf dXX' dxpcorijpcov irXrfaLov KvXXrjvrf^ opeivov 

^ ^UXeiovs, Oorais, for ’E-n-e^oi/y , so the later editors. 

® ^vefiov riiv {Acg/ino) ; ivsfiopro (the other MSS ). 


33 


1 JFrcig, 463 (Kauok). 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3 S~io 

says : since thou dost possess the whole of Cypros 
and Paphos as thine allotment/'^ But if Homer 
nowhere calls the Buprasians Eleiaiis, I will say 
that there are many other facts also that he does 
not mention ; yet this is no proof that they are 
not facts, but merely that he has not mentioned 
them. 

9 But Hecataeus of Miletus says that the Epeians 
are a different people from the Eleians; that, at any 
late, the Epeians ;)oined Heracles in his expedition 
against Augeas and helped him to destroy both 
Augeas and Elis And he says, fuither, that Dym6 
is an Epeian and an Achaean city. However, the 
early historians say many things that are not true, 
because they were accustomed to falsehoods on 
account of the use of myths in their wiitings , and on 
this account, too, they do not agiee with one another 
concerning the same things. Yet it is not incredible 
that the Epeians, even if they weie once at variance 
with the Eleians and belonged to a different lace, 
later became united wuth the Eleians as the result 
of prevailing over them, and with them formed one 
common state ; and that they prevailed even as far 
as Dyme, For although the poet has not named 
Dyme, it is not unreasonable to suppose that in his 
time Dym^ belonged to the Epeians, and later to 
the lonians, 01, if not to them, at all events to the 
Achaeans who took possession of their country. Of 
the four parts, inside whicli Buprasium is situated, 
only Hyrmin^ and Myrsinus belong to the Eleian 
country, whereas the remaining two are already on 
the frontiers of Pisatis, as some writers think 

10. Now Hyrmin6 was a small town It is no 
longer in existence, but near Cyllen^ there is a 

39 



STRABO 


eoTTLi fcaXovfievov ^Opfiiva 7) "'TpfjbLva* Mvpcrivo^ 
Se TO vvv H^dvprovvTiov, iirl OdXarrav KaO'^KOvcra 
Kard rrjv ifc Avfirj^ eh ^HXcv oSov Karot/ciat 
(TrdSia rrj^ ^H\€L<dv TroXeew? hU')(pv(ra kfBho- 
pb'qKovra, irirprjv S* ^QXevLrjv el/cd^ovcrL rrjv vvv 
XkoXXlv' dvdyfCY) yap eifcora Xeyeiv, fcal r&v 
roTTcov /cal r&v ovofMarayv pLeTa^e^Xr)fjiiv(ov, 
i/ceivov re jjlt) a(f) 6 Spa irrl ttoXX&v <Ta<p 7 jvL^ovro<i* 
ecTTt 8’ 6'po9 TrerpSSe? kolvov Avpiaicov re /cal 
Tpiraiicov /cal ^liXeicov, exopbevov erepov rivo^ 
'Ap/caSb/cov opov<i Aapbireia^, 0 rrj^ ''HXiSo^ pL€V 
SteaTTj/cev i/carbv /cal rpid/covra araSLOV^, Tpi- 
Taia<i be e/carovt /cal Avpbr}^ ^ tou? tcrov^, ’A%afcA;(Sz/ 
TToXecov. TO 8’ ^AXeicnov iart, to vvv ^AXecrialov, 
%coyoa Trepl rrjv ^Afi(f>cSoXiba, iv § /cal /card firjva 
ayopdv awdyovaiv oi TrepioL/cor /celrai he im TYj^i 
dpebvrj<; oSov, ri}^ e^ ’'HX4809 eh ^OXvpbTriav* 
*jrp 6 repov ^v iroXt^ t^ 9 nio’aT 48 o 9 , dXXor 
aXX(o<; T&v opcov eTraXXarTovrcov Std rd^ r&v 
f^yepbovcov pbeTa^oXd^i' to S’ ^AXelcnov /cal ’AXei- 
(TLov /coXcovrjv 6 itoirjT^^ /caXel, orav <j)^* 

C 342 pb€<T^' iirl 'BovTTpaaLov 'jroXvirvpov ^i^crapiev 

t7r7roo9 

Trerprjf; r ^Q!XevLr)<;, Kal ^AXetaLov evda /coXciovrj 
/ce/cXrjrab' 

VTtep^ar&s ydp hel he^aaOai, Xcov rw /cal ev&* 

^ Kal A^/jLTjSf Xylander inserts, and so the later editors 
Kal 4 k AilifjL7}s S4 {hi). 


^ Santameriotiko Mountain. 


40 




GEOGRAPHY, 8 3, 10 

mountain promontory called Hormina or Hyrmina. 
Myrsinus is the present Myrtuntiumj a settlement 
that extends down to the sea, and is situated 
on the road which runs from Dym6 into Elis, and 
is seventy stadia distant from the city of the 
Eleians The Olenian Rock is surmised to be what 
IS now called Scolhs;^ for we aie obliged to state 
what IS merely probable, because both the places 
and the names have undeigone changes, and because 
in many cases the poet does not make himself very 
clear. Scollis is a rocky mountain common to the 
tenitories of the Dymaeans, the Tiitaeans, and the 
Eleians, and borders on another Aicadian mountain 
called Lampeia,^ which is one hundred and thirty 
stadia distant from Elis, one hundred fiom Tritaea, 
and the same from Dym^ , the last two are Achaean 
cities Aleisium is the present Alesiaeum, a terri- 
tory m the neighbourhood of Ampliidolis,® in which 
the people of the sui rounding country hold a monthly 
market It is situated on the mouiitain-road that 
runs fiom Elis to Olympia In earlier times it was 
a city of Pisatis, for the boundaries have varied at 
different times on account of the change of 1 ulers 
The poet also calls Aleisium of Aleisium,’’ 

'when he says: until we caused our horses to set 
foot on Buprasium, iich in wheat, and on the 
Olenian Rock, and of Aleisium where is the place 
called HiU”^ (we must interpret the w'ords as a 
case of hyperbatoii, that is, as equivalent to ‘'^and 

® Now Astras, appaiently See C Muller, Ind, Var, Lect , 
p 990. 

® Amphidolis, or Amphidolia, was an Eleiau territory 
north of Olympia. 

* Jhad 11, 756. 


41 



STRABO 


^AXeicrLov koXcovt) /ceKXTjrar evioL Be fcal rrorafjibv 
Beifcvvovaiv ^AXetcrtov. 

11. Aey ofjiivoyv Se tlvoov iv Tpi^vXLa Kaz;- 
Kcbvcov TTpb^i Tp MecTCTrjvla, Xeyoiievr}<; Be /cal r?;? 
Avfir}<; Kav/ccoviBo^ vtto rivcov, ovro^ Be /cal irora- 
/MOV iv jfj Av/iaia /lera^v Av/ir}<; /cal TpcraCa^, 
09 /caXelrai ILav/ccov drjXvKco^^ ^rjrovcn irepl roov 
Kav/ccbva>v»^ pLr/ SlttoI Xeyovrai, oi /lev irepl 
Tr)v li pLc^vXiav, oi Be irepl Av/ii/v /cal ^HXtv /cat 
TOP Kav/coova* e/M^dXXei S’ ovro^ eh erepov, 09 
Tev0€a<; ® dpaevt/c&<i /caXetrai, o/icbvv/jLog iroXL')(vp 
Tivl rS)V eh TT/v Av/irjv o-vp/p/cio-pLevcov, irXrjv on 
Xcoph Tov criy/ia HevOea Xeyerat dr}Xv/c&9 avrij, 
i/creivovTCOV rr/v eaxd'Tr/v crvXXa/37]v, oirov to t^ 9 
Ne/ii/Sw^ ^Apre/itSo^ iepov. 6 Be T€v0ia<;^ eh 
TOP ^Ax^Xcpov ep^dXXei rov Kara Av/ir/v peovra^ 
oficbpv/xov Kara ^A/cappaviav, /caXov/ievov /cal 
Tieipov, rov S’ ^HofioSou elirovro^i 

wKee 8 ’ ^^iXevirjv irerpr/p irora/ioto irap o^Oci^ 

evpelo^ TleipoiOy 

/ji€raypd<j)ovai nve^ Uiepoio,^ ov/c ev irepl Be 
r&v Kav/cd)PQ)v ^r/TOvcn, cpacrip,'^ ore rfj^ "" A0r/vd<; 

^ drjXvKds IS suspected by Corais, Kramer, and Muller- 
Dubner, and ejected by Meineke But Eustathius retains 
the word in two quotations (notes on ik 2 607 and Od, 
a 367) 

® before Pletho omits , so Corais and Meineke. 

® Tet'^eas (B) ; T€v66as {Acghiw) 

* Ksfitdias (hlnoUy perhaps rightly) ; Loheck ad 

PhvTi p. 557, Nfuofas, Corais, 

s Teve6a5 A. 

® Tli4poio, Jones, for Uc&poio (see Pausanias 7. 22). 


42 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. lo-^ii 

where is the place called Hill of Aleisium ”). Some 
writers point also to a river Aleisius. 

11 . Since certain people m Triphylia near Mes- 
senia are called Cauconians, and since Dyme also 
IS called Cauconian by some writers, and since in 
the Dymaean territory between Dyin^ and Tntaea 
there is also a river which is called Caucon, in the 
feminine gender, writers raise the question whether 
there are not two different sets of Cauconians, one 
in the region of Triphylia, and the other in the 
region of Dym6, Elis, and the River Caucon. This 
river empties into another river which is called 
Teutheas, in the masculine gender; Teutlieas has 
the same name as one of the little towns which 
were incorporated into Dyme, except that the name 
of this town, ^^Teuthea,’* is in the feminine gender, 
and IS spelled without the s and with the last 
syllable long In this town is the temple of the 
Nemydian^ Artemis. The Teutheas empties into 
the Achelous which flows by Dyme ^ and has the 
same name as the Acarnanian river It is also called 
the Peirus ” ; by Hesiod, for instance, when he 
says : he dwelt on the Olenian Rock along the 

banks of a river, wide Peirus.” ® Some change the 
reading to Pierus,” wrongly. They raise that 
question about the Cauconians, they say, because, 

^ ‘‘Neraydian ” IS otherwise unknown, perhaps Nemi* 
dian ” or Nemeaean.” 

2 Cp 10 2 1. 3 jFrag. 74 (98). 


’ The whole passage irepli Ze . . <pri<riu (jtcriv ’Bklu) 

, . . krap ifwdey . rvx^v, according to Kramer, crept 
in from the margin Meineke ejects it. Jones emends 
<pifl(rtv to and retains the passage. 


43 




STRABO 


yLkyropi (hfjboicofjbivrjf; ev rff ^OBvarareoa 
elTTovcrr]^ TTpos Tov ISlicTTopa, 

arap rj&Oev pbera ^avfC(ova<; fjieyadvfjbovfi 
etfi\ ev9a xpelo^ fMOL cx^eikerai' ov tl vkov ye 
ovS* oKiyov, crif Be rovrov, enel reoy iKero 
B&pia, 

irkpbyjrov arvv Bicppcp re fcal vikt* So<? Sk oi 

iTTirov^;, 

BoKel a7jpbaLP6(rdai '^V ^ErreiooVi 

fjv oi Kau/cfi^i'e? elxov, erepoi oVre? tcov iv rfj 
Tpi<pv\ia, eTreKreivovre^ ical pexpt Av/jbaia<i 
Tvxov, ovre ykp rrjv AvfjLrjv, oiroOev KavKoyvLBa 
elprjaOaL <xvfjL$k07}fce, nrapaXiTreiv a^iov, ovre rov 
rrorapov, orrodev ^avKcov etprjraif Bca to tou? 
KavKcova<i rrapkx^tv ^T^rn^cnv, oirivk^ rrork elaiv, 
OTTOV (pr}<rlv ^ ^Adrjva ^aBL^eiv Karib rrjv rov 
XP^ov<; KopbiBrjv, el ycbp Br^ Bexolp^eOa rohs ev rfj 
Tpi<f)v\ia Xeyecrdat rov*; rrepl Akrrpeovj^ ovre olB' 
OTTOO^i iridavo<i eerrat 6 Xoyo?* Bio /cal jpd<f>ovai 
rives* 

evda %p€409 p^oi o(f>ei\erai Birf^ 

ov/c okiyov, 

aab^earkpav S’ e^ei rrjv eiricTKe'^iv tovto, erreiBav 
rrjv e^PjS X^P^^ TrepioBevawfiev rnjv re Tlicrdriv 
/cal ryv Tpi(j>vXlav /nkxpt' rrjs rcov MeaarTjvicov 
fiedopias* 

12. MerA Be rov HeXcovdrav 6 r&v Uicrar&v 
earlv alyiaXos ttoXv^’ eir a/epa ^eid* ?jv Be /cal 
rroXixvri* 

^eids rrhp relxsa-civ, ^lapBdvov d/ji^l peed pa* 

44 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 11-12 


when Athene in the gui&e of Mentor, in the Odj^mey^ 
says to Nestor, ^^but m the morning I will go to the 
great-hearted Caiiconians, where a debt is due me, 
in no way new or small But do thou send this man 
on his way with a chariot and with thy son, since 
he has come to thy house, and give him horses,” ^ 
the poet seems to designate a certain territory in 
the country of the Epeians which was held by the 
Cauconians, these Cauconians being a different set 
from those in Tiiphylia and perhaps extending as 
far as the territory of Dym^ Indeed, one should 
not fail to inquire both into the origin of the epithet 
of Dym^, Caucoman,” and into the origin of the 
name of the river Caucon,” because the question 
who those Cauconians were to whom Athene says 
she is going in order to recover the debt offers 
a problem ; for if we should mtei’pret the poet as 
meaning the Cauconians m Triphylia near Lepreum, 
I do not see how his account can be plausible. 
Hence some read where a debt is due me in 
goodly Elis, no small one.’* ^ But this question will 
be investigated with clearer results when I describe 
the country that comes next after this, I mean 
Pisatis and Triphylia as far as the borders of the 
country of the Messenians ® 

12 After Chelonatas comes the long sea-shore 
of the Pisatans , and then Cape Plieia And there 
was also a small town called Pheia : beside the 
walls of Pheia, about the streams of lardauus,” ^ 

^ OdysseijZ, 366 ^ Op Ihad 11, 698 

3 8. 3 17 " Ihad 7 135. 


^ A^irpeou, Corais, Kiamer, and Muller-Dubner, for 
Aiirpiop ; Ai'itpeiov, Memeke. 


45 




STRABO 


343 €<TTi yap /cal Trordiicov TrXTjatov, evioi S' dp')(jqv 
Trj<i IIccraTLSo^ ttjv ^etdv ^acn' TTpo/ceirai Se /cal 
TavTrfc; vrjaiov /cal XipLYjv, evdev eh 'OXvpbTriav to 
iyyvrdro} ^ i/c OoXamj^ ^ crdSioi i/carop el'/cocriv. 
elr’ dXkr) d/cpa eVl ttoXv Trpovxovcra 

i'rri r})p SvaiVy /caOdirep 6 ^eXa/pdra^, ^9 

TrdXiP ^ €7rl T7)p K€(paXXr)PLap ardSioi e/carh/ eiKO’- 
(TIP, eld' 6 ^AX<j)€C09 e/cSiScocri, Siex^op rov XeXco- 
vdra (TTaSLOV<^ Sia/cocrtov<; 6ySo7]/copTa, 'Apatov 
Se 7repra/co<riQV<; rerrapd/coPTa Trepre* pet S' i/c t&p 
avT&p roTTcov, &p /cal 6 E^yOcoTa?* KaXelrai 
Se 'Aaia, /ccoprj Trj<; MeyaXoTroXtrtSo^i 7rXrj<rLOV 
dXXTjXcop exovcra Svo 7r7]yd<^, odv piovaip oi 
Xe^SePTe^ nroraptoL' Svvre<^ 8 ’ viro 7^)9 eTrl av^vov^; 
araSLov^ avareXXovat iraXip, eW 6 pep eh Aa/cco' 
vi/CTjPt 0 S' eh rPjP Thcrdrtv /cardyerai, 6 ptev 
oZp EiVpdraSi /card rrjv ctpx^P tt}^ BXeptpdTiSo^ 
dvaSei^a^ to peWpop, Trap avr^v rr)p '^irdprrjv 
pveh Kal Ste^ccbp ai/X&pd rtva pa/cpov /caret to 
"'EA. 09 , ov peppYjrat /cal 6 Trotr]Tih, i/cStScoat 
pera^if TvOtov, rov t ^9 %TrdpT7}<; iirtpetov, /cal 
'A/cpai(ov. 6 S' 'AX<j)et6^f rrapaXa^oop rov re 
AdSoopa ® /cal top 'EtpvpapOop /cal dXXov<i aari- 
porepovs, Std tt]^ ^pl^7)<; /cal UicrdriSo^ Kal 
Tipi^vTUa^ ipe^Seh, irap avrrjp ttjp 'OXvprriap 
iirl ddXarraP ttjp XvKeXiKrjp iKiriiTTei pera^v 

1 rh iyyvrtirQ}^ B and Epit , for iyyvrdrcp • so Memeke. 

® ia-ri, before crrdSmj Corais omits ; etV/, Memeke 

® *lxBvs, Palmer, for eiidds, adBis, Corais. 

46 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3* 12 

for there is also a small river near by. According 
to some, Pheia is the beginning of Pisatis Off Pheia 
he a little island and a harbour, from which the 
nearest distance from the sea to Olympia is one 
hundred and twenty stadia. Then comes another 
cape, Ichthys, which, like Chelonatas, projects for 
a considerable distance towards the west ; and from 
it the distance to Cephallenia is again one hundred 
and twenty stadia Then comes the mouth of the 
Alpheius, which is distant two hundred and eighty 
stadia from Chelonatas, and five hundred and forty- 
five from Araxus It flows from the same regions 
as the Eurotas, that is, from a place called Asea, a 
village in the territory of Megalopolis, where theie 
are two spiings near one another from which the 
rivers in question flow. They sink and flow beneath 
the earth for many stadia^ and then rise again; 
and then they flow down, one into Laconia and the 
other into Pisatis. The stream of the Eurotas re- 
appears where the distiict called Bleminatis begins, 
and then flows past Sparta itself, traverses a long 
glen near Helus (a place mentioned by the poet),^ 
and empties between Gythmm, the naval station 
of Sparta, and Acraea. But the Alpheius, after 
receiving the waters of the Ladon, the Erymanthus, 
and other rivers of less significance, flows through 
Phnxa, Pisatis, and Tnphylia past Olympia itself to 
the Sicilian Sea, into which it empties between 

^ According to Polybius (16 17), (e?i stadia. 

2 Ihad 2 584. 


^ nttiKiv, omitted by 

® For KeKdhovra (MSS ) Palmer conjectures Aidma, C. 
Muller approving. 

47 



STRABO 


re fcal 'ETTiraXLOvJ^ 7rpo<^ Se rr) ifc^dXTj 
TO T7}9 'AX<j>€iovLa<: ^AprejiitSo^? ^ ’AX,0€£oy(7?;9 
dXcro<; icrri (Xeyerat yap dpLcporepcoc;), aTre^oz^ 
T7}9 'OXvpLTTLa^ eh oySoijfcovTa crTaSfcoy9. ravrr) 
Be rfj 6e(p fcal iv ^OXvpbirLa icar 6to9 awreXelTai 
TtavrjyvpL^;, naBanrep ical ttj ’EXa^/a fcal rfj 
Aa<j)VLa, pearrj S’ iarlv fj yrj rracra ^ Aprs pbLcrimv 
re /cal ^A^poBiatcov /cal l^vfKj^aLcop ev aXaecriv 
dvdeodv nvXecp^ ^ to iroXv Std rrjp ei/vSpiav, <rv)(vd 
Be /cal ^Eip/xeia iv rah oBoh, TlocreLBia S’ irtl 
rah d/crah* iv Be rS T 979 ^AX(j>eiovLa<i leprp 
ypa^al 'KXedv6ov<i re /cal ^Apriyovro<i, dvBp&v 
KopcvdicoVi rov fJiev T!poLa<; aXcow /cal 'Adrjvd^ 
yovai, rov S’ '^Aprefit^ dva^epopLev't) iTrl ypviro^i 
o‘<l)6Bpa evBo/cipLoc, 

13. EZra ro Bieipyov 6po<^ t^9 TpicpvXia^ rrjv 
yiaKiariav diro Ti59 nia*aT4So9‘ eZr’ aXXo^ tto- 
rafjbO<: X.aX/ch /cal /cprjvrj ILpovvol /cal /caroi/cia 
XaXKh, /cal ro 'Zccfii/cov fierd ravra, oirov to 
fiaXiara rifxdp^evov rov Xapuiov TIo(T6lBS>vo<; iepov* 
eari S’ aXcro^; dypieXaiwv rrXecov iirep^eXovvro 
S’ avrov MaA:t<7T4ot* ovroL Be /cal r^v i/ce'xeLplav 
irrrjyyeXXoVf fjv /caXovai ^dpnov'^ awreXovai S’ 
eh ro iepov 7rdvre<; TH pi(l>vXcoL. 

14. Kara ravra Be ttco^s rd lepd vTrep/cetrat 
rrjs 6aXdrrr}<i iv rpcaKOvra •q pLi/cptp TrXeLoaL 
craBloi^ 6 Tpicj^vX^a/cb^ noXo9 /cal AerrpearLKo^, 

^ *ETnrtt\iov, Tzschucke, tor ^Erirdvov {Acqh)^ 'ETrirdvqs (B), 
lltrdvns {kino) , so Kramer and the later editors 

2 h.vBio)y Meineke, and Muller-Dubner, for dvBetaif S$ ; 
for other emendations, see 0. Muller, Ind, Far Led , p 
991 . 

48 



GEOGRAPHY, 83 12-14 

Pheia and Epitalium, Near the outlet of the river 
IS the sacred precinct of Artemis Alpheionia or 
Alpheiusa (for the epithet is spelled both ways), 
winch IS about eighty stadia distant from Olympia 
An annual festival is also celebrated at Olymiiia in 
honour of this goddess as well as in honour of 
Artemis Elaphia and Artemis Daphnia The vthole 
country is full of temples of Aitemis, Aphrodite, and 
the Nymphs, being situated in sacied precincts that 
aie generally full of floweis because of the abund'* 
ance of water And theie are also numerous shrines 
of Hermes on the load-sides, and temples of 
Poseidon on the capes. In the temple of Artemis 
Alpheionia aie very famous paintings by two 
Corinthians, Cleanthes and Aiegon : by Cleanthes 
the Capture of Troy ** and the Birth of Athene,” 
and by Aregon the Artemis Borne Aloft on a 
Griffin:” 

13 Then comes the mountain of Tiiphylia that 
separates Macistia fiom Pisatis, then another river 
called Chalcis, and a spring called Crum, and a 
settlement called Chalcis, and, alter these, Samicum, 
where is the most highly revered temple of the 
Samian Poseidon. About the temple is a sacred 
precinct full of wild olive-tiees. The people of 
Macistum used to have charge over it ; and it was 
they, too, who used to pioclaini the armistice-day 
called Samian ” But all the Triphylians contribute 
to the maintenance of the temple. 

14 In the general neighbourhood of these temples, 
above the sea, at a distance of thiity stadia or slightly 
more, is situated the Tnphylian Pylus, also called the 


® Coiais, for M,uioi ; so the later editors 


VOL. IV 


£ 


49 



STRABO 


34:4 ov /caXel 6 ^OLr^rrj^ ^jMaQoevra tcaX TrapaSiBaxri 
Tov Ni<Tropo<i irarpiSa, &>? av etc rodv eTT&p 
T&v ^OpLTjpov refcpLaLpotro* ecre rod irapappeovro^ 
nrorapiov Tvpo^i dptcTOV 'Apiddov tcaXoitfievou tt/jo- 
T6pov, 09 vvv Md/jbao<; teal ^AptcaSLtco<;^ KaXeirac, 
&cr ivrevdev rj^adoevra KetcXrfaOar etre tovtov 
fiev Ila/jLt(Tov tcaXovfjLevov o/jucovvfim toU iu rjj 
M.€(Tcr7}PLa 8 v<tl, Be rroXecof; dBifKov i‘)(ovcrr)^ 
rrjp ervfjLoXoyiav tov iiriderov /cal yap to 
dfjLa6(i>Brj TOP TTOTafMOV ^ Trjv ')((opav elvac yfrevBo^; 
(fyacrc, teal to T 179 XtciXXovvrLa^ Be ^A07]pd<; 
iepQp TO TTepl X/ctXXovVTa r&p iirt^av&p ecrTiVt 
^OXvpLTTLa^ TTXijaiov /caTa top ^eXXcova^ 7Tp6<; 
eco S* €(ttIv opo^ TOV IIvXoi; ttX^jctlop iircovvpop 
MLp6r)<;, fjv ptAjdevovai TraXXaKrjp tov ^'ABov 
yepopLepr)v TraTrjdelcrav^ vtto t ^9 Ko/)7;9 gU ttjp 
/CT jTraCap pipdrjv peTa^aXelv, t^p tiv6^ fjBvoarpop 
teaXoven, /cal /cal Tepepo^ e<TTtP tt/oo? 

opei, Tipwpepop /cal vtto Ma/cLcrricov, /cal 
A7jp7)Tpo<i dXao<i vireptceipevop tov UvXLatcov 
TreBiov TO Se ireBiop evyecop eaTc tovto, tt) 
daXaTTT) Be a-vvd'^av^ irapaTeipei Trap’ dnrav to 
peTa^i) TOV re %apiKov teal iroTapov NeSa? 
BidaTrjpa. OcvcoBrj^i Be xal crTez^09 icTTiP 6 t^9 
daXaTTYj^ aiyiaXo^, &<rT ov/c av diToyvoLr} ti^ 
epTevdev rjpaOoePTa oivopdaOac top HvXov, 

^ KoX 'Ap/caSiK(Sf, C Muller would transpose to a position 
after AeTrpeartteSs (above) , cp 8. 3 3 and 8 3 26. 

® The words Kal rh rrjs . . ^eWcam are transposed by 
Groskurd, Meineke, and others to a position after Tpup^ktoi 
(at end of § 13). Meineke emends to (peKKSjva 

[stony ground); C. Muller [Philologus 34. 79) conjectures 
'AveWieva, or ^\€yceva, and Kruger <^o\ 67 }V, 

50 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3, 14 

Lepreatic Pjl us, which Homer calls ^^emathoeis ^ 
and transmits to posterity as the fatherland of 
Nestor, as one might infer from his words, whether 
it he that the river that flows past Pylus towards 
the north (now called Mamaus, or Arcadicus) was 
called Amatlius in earlier times, so that Pylus got 
its epithet emathoeis fiom ^^Amathus,” or that 
this river was called Pamisus, the same as two rivers 
in Messenia, and that the derivation of the epithet 
of the city is unceitain; foi it is false, they say, 
that either the river or the country about it is^^ama- 
thodes,” ^ And also the temple of Athene Scilluntia 
at Scillus, 111 the neighbouihood of Olympia neai 
Phellon,® IS one of the famous temples Neai Pylus, 
towards the east, is a mountain named after Minthe, 
who, according to myth, became the concubine of 
Hades, was trampled under foot by Cor^, and was 
transformed into garden-mint, the plant which some 
call Hedyosmos^ Furthermore, near the mountain 
IS a precinct sacred to Hades, which is revered by 
the Macistians too,® and also a grove sacred to 
Demeter, winch is situated above the Pylian plain 
This plain is feitile; it borders on the sea and 
stretches along the whole distance between Samicum 
and the River Neda But the shore of the sea is 
narrow and sandy, so that one could not refuse to 
believe that Pylus got its epithet emathoeis 
therefrom. 

^ Now interpreted as meaning sandy ® “ Sandy.” 

5 Phellon, whether town, river, or mountam, is otherwise 
unknown * “ Sweet-smelling ” (mint), 

® As well as by the Pylians 


® irarTideTa-av, Corais (from conjecture of Sevin), for ^iraTij- 
e€7(rav , so Memeke, Porbiger, and others. 


51 




STRABO 


15. n/309 apfCTOv S’ ojjbopa rjv T(h fluA-w hvo 

TToXeihia UpK^vXiaicd, ^Lirava teal Hvpiraviai^ 
oiv TO pep eh avvcpKifrOri, to S’ epeive Kal 

TTorapol Be Bvo iyyv9 peovaLV, o re ^aXLmv^ 
Kal 6 'A')^epcov, ip/3dXXovre(i eh top ’AX.^e^oi'. 
0 Se ^Ax^pcop Kara rrjp 7r/)09 roit^ ABrjv olKeiorrjra 
cdvopaaraL* iKTeripijrac yap Brj (r(j>6Bpa rd re 
tt}? ArjpYjrpo^i Kal r^<; K6pr)<; lepd ipravda Kal 
rh Tov ''AooVt rdx^ Td<; virepapTiorrjra^t 
(j>7]aLp 6 Xxrj'xjnos^ ATjptjrpio^;, Kal yap evKapiro^ 
ecTTi Kal epvaL^'qp yeppa Kal dpvop rj TpctpvXla^ 
Biorrep dprl peydXr]^; (popa<i TTVKpa<i dcf)op[a<: yi- 
peadac avp^aLpei Kara tou9 tottou^- 

16. ToO Be UvXov tt/jo? potop iarl to Aeirpeov. 
^p Be Kal avrr) 7rd\69 virep Tf)<? ffaXarry? ip 
recrcrapaKOpra araBLotf;' pera^v Be rov Aeirpeov 
Kal TOV ^Avviov ^ to iepop tov Xapiov Ilo(reiB&v6<i 
icrrcp, maTOP crraBiov^ eKarepov ® BUxop* tovto 
8’ earl to iepop, ip <S KaTaXr](f>9rjpab ^rjaip d 
7roL7)Tr}<; virb TrjXepdxov t^p dvauap avpTeXovpra^i 
TOU9 nt'XtOL'9* 

01 Be ndXoz/, N9 ;\?)o9 ivKTLpevop irroXied pov 
l^op* TO I S’ iirl BlpI OaXdaar]^; lepd pe^op 
ravpov^ TrappeXava^ ^^pocLxdopi Kvapoxahrj, 

345 TrdpeaTL pep ydp rw •Trocrjry Kal TrXdrTetp rd prj 
oPTa^ orav S’ ^ Bvparop icfyapporreip T 0 Z 9 oSai 

^ TvfXTrapeai, Corais, Kramer, Meineke, ior*ETr(iy7j(B),*'T'7rava 
(B man sec ), Tvirdva-ai {Abgh) But Tvtrayeai might be the 
correct reading (see O. Muller, Ind. Fau LeoL, p. 991) 

® AakluPi cp Atdya>v in Pausanias 6. 21. 4, which appeals 
to be the same river 

® after Groskurd inserts ; so the later editors. 

52 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 15-16 

15 . Towards the north, on the borders of Pylus, 
were two little Triphylian cities, Hypana and Tym- 
paneae , the former of these was incorporated into 
Elis, whereas the latter remained as it was. And 
further, two rivers flow near these places, the Dalion 
and the Acheron, both of them emptying into the 
Alplieius. The Acheron has been so named by virtue 
of its close 1 elation to Hades ; for, as we know, not 
only the temples of Demeter and Cor^ have been 
held in very high honour there, but also those of 
Hades, peihaps because of ‘Hhe contrariness of the 
soil,” to use the phrase of Demetrius of Scepsis. For 
while Tnphylia brings foith good fruit, it bieeds 
red-1 ust and produces lusli; and therefore in this 
region it is often the case that instead of a large 
crop there is no crop at all. 

16 . To the south of Pylus is Leprenm. This city, 
too, was situated above the sea, at a distance of forty 
stadia ; and between Lepreum and the Annius ^ is 
the temple of the Samian Poseidon, at a distance of 
one hundred stadia from each. This is the temple 
at which the poet says Telemachus found the Pylians 
performing the sacrifice : And they came to Pylus, 
the well-built city of Neleus ; and the people were 
doing sacrifice on the sea-shore, slaying bulls that 
were black all over, to the dark-haired Earth ^shaker.” ^ 
Now it IS indeed allowable for the poet even to 
fabiicate what is not true, but when practicable he 

^ Annius” (otherwise unknown) seems to be a coriuption 
of “Anigrus” (cp. 8 3 19 and Pausanias 5. 5. 5); but according 
to Kramer, Alphems.’’’ * Odyssey 3 A 

* *ApvIov, Corais (following conj. of Xylander) emends to 
*Aviypov, but Kramer conjectures 

® eKarepoVf Corais, for kKimpov ; so the later editors. 


53 




STRABO 


ra €7rr) /cal crcio^eiv rrjv Sn^yijatv, to S’ airij^eaQai 
7rpO(T^/c€ paWov. X^ypav S’ el^ov eiBaup^ova oi 
AeTTpearac*^ rovroi<; S’ o/iopoc KvirapicrcrieU, 
dp^cfxo Be rd ravra Kav/ccove^ /carelxov, 

/cal TOP Md/acrrov 8e, ov Tive^ UXaTaPKrrovvTa 
KaXovaiv. opiddvvpLOV rfj X^P9 
Xtcrpa, (j>aa’l S’ iv AeirpedrcBt /cal Kav/ccovo<; 
elvat pbvrjpLa, elV’ dpx'^y^TOv Tivoli etr aXXco<; 
opicovvpLov r& eOvet. 

17. n>i6tou9 S’ elcrl XoyOL irepl rSyv K^av/cdavcov' 
KoX yap *Ap/caBt/cov edvo^ (j>acrb, /caddrrep to 
UeXaa-yi/cov, /cal 7rXav7]ri/cop aXXcof^, Scrmp 
i/celvo* i(TTOp€L yovv 6 Tropjrr)^ /cal rot? Tpcocrlv 
d^typevov^ (Tvppdxov^, irbdev S’, ov Xkyei' Bo- 
Kovcn S’ Ik Jia^ayoviav eKei yap ovopd^ovat 
KavKcovidra^ rivd^ MapcavBvvoh opopov^, ot Kal 
avTol Ila(l>Xay6v€^ elaL, pviiadrjcropeda S’ avr&v 
eirl TrXeoVi orav eh eKelvov Trepiarfj rov tottov 
r} ypa(j)7], vvvl Be Trepl rcbv iv rfj T!pi(l>vXia 
ILavKdvcov ere Kal ravra rrpoaearoprireov, oi 
pev yap Kal oX^jv rrjv vvv ^JiXeiav, drro rrj^ 
M€o-<Ti]VLa<; pkxp^ Avpy]^, K.avK(oviav XexOrjvaL 
^aaev* ^ AvrLpaxo^ yovv Kal ’ETretou? Kal Kav- 
Kcova^ aTravraf^ Trpocrayopevet. riveg Be oXrjv pkv 
prj Karaax^'h aurou?, Bixee Se pepepea pevov^ 
oIkciv, rov9 pev rrpo<s r^ yiecraTjvlci Kara rijv 
Tpi<f)vXCav, TOU9 06 7ryoo9 T§ Avprf Kara rrjV 
Bov/rpaaiBa Kal rrjv ILoeXrjv "^HXeV ^ A piaroreXrj^ 


1 AeTpsarai, Pletho, for Teyearai ; so the editors. 



1 mad 20 . 329 . 

* 12 . 3 , 5 . 

54 





GEOGRAPHY, 8 3. 16-17 

should adapt his words to what is true and pi eserve 
his naiiative, but the more appiopnate thing was 
to abstain from what was not tiue The Lepreatans 
held a fertile territory ; and that of the Cyparissians 
boidered on it Both these districts Avere taken and 
held by the Cauconians; and so was the Macistus 
(by some called Platanistus) The name of the to'wn 
IS the same as that of the territoiy It is said that 
theie IS a tomb of Caucon in the territory of 
Lepreum — whether Caucon was a piogenitor of the 
tribe 01 one who for some other reason had the same 
name as the tube. 

17 . Theie aie several accounts of the Cauconians ; 
for it is said that, like the Pelasgians, they were an 
Ai'cadun tube, and, again like the Pelasgians, that 
they were a wandering tribe. At any rate, the 
poet ^ tells us that they came to Troy as allies of the 
Trojans. But he does not say whence they come, 
though they seem to have come from Paphlagonia ; 
foi m Paphlagonia there is a people called Cauconi- 
atae whose ten itory bordeis on that of the Mariandyni, 
who are themselves Paphlagonians. But I shall 
speak of them at greater length when I come to my 
description of that region.^ At present I must add 
the following to my account of the Cauconians in 
Triphylia. Some say that the whole of what is now 
called Eleia, from Messenia as fai as Dyme, was 
called Cauconia Antimachus, at any rate, calls all 
the inhabitants both Epeians and Cauconians 
Others, however, say that the Cauconians did not 
occupy the whole of Eleia, but lived there in two 
separate divisions, one division in Triphylia near 
Messenia, and the other m Buprasis and CoeM Elis 
near Dym^ And Aristotle has knowledge of their 

55 



STRABO 


S’ ivravda fiaXiara olhev lBpvfiivov<; avTov 9 » Kal 
Sr; T0?9 v(f)^ ^O/i'ijpov XeyopAvoi^ op^dXoyel fiaXKov 
77 vcrarr; a 7 r 6 ^aai<;, ro re ^7;tov/jl€vov Trporepop 
XajjblSdvet Xvacv, 6 (jusv yap NecrTcop viroKeirai 
Tov UpK^vXiaKov oIk&v IIvXoz/ rd re wpo^ vorov 
KaX rd mdtvd (ravra S’ iarl rd avy/cvpovvraTrpo^ 
rr;v M.ecra'qvlav Kal Tr)v AafcccviKrjv) ^ vtt i/ceivo) 
iarivi exovai S’ oi Kav/ccove^, &(TT 6 roh aTro 
TOV UvXov /SaSi^ovcriv eh hafceSaipbova dvdyKrj 
Sid "Kavfcdvcov eivai t^v 6S6v, to Se lepov tov 
'ZcLpLtov Tlo(xeLS&vo<; xal 6 /car’ avTo oppo^, eh 
OP KaTiqxO'q TT^XeyLta^^o^, tt/jo? Svaiv real 7 rpo<; 
dpxTOP dmopevei. el fiev toLvvp ol KavKCi)ve<; 
ipTavda fjbopop olfcovorip, ov (Tco^ejaL t& TroLr]Tf} 6 
X0709. KeXevei ydp r; pb€P ^Adrjvd^ fcard top 
XcoTaSr;^ t& NiaTopt, top p^ep lLr;XepLaxov eh 
TTjp AaKsSaifiopa 'trejx'^ab avv Sv<j>pq> re Kal viii 
eh Td 7r/?09 eco fiSprj’ avTr; S’ ijrl vavp /SaScetaffac 
vvKTejjeva-ova'd (f>r}(riv iTrl Ttjp Svaip Kal eh 

TOVTrlo’G)* 

aTdp •q&dep yu-era "K.avKcova^ fjieyaOvpbov^ 

TTOpeveadai irrl to ;j^y0609 ttoXip eh Tov/JLirpoadep. 
Th o?fp 0 TpoTTos ; Traprjp ydp tw NecTopi XiyetP' 
346 aXX’ oX ye KavA:cop69 vrr ep,oL eiai Kal Trpo oSov 
Toh eh AaKeSatpLova jSaSc^ovcrcp* &<TTe tL ov 
avvoSevei<; Toh irepl Hrjkepiaxop, aXX’ dpaxo)peh 
eh Toviriom ; djjua S’ oiKeiop ^p t^ ^aSi^opTi iirl 

^ a, before lie' Meineke and others delete 

® For fiky *AB 7 jvaf Madvig conjectures Mevropadriya, 

® rhy "Ztord^ (BH, Aid ) , ’05t;<ro*6tav (marg. B, man, sec, 
and marg n,), 

5 ^ 



GEOGRAPHY, 8, 3. 17 

having been established at this latter place especially.^ 
And in fact the last view agrees better with what 
Homer says, and furnishes a solution of the question 
asked above,® for m this view it is assumed that 
Nestor lived in the Triphylian Pylus, and that the 
parts towards the south and east (that is, the pai ts 
that are contiguous to Messenia and the Laconian 
country) were subject to him ; and these parts were 
held by the Cauconians, so that if one went by land 
from Pylus to Lacedaemon Ins journey necessarily 
must have been made through the territory of the 
Cauconians, and yet the temple of the Samian 
Poseidon and the mooring-place near it, where 
Telemachus landed, lie off towards the north-west 
So then, if the Cauconians live only here, the account 
of the poet is not conserved ; for instance, Athene, 
according to Sotades, bids Nestor to send Telemachus 
to Lacedaemon ^Mvith chanot and son to the parts 
that lie towards the east, and yet she says that she 
herself will go to the ship to spend the night, 
towards the west, and back the same way she came, 
and she goes on to say that in the morning ” she 
will go amongst the great-hearted Cauconians”® 
to collect a debt, that is, she will go forward again 
How, pray ^ For Nestor might have said : ‘^But the 
Cauconians are my subjects and live near the road 
that people travel to Lacedaemon. Why, therefore, 
do you not travel with Telemachus and his com- 
panions instead of going back the same way you 
came ? ” And at the same time it would have been 

^ The extant works of Aristotle contain no reference to the 
Cauconians. 

2 8 3 11 

« Od, 8 366. 


57 



STRABO 


j^peov^ ko/xiB'>jv, ovk oXCyoVj w? tt/oo? 

av6 pojTTOV^ VITO T& 'NicTTopL oPTa^, airrjdaadai 
riva Trap^ avrov /SoTjdeiav, el tl aypcopLOvolro 
(axTirep elcoOe) Trepl to crvp.06Xatop* ov yiyove Se 
Tovro. el pL€V toCpvv evravda povov olKotev oi 
Kai5«:ce)i/69, ravT av crvp^aLvoi ra aroira pepepicx- 
aivcov Se tlpcov koX eU tol »9 tt^o? l^vpr) tottov? 
T ?}9 ’HXeta?, ifceiae av elr) Xeyovcra rrjv €(j>oSov rj 
Kd'i'jvay fcal ovfc av eri ovd^ rj et^ rrjv vavv fcardjSa- 
cri^ e%Oi TL dTr€p<f>aLvov, ovff 6 (rvvoSia<i aTro- 
cnraapo^y eh TavavTia Tfj<f oSoO ovo’?}^, Trapa- 
7rXr)(TiOD<; S’ civ fcal tcl Trepl tov IluXoy ScaTTopovpeva 
TV)(OL T^9 7rpocr'r)/cov(Tr}s BtaiTT}^, eireXOovcn pcfcpov 
eTL ri}? %6o/)07/oa^ta9 IIuXoi/ tov 

Me(Tar}VLaKOV. 

18. ^EiXer/ovTo he HapcopeaTai^ Tive^ t&v ev Tfj 
TpL<pvXLa /^aT^;^az^T€9 Sp'tj Trepl to Aeirpeov /cal 
TO Md/cc<TTOV KaOrj/covTa eirl ddXaTvav TrX'tjcrCov ^ 
TOV %apLaKov UocrecSiov, 

19. 'Ttto tovtol^ eaTLV iv ttj TrapaXla hvo 
dvTpa, TO pev vvp<j>&v ^AvcypidScov, to Se, iv w Td 
Trepl Ta9 ‘^ATXavTLha^; /cal t^v Aaphdvov yeveaiv, 
evTavda he /cal to, aXarj, to re ^Icovalov ® /cal to 
Bjvpv/cvheiov,^ TO pev oiv XapL/cov eaTtv epvpa, 
TTpoTepov he ^al 7roXi9 'Zdpo^ TTpoa-ayopevopevr] 

^ Uaptapearati Tzschucke from conj. of Casaubon (see Herod 
4 148), for Hapeai'drai {Acgh)^ Uapoudrai (Bkno) ; so the later 
editors 

2 judxpi (BZ) 

® For ^looycuov Xy lander conJ Aiwvalov; ^’S^vdvp.mvcuov^ 
Tzschucke, Corais, Groskurd, because Eurycyda was the 
daughter of Endymion (Pausamas 5. 1. 4). 

S8 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 17-19 

proper for one who was going to people subject to 
Nestor to collect a debt — ^^no small debt/’ as she 
says — to request aid from Nestor, if there should be 
any unfairness (as is usually the case) in connection 
with the contract ; but this she did not do. If, 
then, the Cauconians lived only there, the result 
would be absurd ; but if some of the Cauconians had 
been separated from the rest and had gone to the 
legions near Dym6 m Eleia, then Athene would be 
speaking of her journey thither, and there would no 
longer be anything incongruous either in her going 
down to the ship or m her withdrawing from the 
company of travellers, because their loads lay in 
opposite directions. And similarly, too, the puzzling 
questions raised in regard to Pylus may find an 
appropriate solution when, a little further on in my 
choiograjihy, I reach the Messenian Pylus. 

18 . A part of the inhabitants of Triphylia were 
called Paioreatae, they occupied mountains, m the 
neighbourhood of Lepreum and Macistum, that 
reach down to the sea near the Samian Poseidium ^ 

19 At the base of these mountains, on the sea*- 
boaid, are two caves One is the cave of the 
nymphs called Anigriades; the other is the scene 
of the stories of the daughters of Atlas ^ and of the 
birth of Dardanus. And here, too, are the sacred 
precincts called the lonaeum and the Eurycydeium. 
Samicum^ is now only a fortress, though foimeily 
there was also a city which was called Samus, perhaps 

1 See 8. 3. 20 ® The seven Pleiades. 

® Cp. Pausamas’ account of Samicum, Aren^, and the 
Amgrus (5 5 6 and 5 6 1-2) 


* After t,bpvK{tZmv Meineke indicates a lacuna. 


59 




STRABO 


TO vyfro^ iireiSr] crdfiovs eicdXovv rd 

iiyfrT]" rdxc^ Bk rfj^ 'Aptjvijg icKpoTroXb^ rovro, 
?j<i iv KaTaXo 7 « pbifiprjrai o TTOpqrrj<i* 

oi Be UvXop T evepLovro koX ^Ap'^prjv iparecv'qv, 

ovBapov <ydp aa^m evpiaKOPre^i ipravda pdXicrra 
elKd^ovcri rrjp ^Ap7]p)']p, ottov koX 6 7rapafce[p,epo<; 
''AvLjpo<s TTorapo^, tcaXovpuevo^ irporepop yiivveio^;, 
BLBcoctlv oi) pi/cpov (xripetop' Xiyet yap 6 TTOtrjr'ij^* 

ecTTL Be Ti<i 7roTa/x.o9 Mtvvyjw eh &Xa /SdXXcop 
eyyvdev ^ApTjvrjq. 

7r/)09 ydp Br} avrpq> r&v ^ AviypidBcdv vvp(j>&v 
iarl Trr]yr]t v(f>^ ^9 eXeiov Kal Tt(j>&B€^^ to utto- 
minov yiveTUi x^P^ov viroBexerai Be to TrXetcrrov 
Tov vBaro^ 6 Avcy po^, ^a9v<; fcal vtttlo^; &v, wcrre 
Xipvd^eiv* dcv(oBr}<; S’ &p 6 T07ro9 e^ ecfcocrc crraBccov 
fiapeiap ocrprjp ^ Trapexei, fcal Toi/9 ix^v^ d^pwrov^ 
TTOtei, pvdevovat S’ oi pep aTro tov t&p T€Tpco- 
pep (OP KePTavpcov riva^ evTavS* ciirovi'^acrdai top 
eK TYj^'^^Bpa^ top, oi 5’ aTro tov M.eXdp7roBa Toh 
vBacri TOVTOL^ KadapaLoi^ 7rpo9 top 

34:7 Tcop YlpOLTiBcop Kadappov dX(f>ov^ Be Kal X€VKa<i 
Kal XeixW^^ iaTat to evTevdep Xovrpov* ^aal 
Se Kai TOP ^AX(j>6i>6v aTro tt}^ t&p dXi^&p 6epaTreia<^ 
0 VTC 09 mvopdcrdai, iTrel oSp ^ re vTrTiOT7}<i tov 
'Aviypov ^ Kal al dvaKOTral T7]<$ 9aXdTTT)<; poprjv 

^ rt^wSes, Corais from conj. of Casaubon, for 
( Acgf), rv(p(&dr)$ (B?, Aid ) 5 so later editors in general. 

® papeiay ocr/j.'fiPj Corais from conj. of Casaubon, for padetav 
cp. Pausanias 5. 5 5 

® *Avlypov (B man, sec ), Pletho, for &vrpov (other MSS.)j 
so the other editors, 

60 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 19 

^ because of its lofty situation ; for they used to call 
lofty places ^^Samoi." And perhaps Samicum was 
the aciopolis of Aren6, which the poet mentions in 
the Catalogue : And those who dwelt in Pylus and 
lovely Aren^’*^ For while they cannot with 
ceitainty discover Areii6 anywhere^ they prefer to 
conjecture that this is its site ; and the neigh- 
bouiing River Anigrus, formerly called Minyeius, 
gives no slight indication of the truth of the con- 
jecture, for the poet says : And there is a River 
Minyeiiis wdiich falls into the sea near Aren6/’ 2 For 
neai the cave of the nymphs called Aiiigiiades is a 
spiiiig which makes the legion that lies below it 
sw^ampy and marshy The greater part of the water 
is received by the Anigrus, a river so deep and so 
sluggish that it forms a marsh ; and since the region 
IS muddy, it emits an offensive odour for a distance of 
twenty stadia, and makes the fish unfit to eat.® In 
the mythical accounts, however, this is attiibuted by 
some writers to the fact that ceitain of the Centaurs 
here washed off the poison they got from the Hydra, 
and by others to the fact that Melampus used these 
cleansing waters for the purification of the Proetides.^ 
The bathing-water from here cures leprosy, 
elephantiasis, and scabies. It is said, also, that the 
Alpheius was so named from its being a cure for 
leprosy. At any rate, since both the sluggishness of 
the Anigrus and the back- wash from the sea give 

1 Ihad % 591. * Iliad 11. 722 

* For a fuller account see Pausanias 5 5. 5 ; also Frazer’s 
note, vol m. p 478. 

* According to Pausanias (5.5.5), “some attribute the 
peculiarity of the river to the fact that the objects tcsed tn the 
pwnJicat%on of the Proetides were flung into it ” 


61 



STRABO 


fiaXXop ^ pvcriv Trap€)(pvcn rol^ yBaai, Mivv^iop'^ 
^acrip elprjadaL rrporepop, Traparpiy^ai Be r/m? 
rovpopa Kal apr avrov TroiycraL MLPrrjLov,^ 

8’ 77 eTu/x-OT779 KoiX aXKa^ d(poppd^, etr diro r&v 
puera XXcopiBo^ t/)? NeVropo? pLrjTp6<; iXOovrcov 
^Op')(pp€POv rov M.tpv€Lov, eire ® Ts/Ilpvcop, ot 
T&p 'Apyopavr&p diroyopoi optb^ ifc Ai^piPov puev 
ek AaKsBaipbopa i^eirecrop, ivrevOev 8’ eU ttjv 
T pL<l)vXLap, Kal (pKr^aav irepl ty]v ^ Aprjvrjv iv rfj 
Xd>p^ '^V vvv ^TiraccTLa KaXovpiprjy ovk ixovcrr} 
ovKert rd toop Mlpv&p KTuapbara* &p rcuh perd 
%<^pa Tov AvrecTLcovo^ (^p S’ o 5 to 9 TLoXvpeUovfi 
aTToyopo^) TrXevaapref; ek rrjp pera^v Kvpr]paCa<s 
Kal rf]^ Kpi]T7)<; vijaov, 

K.aXXLcrr)]p to TrdpoiOe, to S’ vcrTepop oiivopa 

@7]pY)V, 

W 9 ^r]crL KaXXlpaxo**, eKTcaav t^p pijTpoTroXip 
T ^9 Kvp^P7)f; ®Yipap, opwpvpop S’ iireBei^ap^ tt} 
TToXec Kal Typ pTjaop. 

20, Mera^u Be tov ^ApLypov Kal tov opov^;, 
ov p€L, 6 TOV ^lapBdpov Xeipo)v BeLKvvTai Kal 
Ta^o^ Kal elal Be weTpaL diroTopoi tov 

avTov opov^, virep &p i) Xdpo^, 0)9 e^apep, yiyove 
7roXt9* ov Trdvv Be vtto t&v tou? irepbTrXovs 
ypa'yjrdpTCDP rj %dpo<; ppr]poP€V€Tac, Ta;^a pep ye 
Bed TO TrdXat KaT€<nrd<r6ai, Taxa Be Kal Bed ttjv 
6i<Tbv TO pep ydp TlocreiBiop iaTip dXao9, a>9 

1 For (the Homeric spelling, II 11 722), Corais 

conj. MtfMvv^ioi/ or Mevu^ioi', and Meineke *%\ivviitov, 

® Miyr-fiwp iAgh)t Mevr’ffiop (^), Mipr'fipiop {blcm)^ Corais 
emends to yiivvi\iov ; so the later editors, but the change is 
purely conjectural, 

62 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 19-20 

fixity rather than current to its waters, it 'was called 
the Minyeius ” in eailiei times, so it is said, though 
some have perveited the name and made it Min- 
teius’*^ instead. But the word has other sources of 
derivation, either from the people who went forth 
with Chloris, the mother of Nestor, from the Min- 
3^eian Oichomenus, or fioin the Minyans, who, bein^ 
descendants of the Argonauts, were first driven out 
of Lemnos into Lacedaemon, and thence into 
Tiiphyha, and took up their abode about Arene m 
the country which is now called Hypaesia, though it 
no longer has the settlements of the Minyans Some 
of these Minyans sailed with Theras, the son of 
Autesion, who was a descendant of Polyneices, to the 
island ^ which is situated between C3Tenaea and 
Crete Callist^ its earlier name, but Thera its later,” 
as Callimachus ^ says), and founded Thera, the 
mothei~city of Cyren6, and designated the island by 
the same name as the city 

20 . Between the Anigrus and the mountain from 
which it flows are to be seen the meadow and tomb 
of lardanus, and also the Achaeae, which are 
abiupt cliffs of that same mountain above which, as 
I was saying,^ the city Samus was situated. How- 
ever, Samus is not mentioned at all by the writers of 
the Circtmiiavtgaiions— perhaps because it had long 
since been torn down and perhaps also because of its 
position ; for the Poseidium is a sacred precinct, as 

^ Thus connecting the name wuth the verb fxeyeiv (“re- 
main,” “tarry”) {Strabo probably wrote “Menteius” or 
“Menyems,” not “Minteius ” 

2 Cp 1. 3. 16. 8 Fmy. 112 (Schneider) ^ 8 3. 19. 

8 eTre, before Uivvuv, Kramer mserts ; so the later editors. 

^ iirideL^aVf Meineke emends to airedei^av, 

63 



STRABO 


etprjraL, 7 r /)09 rfj dcCKaftTrj* vnep/cecTat S* avrov 
X6<I)09 ifyfrrjXoff, iTTLirpoadev a)V rod vvv Xafiifcov, 
e<^’ ov rjv 7] Xdfio<^i &cxr ifc OaXdjrr}^ pur] opdaOat 
fcal TreSiov S' avroBi fcaXelrac l^ajiifcov* ov 
TrXeop dv tl<? retcpbaipoiro virdp^ai Trore rroXiv rrjv 
%dpx>v* /cal 7] "PaSiVT} Si,^ 'SiT7jcrbXopo<; TTOLrjcrai 
So/c€iy ^9 d>pxv' 

''Aye, Movcra Xiyec, ap^ov doiSm, 'Eparco, 
v6fiov<; ^ 

'^apbicov Trepl TraiScov ipara (^deyyopbeva Xvpq, 

evrevdev Xeyet tou9 TTatSa<;, i/cSoBelaav yap rrjv 
'PaSivrjv €69 Eopivdov rvpdvvcp (j>7}crlv eic r?]^ 
Sd/uov TrXeOaai Trveopro^ Zecj^vpov, ov Srjirovdev 
TYj^ 'Icovi/CYj^ 'Zdpbov* T& S' avTCp dvefxcp teal 
dp^L$€copop €69 A€X<j>ov^ TOP dS€X(j)bp avT7j<: iXdelp, 
teal TOP dveylnop ip&pra avrf}^ dpfjbari eh EopivOov 
e^opjjbrjcraL irap' avTYjP' o re Tvpavvo^, tereipa^i 
dfjL<l)OTepov<i, dp /Marc dwoTre/jcTrei rd or dt par a, p^era^ 
ypov<; S' dvateaXet teal Odirret, 

C 348 21 . ' AiToSe rod ITuXoi; tovtov teal rod Aeirpiov ® 

rerpafcoaicop ttov araSLcov earl Sida'Tr]pa itrl rrjv 
M.€a-a-i]Pia/€r}P YivXop Kal to Kopvcpdatop, irrl 
OaXdrrrj teeipeva <j>povpca, teal rrjp Trapa/cecpivrjp 
Xipayiap prjcrop, diro Se 'AXc^etod eirTatcoatcop 
irePTTjKopTa, utto Se rod ^eXcopdra x^Xicov rpid- 
teopra, ip Se rS pera^v to re rod Mateccrrlov 
^HpatcXeov<; iepov eerri teal 6 'AkLSodv 7roT£t/609. 
pel Se irapd rdef^op 'lapSdpov teal Xdap ttoXip 

1 ds, before ^p, Tzschucke deletes ; so the editors. 

® ’Eparitf, v6fjLovs, Meineke for iparvp i^/jLvovs ; so the later 
editors. ® Aeirptov (Abcg), 

64 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3 20-21 

I have said,^ near the sea, and above it is situated a 
lofty hill which is in. front of the Samicum of to-day, 
on the site of which Sanius once stood, and therefore 
Samus was not visible from the sea Here, too, is a 
plain called Samicum ; and from this one might get 
more conclusive proof that there was once a city 
called Samus. And further, the poem entitled 
Rhadine (of which Stesichorus is reputed to be the 
author), which begins, Come, thou clear-voiced 
Muse, Erato, begin thy song, voicing to the tune of 
thy lovely lyre the strain of the children of Samus,’’ ^ 
refers to the children of the Samus in question ; 
for Rhadine, who had been betiothed to a tyrant of 
Corinth, the author says, set sail from Sanius (not 
meaning, of course, the Ionian Samus) while the 
west wind was blowing, and with the same wind her 
brother, he adds, went to Delphi as chief of an 
embassy , and her cousin, who was in love with her, 
set out for Corinth in his chariot to visit her And 
the tyrant killed them both and sent their bodies 
away on a chariot, but repented, recalled the 
chariot, and buiied their bodies 

2 L From this Pylus and Lepreum to the Messenian 
Pylus and Coryphasium (a fortress situated on the 
sea) and to the adjacent island Sphagia,® the distance 
IS about four hundred stadia; fiom the Alpheius 
seven hundred and fifty; and fiom Chelonatas one 
thousand and thirty. In the intervening space are 
both the temple of the Macistian Heracles and 
the Aeidon River. The Acidon flows past the 
tomb of laidanus and past Chaa — a city that was 

1 8 3 13 ® Frag 44 (Bergk). 

3 Also called Sphacteria (see 8. 4 2). 

65 

VOL IV F 



STRABO 


TTOTfc vTTcip^aaav TrKrjcrLov Ae^rpeov, ottov kcli to 
nrehLov to kiiracnov. Trepl ravriq^ Be t ^9 Xda<? 
yeveaOat ^aalv evLOi rov iroXepbov roi^ ^Ap/cdao 
7rpo^ Tov<s UvXLOvg, ov e^pacxev ^^OfiTjpo^, real Belv 
oiovTai ypd<f>eiv* 

, ft)9 OT eTT d)KVp 6 (p ^ AklBoVTL ^ fJbd')(pVTO 

dypofievoi UvXcol re /cal ^Ap/edBe^ 

^da<; ^ 7rdp reL’xeccnv' 

ov 'K^dBovrCs ovBe $e£a9* yhp rd<j)(p rov 
^lapBdvov rovrov rrXrjaid^eLV Kal roi? ^Ap/cdai 
rov roiTOV pLoXXov ^ i/ceivov* 

22. KviraptcrcTLa ^ re eariv iwl r0 BaXdrrr) r^ 
lLpL<l>vXLa/c^ /cal Hvpyoc /cal 6 ^AkCBcov rrorapLO<i 
/cal ISiiBa vvvl [lev oi/v rjj TLpi(f>vXLa irpo^ rrjv 
MeacrrjvLav dpiov eari ro t% NeSa^ pevjuaXdjSpov 
e/c rov Av/caiov /cariov, ^ Ap/caBiKov opovg, e/c 
TTTiyi]^, fjv avappYj^ai reKovaav rov Aia pbvOeverai 
^Veav VLTTrpcov pel Be nrapa ^lyaXLav, KaO^ 

t yeirvL&cri Hvpylrai, Tpi^vXLoav ea'xarot, KuTra- 
pLCTcrevaLy TTpcoroi^ M.e<r(Tr}vio)v ro fie rraXaiov 
aXXco^ Bccoptaro, <09 /cal riva^ r&v irepav T779 
NeSa9 vrro rtp NeerTop^ elvai, rov re Kvirapicr- 
CTjevra /cal dXXa rivd iTre/cetva, KaOdreep /cal rfjv 
ddXarrav rr^v UvXiav 6 7ro47;T^9 eTre/creLvei pexP^ 

^ *AKidovrt, Meineke, for K4\a^ovri , so most editors. 

^ Xetaj, Oasaiibon, for ^etas j so most editors 
® KvTapifftxta, Tzschucke, for KvTrapKfiva (Ag), KvTapKXfflm 
{hhkno ) ; so the editors 

66 



GEOGBAPHY, 8. 3.21-22 

once m existence near Lepreum^ where is also 
the Aepasian Plain It was for the possession of 
this Chaa^ some say^ that the war between the 
Arcadians and Pyhans^ of which Homer tells us, 
arose in a dispute ; and they think that one should 
wnte, Would that I were in the bloom of my 
youth, as when the Pyhans and the Arcadians 
gathered togethei and fought at the swift-flowing 
Acidon, beside the walls of Chaa” — instead of 

Celadon” and ^^Pheia”,i for this region, they 
say, IS nearei than the other to the tomb ot lardanus 
and to the country of the Aicadians. 

22 . Cypaiissia is on the Triphylian Sea, and so 
aie Pyrgi, and the Acidon and Neda Rivers ^ At 
the present time the stream of the Neda is the 
boundary between Tiiphyha and Messenia (an im- 
petuous stream that comes down from Lycaeus, an 
Arcadian mountain, out of a spring, which, accoi ding 
to the myth, Rhea, after she bad given birth to 
Zeus, caused to break forth in order to have watei 
to bathe in) , and it flovrs past Phigaha, opposite 
the place where the Pyrgetans, last of the Tri- 
phylians, border on the Cypanssians, fist of the 
Messenians, but m the early times the division 
between the two countries was different, so that 
some of the territories across the Neda were subject 
to Nestor~not only Cypansseeis, but also some 
other parts on the far side. Just so, too, the poet 
prolongs the Pyhan Sea as far as the seven cities 

1 “Celadon” and “Pheia” are the readings of the 
Homeric text {Ilmd 7 133) After the w^ords “beside the 
walls of Pheia” Homer adds the words “about the 
streams of lardanus.” 

® As often, Strabo means the mouths of the rivers. 


67 



STRABO 


T&v eTTTa nroXecov, S>v VTvia'X^ero AyafiefJLVcov 
’A%iXX€i 

Trdaai S' iyyv<f a\o 9 vearai llvXov rjfiadoevro^;, 

TOVTO yap Laov r& iyyv<: aXo9 ty]<; Ilv\La<;, 

23. 'E(f)€^7]<i S' ovv K.v7rapL(7(T7]evrL i^rl t7)v 
M. e<T(Tr}viaicr)v TlvXov irapairXeovri fcal to Koyou- 
(fidaiov Yj re ''Epavd ^ iartv, ijv rcve^ ovk eS 'ApTjvrjv 
vo/jbL^ovaLv K6/c\7)(x6ac irporepov ojjbcovvpco^i rfj 
TLyXca/cy, fcal r} dicpa ^ TVkarapi>d>Sir]<;, a<f)' iirl 
TO lS.opv<j)d(TLov /cal t^p vvp /caXov JjL€P 7 ]p TivXop 
k/caTOP ^ el(TL crraScoL. ecrri fie /cal prjcrtov ^ /cal 
ttoXLxvlop ip avT^ opidpvpLOP Tlpcor'^, ov/c av S’ 
i^Tjrd^ofxep t<TCiO<? cttI toctovtop to, iraXaid, dX)C 
rjpK€i Xeyeip a >9 vvv e/caara, el t49 ?jv €/c 
TraiScop rjfuv TrapaSeSopbipi] ^rjpirj Trepl tovtoov' 
aXXcov S' ctXXa elTroprcov, dvdy/crf Siairdp. 
Triarrevoprav S' a>9 eirl to ttoXv oi evSo^oTaToL tb 
/cal iTpea^vTaTOL koX /caT eiiireLpiav irpSyroL 

'OpL7]pov S’ eh TavTa VTrep^e/SXrjpipov irdpTa^ij 

0 349 dvdy/crj avveTTLa/coireiv /cal Ta vtt iKBiPov Xe^- 
dkvTa /cal (Tvy/cpovecp 7rp09 tcl vvPt /caOdirep Kal 
pLtKpop e/JLirpoadev €(j>apL€P. 

24 riept puep o^/v Tf)9 KotX979 ’'HXtSo9 /cal tov 
B ovTrpacrcov rd Xe^^evra vcf)' '0/M7jpov irpoe- 

^ ''Zpava, Xylander, tor*'%p€va, so the later editors 
* Kal ^ &Kpa, lacnna of about ten letters supplied by Gros- 
kurd , and so most later editors But Bkno have Icrn 5e Kal 

68 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 22-24 

which Agamemnon promised to Achilles: ^^and all 
are situated near the sea of sandy Pylus ” ; ^ for this 
phrase is equivalent to ^^near the Pylian Sea.” 

23 Be that as it may, next in order after sailing 
past Cypansseeis towards the Messenian Pylus and 
Coryphasium one comes to Eiaiia, which some 
wrongly think was in earhei times called Arene, 
by the same name as the Pylian Aren^, and also 
to Cape Platamodes, from which the distance to 
Coiyphasium and to what is now called Pylus is one 
bundled stadia Here, too, is a small island, Prote, 
and on it a town of the same name Perhaps I 
w^ould not be examining at such length things that 
are ancient, and would be content merely to tell 
in detail how things now are, if there were not 
connected with these matters legends that have 
been taught us from boyhood; and since different 
men say diffeient things, I must act as arbiter. In 
genet dl, it is the most famous, the oldest, and the 
most expel lenced men who aie believed, and since 
it is Homer who has surpassed all others in these 
respects, I must likewise both inquire into his woids 
and compare them with things as they now are, as 
I was saying a little while ago.^ 

24 . 1 have already ^ inquired into Homer’s words 
concerning Coele Elis and Buprasium. Concerning 

^ This line from the llmd (9. 153), though wrongly trans- 
lated above, is translated as Strabo interpreted it. He, like 
Aristarchus, took j/earat as a mrh meaning “are situated,” 
but as elsewhere m the livid {e,g 11 . 712) it is an adjective 
meaning “ last ” 
a 8. 3 3 » 8. 3. 8 

a ^iKotri is inserted by %oU 

^ Kal Ourtius, for iceyfipiop , so the editors. 

69 



STRABO 


rria-Keinai rjiuv. irepl Be vtto r& ’Niaropi, 
OVTCO (l>r)crLV* 

ot Be Ylvkov T ivifiovro kcCi ^A.priv'qv iparecvvfp 
Kal ®pvov, ^AX(^etolo Tvopov, fcat ivKTirov Alirv 
Kal KvTrapLacnjevra /cal *ApL<l>cyiv€iav evaiov 
Kal nreXeoz^ Kal koX AoapioVy ev9a re 

yiovaai 

avropbevai ®dpLvpiv top ^prjiKa iravaav dotBi]^, 
Oi')(a\lri6ev lovra irap^ ^vpvrov Ol')(a\Lrio^, 

IIvXo? piev o5p icTTL, irepl rj^ r) avriKa S* 

e7n(TK€:y^6pLe9a Trepl avT7]<$, irepl Be t/;? ^AprjVT}^ 
etp'i'jrat* fjp Be \eyec vvv ®pvoVt ev aWot<; Ka\el 
©pvoecTcrap' 

ecTTt Be Tt9 ©pyoeacra iroXt^i aiireia KoXcovrj, 
rrfKov eir ^AX<f>ei^* 

AXcpeiov TTOpov <^7}aiv, ore ire^y ireparo^ elvat 
BoKet Kara rourov rov tottov' KaXelrai Be vvp 
^^/TriraXiov, rfj^i Ma^^crria? ')(pi)piov* to evKTirov 
S’ Alirv evLoi fiev ^r^rovae irorepop Troreyoou iiriOe- 
rov, Kal ri^ 97 TroXt?, koX el ai pvv yiapyaXai^ 
T ?79 ^Api(f>tBoXla<;'^ avrae pev oiv ov <f)va‘iKop 
epvpua, erepov Be BeUvvrae (jivacKov ev rff Ma/ci- 
arta <5 piev ovv rovd^ vttopocov <f>pd^eadai ovopd 
(j)7}a-e 7roX6<w9 to AIttu drro rov <rvp^e/3r ) kotows 
^ j)V<TlK&<;, C 09 "^EXo 9 A:al AiyiaXov koX dXXa rrXeico' 
6 Be rrjv MapydXav rovpeiraXiv tcro)9, @pvop Be 

^ l^/lapydXai may be incorrectly spelled by the MSS. It 
seems to be the same place as Mapydyat m Diodorus Siculus 
15 77 and Mdpyaia in Stephanus Byzantmus. 

2 *Ajx(^i$Q\las, Tzschucke from conj, Wessehng, for 
iroxUs s so the_edxtors. 

70 



GEOGRAPHY, 8 3 24 

the country that was subject to Nestor, Homer 
speaks as follows* '^And those who dwelt in Pyhis 
and lovely Aren6 and Thryum, foi ding-place of the 
Alpheius, and well-built Aepy, and also those who 
were inhabitants of Cyparisseeis and Amphigeneia 
and Pteleus and Heliis and Donum, at which place 
the Muses met Thamyris the Thracian, and put a 
stop to his singing while he was on his way from 
Oechalia from Eurytus the Oechahan ” ^ It is 
Pylus, then, with which our investigation is con- 
cerned, and about it we shall make inquiry presently. 
About Aren6 I have already spoken ^ The city 
which the poet now calls Thryum he elsew^here 
calls Thryoessa "There is a certain city, Thry oessa, 
a steep hill, far away on the Alpheius '' ® He calls 
it " fording-phce of the Alpheius” because the 
river could be crossed on foot, as it seems, at this 
place But it is now^ called Epitalmm (a small place 
in Macistia) As for "well-built Aepy,” some raise 
the question which of the two words is the epithet 
and which is the city, and whether it is the Margalae 
of to-day, in Amphidolia Now Margalae is not a 
natural stronghold, but another place is pointed out 
which IS a natural stronghold, in Macistia The 
man, therefore, who suspects that the latter place 
is meant by Homer calls the name of the city 
" Aepy ^ from what is actually the case in nature 
(compare Helus,^ Aegialus,®and several other names 
of places) , whereas the man who suspects that 

Margala ” is meant does the reverse perhaps 

1 Jhad 2. 591 2 1 19 ^bove » Iliad 1 1. 711 

* Sheer,” steep ” ^ Marsh” ® ‘'Shore” 

^ That IS, calls it "Euctitum ” {" Welhbuilt ”), making the 
other word the epithet 


71 



STRABO 


Kal ®pv6e<r(jav to 'EtTriraXtov ^acriv on Tracra 
fiev avrrj rj %c6/)a OpvcoBrj^;, pbaXiara S’ ol TTOTapboL* 
iirl nXiop Be Btacpaiverac tovto fcarct tov <5 Trepa- 
Toi)9 Tov peidpov TOTTOU?. Td^ci Be (pacri %pvov 
p,ev etprjcrdac tov Tropov, evtcnrov o AIttv to 
^"E/mdXtov' ecTTL yap epvpLvov ^vaet* Kal yap ev 
dX\oL<s atireiav KoXcovrjv Xeyei' 

ean Be n<; ©pvoecrcra TroXt^, alireta koXcovt), 

TTjXov iir 'AX(j)€c&, TrvpidrT] UvXov '^pLadoevro^, 

25. 'O Se K.vjrapiaai^eif; icrrl puev irepl ty)v 
nrpoTepov ^ yiaKiaTiaVy 'qviKa Kal irepav t ^9 NeSa? 
en fjv yiaKiarTia^ dXX ovk olKelraij ce>9 ovBe to 
yiaKcarov* aXXr) S’ icyrlv rj M-ecrcrrivLafc^ KoTra- 
pcacTLa* 6pi(ovvpb(o<; ^ pLev ovv ® 6piOLco<i Be vvv KUKeCvr) 
Xeyerat KvTrapKTcria iviKm re Kal 9'ifXvKm, 6 Bh 
iTora/j>o<i KvirapcarcnjeL^;. Kal ^Apbcpoyiveia Be rrjg 
MaKiana^ ean rrepl tov ^Tyjroevra, ottov to Trj^ 
Ar)TOv^ lepov, to Be UreXedv KrCcrp^a fjiev yeyove 
T&v eK ITTeXeoi) too @6TTaXfc/foo eTroiK'qadvTcov* 
Xeyerai yap KcuKei' 

350 dy')(icCXov t ^Kvrp&va IBe IlTeXeoo Xe^^TToiyv* 

ean Be Syoo/AwSe? ')((i)piov doiKTjTOVy TlreXedaiov^ 
KaXovpevov, '^'EXo? o ol fiev irepl tov ^AX(f>€i6v 
X<iipav nvd (j)aacv, ol Be Kal iroXiv, dt>^ t^v Aa/cw- 

VIK^V 

'^EXo9 t’, €(j)aXov iTToXtedpov* 

^ irporepav (Acghino) ^ Sfxt&pv/ios B , so Meineke, 

® odv IS doubtful (see Mtller, Ind Far. Led , p 992). 
Meineke reads oh. 

* UreXedo'ioVf Memeke, for UTeKedcrijuay , so the later 
editors, 

72 



GEOGRAPHY, 8 3 24-25 

Thryum/ or Thiyoessa, they say, is Epitalium, be- 
cause the whole of this country is full of rushes, 
particularly the rivers; and this is still more con- 
spicuous at the fordable places of the stream But 
perhaps, they say, Homer called the ford ^^Thryum ” 
and called Epitalium %vell-built Aepy'*, for Epi- 
talium IS fortified by nature And in fact he speaks 
of a steep hill” in other places: There is a 
certain city, Thryoessa, a steep hill, far away on the 
Alpheius, last city of sandy Pylus ” ^ 

25 Cyparisseeis is in the neigh bomhood of the 
Macistia of eailiei times (when Macistia still ex- 
tended across the Neda), but it is no longer inhabited, 
as IS also the case with Macistum But there is 
another, the Messenian Cypanssia, it, too, is now 
called by the same name as the Macistian and in 
like manner, namely, Cypanssia, in the singular 
number and 111 the feminine gender,® whereas only 
the rivei is now called Cyparisseeis And Amphi- 
geneia, also, is in Macistia, in the neighbouihood 
of the Hypsoeis River, wheie is the temple of Leto, 
Pteleum was a settlement of the colony from the 
Thessalian Pteleum, for, as Homer tells us, there 
was a Pteleum in Thessaly too: ^^and Antrum, 
near the sea, and grassy Pteleum”;^ but now it 
IS a woody, uninhabited place, and is called 
Pteleasium As for Helus, some call it a territory 
in the neighbourhood of the Alpheius, while others 
go on to call it a city, as they do the Laconian 
Helus ^^and Helus, a city near the sea” but 

1 “Rush” 2 jiiad 11 711 

® That IS, not Cypaiissiae (plural), or Cyparisseeis 
(masculine) 

* Iliad 2. 697. ® Iliad 2. 584, 


73 



STRABO 


ot Se irepl to *A\dopiov 0X09, ov to ^EXeCa^; ^ 
’A/)T6ytttSo9 lepov, rrj^ viro to?9 ^ A picdaiv' iKoivoi 
yctp ecrxov rrjv Upcocrifvrjv Acopcov S* ot ptev 6 po<;^ 
ot Se Trehiov ^ <f>aaiv' ovBev Be vvv BeiKwrat' o/ta)9 
S’ evtOL Tr)v vvv "'OXovpiv ^ ''OXovpav ev r® KaXov^ 
ptevtp AvX&vb T^9 yiecTCT'qvLa^ K€tpiev 7 )v Acoptov 
Xeyovo'tv, avTOV Be ttov /cal 37 Ol^aXia ecrriv 37 
TOO EvpvTOV, 17 vvv ^AvBavta, TroXt^i^ioz/ ’Ap/ra- 
Bi/c 6 vj optdyvvptov rco ©erraXt/c^ /cal Evl 3 ot/c&' 
odev (pTjcrlv 6 Trotijrrjf; €9 to Acopiov djit/coptevov 
©dptvptv Tov ®pa/ca vtto M.ovcr&v d(f>aiped'^vat 
rfjv ptov(Tt/ci]v. 

26, ’E/c Bt) TOVTcov BrjXoVj 0)9 €(j>^ e/cdrepa tov 
'AX(j)€LOv rj VTTO 'Nea-TOpt %w/oa icTTiv^ fjv Traaav 
ovoptd^ei IlvXtcov y^v ovBaptov Be 6 *AX<f>eio 9 
ovT€ T379 MeacT^vta^ i<j>d 7 rT€Tat ovTe T979 KoCXt}^ 
’'HXiSo9. iv TavTp yap Trj xdopa e<JTiv 37 iraTpl^ 
TOV NecrT0/?09, 7 )v (paptev Tpi(f)vXia/c 6 v IlvXov /cal 
^ A p/caBt/cov /cal Aeirpeari/cov, /cal yap Brj at pev 
dXXot TivXoi iirl daXaTT/j Bet/cvovrai, ovto^ Be 
TrXeiov^ rj Tptd/covTa cTTaBiov^ virep avTrf^^ oirep 
/cal €/c TO)v iir^v BfjXov. iirt Te yap tou 9 T 7 ;X€- 
pd^ov eTatpov^ dyyeXo<i irepireTai irpo^ to ttXoIov^ 
tcaX&v eirl ^evtav, 0 Te l^ifKipaxo^ /caTcb t^v i/c 
X'TrdpTr}^ iirdvoBov tov TletataTparov ov/c ea iTpo<i 
TT^v TToXtv eXavvetVy dXXd irapaTpeyfravTa iirl 
T 7 }V^ vavv cnrevBeiv, 0)9 ov ttjv avT/iV oBaav iirl 

^ *E\elo55, Oorais, for ’HAe(as , so the later editors. 

® After 'ir€Uoy, Memeke unwarrantedly inserts ot Sc iro- 
aISwv. 

74 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 25-26 

others call it a marshA the marsh in the neighbour- 
hood of Alorium, where is the temple of the Heleian 
Artemis, whose worship was under the management 
of the Arcadians, for this people had the priesthood. 
As for Donum, some call it a mountain, while others 
call it a plain, but nothing is now to be seen ; and 
yet by some the Aluris of to-day, or Alura, situated 
in what is called the Aulon of Messema, is called 
Donum And somewheie in this region is also the 
Oechalia of Eurytus (the Andania of to-day, a small 
Arcadian town, with the same name as the towns in 
Thessaly and Euboea), whence, according to the 
poet, Thamyns the Thracian came to Donum and 
was deprived of the art of singing. 

26 From these facts, then, it is clear that the 
country subject to Nestor, all of which the poet 
calls ^Mand of the Pylians,” extends on each side 
of the Alpheius ; but the Alpheius nowhere touches 
either Messema or Coele Elis. For the fatherland 
of Nestor is in this country which we call Triphylian, 
or Arcadian, or Leprean, Pylus And the truth is 
that, wheieas the other places called Pylus are to be 
seen on the sea, this Pylus is more than thirty stadia 
above the sea — a fact that is also clear from the 
verses of Homer, for, in the first place, a messenger 
is sent to the boat after the companions of Tele- 
machus to invite them to an entertainment, and, 
secondly, Telemachus on his return from Sparta 
does not permit Peisistratus to drive to the city, 
but urges him to turn aside towards the ship, know- 
ing that the road towards the city is not the same 

^ “ Helus means “ marsh.” 


® before voKtUf the editors insert. 


7 S 



STRABO 


rrjv itoXlv /cal rov opfiov. o re aTroTrXoi'? rov 
T!rfKefMd')(pv o{/TCt)9 dv ol/ceLoa^ Xe^oiro* 

pav Se rrapa 'K.povvovf; /cal XaX/^tSa koXKi- 
peeSpov, 

Bvcrero ^ r ^eXWy a/ciocovro re rrdcrat ayviaL' 
r) Be eTre^aXkepy dyaWojievT] Azo 9 ovp/p. 
Trap’ Siavy oOl /cpareovaiv ’ETretot. 

fJie'X^pt pev Bt) Bevpo Trpo9 rrjv dp/crov 6 7^\ov<^' 
evrevdev K eirl to 7rpo9 ea> pepo^ emcrrpec^ei, 
TTapir^cn Be rov evdi/v ttXovv rj vav^ /cal rov 
dp')(fj<; €69 ^IdoLKrjv Bed to toi'9 pvrjarijpa^ ifcet 
rfjv eveBpav OecrOat 

iv rrop6p^ ’Wd/erj^ re Xdpoeo re* 

ev9ev S’ at/ vqaoecriv erTLirpoerj/ce Oopcrc* 

C 351 9od^ Be etprj/ce rd^ o^eia<;* r&v 'EiX^vdBodv S’ eialv 
at/raiy 7r\7jcnd^ovcrai rfj dpxv tov KopivOiaKOv 
/coXiTOV /cal rah i/c^oXah rov \Xx^Xcpov, rta- 
paXXd^a^ Se rrjv ^Idd/crjVy d/are /card vorov ^ 
ryevecrdacy Kaprrrec rrdXtv 7rpo9 rov ol/ceiov Bpopov 
rov pera^v rf}<i ^A/capvavia<; /cal rrj<i ’WaA;»;9, /cal 
/card ddrepa peprj rrj^ v/jerov rroulrab rrjv /cara- 
(yco^rjVy ov Kard rov iropdpov rov Ke(f>aXXr}via/c6vy 
ov e^povpovv oi pvT^crrrjpe^;. 

27. EZ ^ovv ® rov ^^Xia/cov ^ elvai ri^ rov 

^ 5 t 5 eT 0 {AgMno ) , so Meineke. 

^ p 6 rovy the reading of the MSS , Jones restores , Corais 
and the later editors emend to v(£>rov. 

9 eJr’ olv (Acg}l%nQ)y for el yovv 

* ^B.K^im 6 v (B?). 


76 


^ A spring ( 8 . 3 . 13 ), 



GEOGRAPHY, 8 3. 26-27 

as that towards the place of anchorage And thus 
the return voyage of Telemachus might be spoken 
of appropi lately in these words: ^^And they went 
past Cruni^ and fair-flowing Chalcis.^ And the sun 
set and all the ways grew dark; and the ship, 
rejoicing in the breeze of Zeus, drew near to Phea, 
and on past goodly Elis, wheie the Epeians hold 
sway.’' 2 Thus fai, then, the voyage is tow^ards the 
north, but thence it bends in the direction of the 
east That is, the ship abandons the voyage that 
was set out upon at first and that led straight to 
Ithaca, because there the wooers had set the am- 
bush ^^in the stiait between Ithaca and rugged 
Samos’’^ ^^And thence again he steeied for the 
islands that are thoar',^ but by ^^thoai" the poet 
means the islands that are pointed " ® These 
belong to the Echmades group and are near the 
beginning of the Corinthian Gulf and the outlets 
of the Achelous Again, after passing by Ithaca 
far enough to put it south of him, Telemachus 
turns lound towards the piopei course between 
Acarnania and Ithaca and makes his landing on the 
other side of the island — not at the Cepliallenian 
strait which was being guarded by the wooeis."^ 
27 . At any rate, if one should conceive the notion 

® ^^Ohalcis” was the name of both the “settlement’' 
(8. 3. 13 j and the river 
® Odyssey 15 295 * Odyssey 4 671. 

® Odyssey 15 299 

® Not “swift,” the usual meaning given to Boat, Thus 
Strabo connects the adjective with Book (see Odyssey 9 327) 

^ In this sentence Strabo seems to identify Homer's Ithaca 
with what we now call Ithaca, or Tliiaka ; but in 1 2 20 
(see footnote 2), 1 2. 28, and 10. 2. 12 he seems to identify 
it with Leucas. 


77 



STRABO 


NecrT0/)09 i 7 nvo')](r€L 6 Vf ovfc av oIk€Lco<; Xtyoiro r) 
ivrevOev ava^delaa vav<i Trapa Kpovvov^ 
drjvai Kal XaXKiSa P'^xpi' Bv(T€co^^ elra $ea?9 
eTTi/SdXXeiv ^ vv/crcop^ Kal Tore Tr)V ^RXdav Trapa- 
TrXelv* ovTOi ycbp ol tottoi Trpo^ vorov tt}? ’HXeta? 
elai, TTp&Tac puev al 4 >eat, eW' 7) X.aXKL<;j eW' ol 
Kpovvobj eW' 6 Tl 1 vXo<; 6 T pL<pvXiaKO<i Kal to 

^apLlKOV, T<W pi€V OVV TTpO^i VOTOV TrXeOVTL eK TOV 

^HXiaKov UvXov oSro? av 6 ttXov^; €L 7 } t^ Se 
7 r /?09 apKTOVj OTTOV iarlv r) ^WaKr}, ravra ptev 
Trdvra ott'ktco XeLireTai, avrrj S’ 77 ’HXeta Trapa- 
7 rXev(TTea rjv, Kal irpo hvaeda^ 76* 0 Si (j^rjac pera 
Svatv. Kal pL^v el Kal rraXiv virodoiro Ti 9 top 
’Meo’arjvtaKOV TlvXov xal to Kopv(f)da-Lov dpx^v 
TOV Trapa NeVro/oo? ttXoO, ttoXv hv elrj to Sid- 
aT 7 )pa Kal TrXeiovo^;^ avro yovp to ini 

TOP TpL(f>vXiaK 6 v TLvXov Kal to XapciaKOP Uoael- 
Stop T€TpaKO<ria>v icrrl CTaSitov' Kal 0 TtapdTrXov^ 
ov^ napd Kpovvov<: Kal XaXKbSa Kal ^edv, 
dSo^cop^ TTOTap&p opopuaray pudXXop Be o^erSz^, 
aXXa Trapa t^p NiSap TrpcoTOPy elr ^AKiBcopa, 
elra top ^AX<p€iov Kal T 07 rou 9 tovtcdp tov? pera^v* 
vcrrepop S’, el dpa, KaKeiPcov ixPV^ pvrjcrOrjpat* 
Kal jdp nap^ eKeivoL^ vn^px^v 0 nXov^, 

28 Kal prjp ^ ye TOV Ne<7T0p09 SLrjyi'jo’L^, yp 
BiarlderaL 7r/?o9 UaTpoKXop nepl tov yevopivov 
T049 IIvXloi<? Trpo<; ’HXe60V9 TroXipoVy (TVvr)yopel 
Tol<i v<j> rjpwp inix^f'povpipoL^iy idp ctkott^ rt^ 
Th €Tr7). ^Tjal yap ip avT069, ort^ nop0rj<TaPTO<i 

^ iin^aX^Lv (BJcl) ; SO the editors before Kramer. 

^ vkdopos (B^^) for TThiovos* 

® ov, before vapdy the editors insert 


78 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 27-28 

that the Eleian Pylus is the Pylus of Nestor, the 
poet could not appropi lately say that the ship, after 
putting to sea fiom there, was earned past Cruni and 
Chalcis before sunset, then drew near to Phea by 
night, and then sailed past Eleia ; for these places 
are to the south of Eleia : first, Phea, then Chalcis, 
then Cl uni, and then the Tiiphylian Pylus and 
Samicum This, then, would be the voyage for one 
who is sailing towards the south from Eleian Pylus, 
whereas one who is sailing towaids the north, where 
Ithaca IS, leaves all these paits behind him, and also 
must sail past Eleia itself — and that before sunset, 
though the poet says after sunset And furthei, if 
one should go on to make a second supposition, that 
the Messeman Pylus and Coryphasium are the 
beginning of the voyage from Nestor’s, the distance 
would be considerable and would require more time . 
At any rate, merely the distance to Triphylian Pylus 
and the Samian Poseidium is four hundred staia ; 
and the first part of the coast mg- voyage is not 
^^past Crum and Chalcis” and Phea (names of 
obscure rivers, or rather creeks), but past the Neda ; 
then past the Acidon , and then past the Alpheius 
and the intervening places. And on this supposition 
those other places should have been mentioned later, 
for the voyage was indeed made past them too. 

28 . Furthermore, the detailed account which 
Nestor recites to Patroclus concerning the war that 
took place between the Pylians and the Eleians 
pleads for what I have been trying to prove, if one 
observes the verses of the poet For in them the 


* Before iroTa.ueov Corals inserts r6ir(t>v xai ; perhaps rightly 
® $ri (Achtno), for Sn 


79 



STRABO 


'H/oa/cXeov? rrjv UvkLav, &a'Te rrjv veorrjTa e/c- 

\ei(^drivaL TraaaVy SooSefca Se^ TraiBcov ovtcov 

fxovov avr& TrepiyeveadaL rov NetrTo/ja, 
veov r€\6co<?t /cara(l>pov)]aavre<? S’ oi ’ETretol tov 
N7;\€a)9 Bia yripa<; fcal iprjp^iav virepy^^dvoi^; koX 
v^picTTLfcm ixp&^'^o TOi 9 UvXiotf;, dvrl rovrcov 
odv 6 NecTTwp avvayayoyv Tot /9 oI/ceLov^, oaov^ 
0 I 69 T€ ?jp^ eTreXOeLv (j>r](7lv Sttl ttjv ^HXeiav, kuI 
TrepieXdaat TrapLTroXXrjv XeLav, 

irevTi^KOVTa /3oo)v dyeka^, roaa Trooea ol&v, 

Tocraa crv&v av^ocrta, 

Tocravra Be koX alTroXia' LTTTrovf; Be ^avdd<i e/carov 
/cal Trevrrf/CQVTa^ VTTOTrdiXovt; Td<; irXeicrra^. 

C 352 /cal rd piev fjXac-dpLeada TLvXov ((p'rjcrl) NrjXTjiov 

€t(TCi)j 

ivvvx^oi TTpOrl dcTTVy 

0)9 fied^ Tjpbepav peep t^9 XerjXaaia^ yevopbevqf; /cat 
rr }9 rpoTrij^ t&p eK^or^OrjadvreoVt ore Kraveiv Xeyec 
TOP iTvpbopea, pv/crcop Se d(f> 6 Bov yevopiepi')<;, 
&(JT ippu^eovs 7r/)09 dcrrec yeveaOar rrepl Be 
T 7 JP Biapopbrjp /cal Ovaiap ovroov, oi ^ETreiol rfj rpiry 
T&p '^pL€pd>p, /card ttX^Oo^ d0poia-9ePT€<; Tre^ol re 
/cal imree^, dvreTre^rjXOop /cal to @pvop irrl t& 
^AX(j) 6 t& /cetpeepop rrepceo-rparoTreBevaap. cdaQo- 
peePOL S’ evdvc; oi TLvXioi ^orjdelp copp^rjcrap* vvKre- 
pevaapre^ Be rrepl top M.ipv7]iop rrorapeop iyyvffep 
’Apt^i/ 779 , evrevdep epBioc rrpo^ top ^AX<p€L 0 P 

^ Se, Jones, for 5^ 


80 


1 lhad Ih 691 


2 Jhad 11. 670 




GEOGRAPHY, 8 3 28 

poet says that, since Heracles had ravaged the Pylian 
country to the extent that all the youth were 
slam ^ and that of all the twelve sons of Neleiis only 
Nestor, then in his earliest youth/ had been left,® and 
since the Epeians had conceived a contempt for 
Neleus because of his old age and lack of defenders^ 
they began to treat the Pylians in an arrogant and 
wanton manner. So, m return for this treatment, 
Nestor gathered together all he could of the people 
of his home-land, made an attack, he says, upon 
Eleia, and heided together very much booty, fifty 
herds of cattle, and as many flocks of sheep, and as 
many droves of swine,” ^ and also as many heids of 
goats, and one hundred and fifty son el mares, most 
of them with foals beneath them '‘And these,” he 
says, '‘we drove within Neleian Pylus, to the city, in 
the night,” ® meaning, first, that it was m the day- 
time that the driving away of the booty and the 
rout of those who came to the rescue took place 
(when he says he killed Itymoneus), and, secondly, 
that it was in the night-time that the return took 
place, so that it was night when they arrived at the 
city And while the Pylians weie busied with the 
distribution of the booty and with offering sacrifice, 
the Epeians, on the third day,® after assembling in 
numbers, both footmen and horsemen, came forth in 
their turn against the Pylians and encamped around 
Thryum, which is situated on the Alpheius River. 
And when the Pylians learned this, they forthwith 
set out to the rescue ; they passed the night in the 
neighbourhood of the Minyeius River near Aren^, 
and thence arrived at the Alpheius "in open sky,” 

3 lhadU e91. * lhadll, 678. 

^ lhad 11 . 682 . « Iliad 11 . 707 . 

8x 


VOL, IV 


0 



STRABO 


dcpCKVovvrai, tovto S’ icrrl fcard /jbearTjfi^piav* 
6v(ravre<; Se roi9 Oeolf; /cal pv/crepevaavre^^ im 

T& TTorafi^ avpL^dXXovcTLV et? evdv^ 

ecoOev* Xafnrpd<i Be ri}? rpoirq^ jevopevr]<ij ov/c 
eiravcravTO Bid>/covre<: re /cal Kreivovre^i, irplv 
BovirpaaCov enre^t^arav 

werprj^ r ^nXevir}^ /cal WkeiaLov evda /coXdprj 
/ci/cXrjraL, oOev avTL<i dTrerpaire Xaov 'AdTjvrj' 

/cal u7roy8tt9* 

avrdp ^Axo^col 

dyjr dTToBovTTpaa-LOioIlvXovS' e^ov oi/cea^ L7r7rov<;, 

29. ’E/t rovrcop ttw? dp ^ top ^HXtuKOv 
UvXop viToXd^oL ri9 ^ top MeacT^pia/cop XeyeorOai; 
TOP fiep ^HXiaKOPj on, tovtov rropOovpepov, awe- 
TTopdeljo /cal rj t&p ^Eirei^p viro tov 'Hpa/cXeou?’ 
avrr] S’ icrrlp rj ’HXeia. ttw? o^p '^pLeXXop oi 
<rvfi7r€7rop6r]fiepoi /cal ofMotpvXoi roiavrrjp vireprj^ 
<}>apiap /cal v/SpiP /cnjcraadat /card t&p a-vpaBi/crj- 
BepTcop ; 7r&}9 S’ dp r^p olxelap Karerpexov /cal 
iXerfXdrovp ; ttw? S’ dp dpa Kal Avyea^ VPX^ 
T&p avT&v /cal ^rfXev^, ix^pol opt€<^ dXXrjXcov ; 
etye t^ NTjXec 

XP^^o^ pW oipeiXeT^ ip ''HXlBl Blip, 

reaaape^ ddXocpopoi iinroi avrolaip ox^crfpiv, 
iXB6pT€<i p^T dedXa* rrepl rptTroSo? yap epeX~ 
Xop 

Bevaecrdab* tov 9 5 ’ avBi dva^ dvBp&p Avyeia^ 

Kaax^S^) TOP S’ iXaTTjp^ d^pLet* 

el S’ ipTavda <p/c€i 6 'i^'rjXev<;, ipravda /cal o 
S2 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 28-29 

that IS, at midday. And after they offered sacrifice 
to the gods and passed the night near the river, they 
joined battle at early dawn ; and after the rout took 
place, they did not stop pursuing and slaying the 
enemy until they set foot on Buprasmm and on the 
Olenian Rock and where is the place called Hill of 
Aleisium,^ whence Athene turned the people back 
again ”,2 ^nd a little fuither on the poet says : 

But the Achaeaiis di ove back their swift horses 
from Bupiasium to Pylus *’ ^ 

29 Fioin all this, then, how could one suppose 
that either the Eleian or Messenian Pylus is meant ^ 
Not the Eleian Pylus, because, if this Pylus was 
being ravaged by Heracles, the countiy of the 
Epeians was being ravaged by him at the same time ; 
but this is the Eleian country How, pray, could 
a people whose country had been ravaged at 
the same time and weie of the same stock, have 
acquiied such arrogance and wantonness towards a 
people who had been wronged at the same time ? 
And how could they overrun and plunder their 
own homeland ? And how could both Augeas and 
Neleus be rulers of the same people at the same 
time if they w-eie personal enemies ? If to Neleus 
great debt was owing in goodly Elis. Four 
hoises, prize-winners, with their chariots, had come 
to wm prizes and were to run for a tripod ; but these 
Augeas, loid of men, detained there, though he sent 
away the diiver.” ^ And if this is where Neleus 

1 Cp 8, 3 10 2 Jhad 11. 757 

» lhadll.im. ^ Iliad Ihm 



STRABO 


Ne^TTG)/} V7r^p')(e?- ttS? ovv t&v [xev 'HXeLcov /cal 
Bov7rpa<7L(ov 

recrtrape^ apxol ecraVs he/ca S’ avhpl e/cdcncp 

V7]€9 eTTOVTo OouC, TToXec? S’ epb^aivov ’ETreior 

6i9 rerrapa Be /cal f) %ct)pa Biyjprjro, &v ovBevo^ 
iiTTjpxep 6 TSlearoyp, 

ot Be Uvkov t’ evepLOVTO /cal *Ap)jvr)v ipareivrjv 

/cal ra e^7j<; rd p^expL yieacnfjvr}'^ ; ol Be Brj 
dvTe7re^i6vTe<; ’ETrciol to ?9 IIi;Xtoi9 '/rm iirl rov 
^A\(j>6iov e^oppb&crc /cal to ®pvov ; ir&^ S’, eKel 
t?59 fiax'^^'^y^POpLevT}^, Tpe<j)0evr€<} irrl BovirpaaLov 
C 353 (pevyovat ; ttoXiv S’, el top MecraTjvia/cbp IlyXoi/ 
eTropdrjaev 6 'Hpa/cXrjt;, 7rG)9 ol toctovtop dcj^e- 
(TTcoTe^ vjSpt^op eh avTov<;, /cal ip o’Vfi/3oXaloi<i 
^aap TToXXoi^, /cal TavT direaTepovv 
7rovPT€<s, SoTTe Bid ravTa crvyi^r\vai top TtoXepiOP ; 
7r(59 Se eTTi ttjp XerfXacrlap i^icov NeaTcop, Toaav- 
Trjp TrepieXdcra^ Xeiav crv&p re /cal irpo^drcop, 
&p ovBev cdKViropeip ovBe p.a/cp07ropetp BvpaTai, 
irXeLOPcov ^ %fXtci>z; aTaBlcov oBop Bcrjpvaep eh ttjp 
7r/309 T« Kopv(f)a(rLq) TlIvXop ; oi Be Tp'iTcp ijpaTi 
TrdpTe<; irrl Typ ©pvoearaap Kal top TCOTapop top 
^AX( j)€ibp 7]/covcri, TroXiop/cyaopTe^ to <f>povpLOP* 
7reS9 Se raOra ra %C!))Ota TrpoaTj/copTa rjp Toh ip 
TT} yieorarjpLa BwacTTevovaip, ixoPTCov Kav/ccopcop 
Kal TpKpvXCcop Kal UicraT&p ; Ta Be Teprjva ^ 
TTJP Vep7}pLap {dpu^OTipm^ yap XeyeTa/) Tdx<^ pi'bv 
iTrhrjBe^ mpopiaadv Tive^* BvpaTai Be Kal KaTa 

^ Corais emends to inrjpxe ; so Meineke. 

84 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 29 

lived, Nestor too must have lived there How, 
pray, could the poet say of the Eleians and the 
Buprasians, there were four rulers of them, and ten 
swift ships followed each man, and many Epeians 
embarked ” ? ^ And the country, too, was divided into 
four parts ; yet Nestor ruled over no one of these, 
but over them that dwelt in Pylus and in lovely 
Aren^/’ 2 the places that come after these as 

far as Messene. Again, how could the Epeians, who 
in their turn went forth to attack the Pylians, set out 
for the Alpheius and Thryum ^ And how, after the 
battle took place, after they were routed, could they 
flee towards Buprasium ? And again, if it was the 
Messenian Pylus which Heracles had ravaged, how 
could a people so far distant as the Epeians act 
wantonly towaids them, and how could the Epeians 
have been involved in numerous contracts with them 
and have defaulted these by cancelling them, so that 
the war resulted on that account^ And how could 
Nestor, when he w^ent forth to plunder the country, 
when he herded together booty consisting of both 
swune and cattle, none of which could travel fast or 
far, have accomplished a journey of more than one 
thousand stadia to that Pylus which is near Corypha- 
sium? Yet on the third day they all® came to 
Thryoessa and the River Alpheius to besiege the 
stronghold ! And how could these places belong to 
those who were m power in Messenia, when they 
were held by Cauconians and Triphylians and Pisa- 
tans ? And as for Gerena, or Gerenia (for the word 
is spelled both ways), perhaps some people named it 
that to suit a purpose, though it is also possible that 

1 lhad2 618 ® Iliad 2, 591, 

® The Epeians. 


85 



STRABO 


TV)(p]v ovTco^ (hvofjbdcrffai to 'X^ayplov* to S’ oXoz/, 
T?)? Me<Tcrrivia<; virb Mevekd^ Teray/jbivrj^, v<f>* S 
real 7) AaKcovifCT) irerafcro (co? BfjXov ecrrai /cal 
ifc T&v verrepov), /cal rov piev TJapiaov piovrof; 
Std ravrr}^ Kal rov NeScoz^o?,^ ^AX(j>6tov 8’ 

ovBafjb&^j 

09 t’ €vpv piet UvXLCdv Bca yaCrj^Sy 

^9 iTrrip')(ev 6 Neerreop, Tt9 dv yevoiro 'n‘tOavo<; 
Xoyo9, 6^9 rrjv oXXorptav dpXW if^^('/3d^cov tov 
avBpUy d<paLpovpL€po<i Be rd<^ avy/caraXeyeicra^ 
avT^ TToXei^, irdvd^ i/tt’ i/ceivm ttol&v ; 

30, Aolttov S* earlv eiirelv rrepl t??9 ^OXypuiria^ 
/cal Trj<^ eh rov 9 ^HXelov^ dirdvrccv perairrcocreGi^, 
eari 8’ ev rfj Hio-dTcBi to lepov, crraBiov^ rPj^ 
’'HXt8o9 iXaTTOVf; rj rpiafcoaCov^ Biixov* irpo/cei- 
rat 8’ aXo'09 dypieXamVy iv ^ to ardSLov, 
irapappel 8’ o 'AX<f>ei6<;y i/e t^9 ^Ap/caBia<; picov 
eh rrjv TpapvXta/cijv BdXarrav puera^v Bvaeto^ 
Kal pear}p^pLa^, rrjv 8 ’ e7ri<j)dvecav eax^P 
dpxfl^ yL6ez^ Bed TO fiavrelov rov ^OXvpeTrLov Ator 
eKeLvov 8 ’ eKXee(j>devro<i, ovBev ^rrov crvvepieivev 
Tj So^a rov iepov, Kal r^v av^Tjertv, oar)V eerpev, 
eXa^e Bid re rrjv rravijyvpiv Kal rov dy&va rov 
^OXvpnriaKOVy crrecpavirrjv re Kal iepov vopiicrdevra 
r&v irdvrmv. eKoapi'^drj 8’ e/c toO rrXrjOovf; r&v 
dvaJdrjpidrcoVy direp tK rrdarj^ dveridero rrj^ 
'EX\aSo9* &v ^v Kal 6 cr(^vprjXaro^ 

^ Casaubon, for MeSwj/os ; so the later editors 

^ See 8. a 7. 

® In the Homeric Catalogue, Strabo means. See 8 5 8, 
and the Ihad 2 581-586. 

86 



GEOGRAPHY, 8 3 29-30 

the place was by chance so named. ^ And, m geneial, 
since Messema was classified 2 to Menelaus, 

as was also the Laconian countiy (as will be clear 
fiom what I shall say latei),® and since the Pamisus 
and the Nedon flow through Messema, whereas the 
Alpheius nowhere touches it (the Alpheius ^^that 
floweth in broad stream through the land of the 
Pyhans,” ^ over which Nestor 1 uled), what plausibility 
could there be m an account wdnch lands Nestor in 
a foreign realm and robs him of the cities that are 
attributed to him in the Catalogne^^ and thus makes 
everything subject to Menelaus ^ 

30. It lemains for me to tell about Olympia, and 
how eveiything fell into the hands of the Eleians. 
The temple is m Pisatis, less than thiee hundred 
stadia distant fiom Elis In front of the temple is 
situated a grove of wild olive-trees, and the stadium 
is in this grove. Past the temple flows the Alpheius, 
which, rising in Aicadia, flows between the west and 
the south into the Triphylian Sea At the outset 
the temple got fame on account of the oracle of the 
Olympian Zeus , and yet, after the oracle failed to 
respond, the glory of tlie temple persisted none the 
less, and it received all that increase of fame of 
which we know, on account both of the festal 
assembly and of the Olympian Games, in which the 
prize was a crown and which were regarded as sacied, 
the greatest games in the world. The temple was 
adorned by its numerous ofFeiings, which were 
dedicated there from all parts of Greece Among 
these was the Zeus of beaten gold dedicated by 

? 8. 5. 8. * llmd 5. 545 

® Iliad a 591-602. 


87 



STRABO 


Zev^, avdffr^fjia KvylriXov, rov Kopcvdlcov rvpdv- 
vov. fiiyccrrov Be tovtcov VTrrjp^e to tov Aib<; 
^oavov, h eiroiei ^eiBlaf; XapfiiBov ^Adr]vato<; 
iXe(f>dpTcvoVt rrjXLKOvrov to fiiyedo^s <w9j Kaiirep 
jjb&yidTQV 8vto^ tov ved>, Boicecv darTOX^<^^f> 
crvfxiJLeTpia^ tov TexviTrjv, fcaOrjinevov noLTja-avTa, 
aTTTOfievov Be crx^Bdv tl tt} Kopvcf>7j opo^ris:^ 
&(JT ejx<f)aaLV Troieiv, edv 6pdo<s yevrjTat Bca^- 
364 vacrra?, aTToaTeydceiv tov vecov, dvey payday Be 
Tiv€<; TCL peTpa tov ^odvov, /cal KaXXt|Cta%09 iv 
Idpbpfp TLvl e^eLTre, TroXXd Be (Twir/rpa^e 
^eiBia Hdvatvo^ 6 ^coypdcpo^f dSeX<f>iSov<; &v 
avTov Kal avvepyoXd^o^, 7 rpo 9^ ttjv tov ^odvov 
Bid T&v XP^f^dToov /c6<rfir}(riVt /cal pidXiaTa Trj^ 
icrd^To^, Bei/cvvvTai Be /cal ypa<pal TroXXau re 
/cal davpiatTTal irepl to iepov^ i/ceivov epya. 
dirofjivrjpiovevovcn Be tov ^eiBiov, Blotl rrpo^ tov 
Yldvaivov eiTre TrvvOavofievoVj 7rpo9 tI TrapdBetyfjia 
peXXoi TToi'^creiv T7]v ei/cova tov Aio^, oti irpofs 
Trjv ^OfJiripov Bi iiTcdv e/cTeOelaav tovtcov* 

/cal Kvaverjciv err ocjypvcri vevcre Kpovicov* 
dfi^poaiai 8’ apa x^diTai eTreppdxravTO dva/cTO^ 
/cpaTQ^ dir ddavaToio, fikyav S’ iXiXi^ev 
^'OXvpLTrov. 

elpTjcrdai ydp piaXa So/ceo /caXw, e/c ts t&v aXXcov 
Kal T&v d<l>pv(ov, oTi irpOKaXeiTai t^v Bidvoiav 6 
TroiriTrj<i dva^a>ypa<j>eiv fxiyav Tivd tvttqv Kal 
/MeydXrjv Bwa/iiv d^iav tov Ai09, /c/aOdTrep Kal 
88 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 30 

Cypselus the tyrant of Corinth. But the greatest 
of these was the image of Zeus made by Pheidias 
of Athens, son of Charmides ; it was made of 
ivory, and it was so large that, although the 
temple was very large, the aitist is thought to have 
missed the proper symmetry, for he showed Zeus 
seated but almost touching the roof with his head, 
thus making the impression that if Zeus arose and 
stood erect he would unroof the temple Certain 
writers have recorded the measurements of the 
image, and Callimachus has set them forth in an 
iambic poem Panaenus the painter, who was the 
nephew and collaborator of Pheidias, helped him 
greatly in decorating the image, particularly the 
garments, with colours And many wonderful 
paintings, works of Panaenus, are also to be seen 
round the temple It is related of Pheidias that, when 
Panaenus asked him after what model he was going to 
make the likeness of Zeus, he replied that he was 
going to make it after the likeness set foith by 
Homer in these words . Cromon spake, and nodded 
assent with his dark brows, and then the ambrosial 
locks flowed sti earning from the lord s immortal head, 
and he caused great Olympus to quake.” ^ A noble 
desciiption indeed, as appears not only from the 
brows ” but from the other details in the passage, 
because the poet provokes our imagination to con- 
ceive the picture of a mighty personage and a 
mighty power worthy of a Zeus, just as he does in the 

1 Ihad 1. 528 


^ before Corais omits. 


89 



STRABO 


irrrl ^^Hpa<5, afia (j^uXarrcov to i/careptp 

TTpSTTOV* 6(f) 7) fX6V ^dp} 

creLcraTO ^ S’ elvl dp6v(p, iXeXc^e Se jjbafcpov 
''OXvfMTTOV. 

TO S’ in iic6ivri^ crvfi^dv oXtj KmjdsLcT'p, rovr 
ini Tov Alo<? dnavTrj(Tai raZ? o^pvat jjLovov 
v6vaavTO<^y crvfJLnadovcrr}^; Se ri koX TTj^ /cojjLrj^;' 
fcopL'yfr&f; S’ 6Lpr)Tai /cal to 6 ra? tcov Qe&v €ifc6va<; 
Y! fx6vo<; ihibv ^ povo^ heL^a<;.^ d^iot Se paXicTTa 
Tr)V aWLav €)^€LV T 979 nepl to ^OXvpunLacnv iepov 
pLsyaXon penela^; re teal Tipbrj^ ^HXelot, icaTh pev 
yap TCb Tpcoi/cd fcal 6 tl npb TOifTcov ovk rjvTvxovv, 
vno re t&p IlvXCcov TaneivoodivTS^ fcal v(f>^ 
^HpafcXeovt; vaTepov^ i)viKa Av^ea? 0 /SacriXevcop 
avT&v /caTeXvdr], arfpelov Se* eU yap ttjp Tpoiav 
ifcecvoi pev T6TTapdfcovTa vav^ e(JT6iXav, HvXiol 
Se KoX Neerreo/D ivevrjKOVTa, verTepov Se, peTa 
TTfv T&v ^Hpa/cXeiS&p Ara^oSoi', avveffr} TavavTia, 
AItcoXoI yhp cvyKaTeXOovTe^s rot? ^Yipa/cXeihai^ 
peTCb ^O^vXov real avvoiKi^aavTS^ ’ETre^oi? Arara 
avyyiveiav naXaiav r)v^7]aap Trjv KoLXr]v 
Kul T7]<; T6 Uta’aTtSo^ dcpetXovTO noXXtjVy fcal 
^OXvpnLa vn^ itceLvois iyivBTO* xal Brj fcal 6 
dyoDV evpepd iariv iKeivcov 6 ^OXvpniaKo^, fcal 
ra? 'OXvpnidSas ra^ npdi>Ta<; ifcelvot (xvveTeXovp. 
idaai yap Set ra naXaia koX nepl t ^9 fCTLo-eax; 

C 355 TOV iepov /cal nepl ^€crew9 tov dy&vos, t&v 

^ e<^77 fjL€P ydp, Meineke, for ^<f>rf jnev ydp <p't](n (Acght), 
^(pfiydp (Elk), <i>7j<rl ydp {no). 

2 Q-eicraroj Ejpitome and man sec A, for etVaro; so the 
editors. 

90 



GEOGRAPHY, 8 3. 30 

case of Hera, at the same time preserving what is 
appropriate in each, for of Hena he says, "^^she 
shook herself upon the throne, and caused lofty 
Olympus to quake/’ ^ What in her case occurred 
when she moved her whole body, resulted in the 
case of Zeus when he meiely ^‘nodded with his 
brows,” although his hair too was somewhat affected 
at the same tune This, too, is a graceful saying 
about the poet, that he alone has seen, or 
else he alone has shoivn, the likenesses of the 
gods ” The Eleians above all others are to be 
credited both with the magnificence of the temple 
and with the honour in which it was held In the 
times of the Trojan wai, it is true, or even before 
those times, they weie not a prosperous people, 
since they had been humbled by the Pylians, and 
also, later on, by Heracles when Augeas their king 
was overthrown The evidence is this * The Eleians 
sent only forty ships to Tioy, whereas the Pylians 
and Nestor sent ninety. But later on, after the 
return of the Heiacleidae, the contrary was the 
case, for the Aetolians, having returned with the 
Heracleidae under the leadership of Oxylus, and on 
the strength of ancient kinship having taken up their 
abode with the Epeians, enlarged Coel^ Elis, and 
not only seized much of Pisatis but also got Olympia 
under their power What is more, the Olympian 
Games are an invention of theirs ; and it was they 
who celebrated the first Olympiads, for one should 
disregard the ancient stories both of the founding of 
the temple and of the establishment of the games — 

1 Biad 8 199. 


® €lpri(r$at 
Meiueke ejects- 


Kramer and later editors suspect ; 

91 



STRABO 


fih ha Tcov 'ISaitov AaKTvXcov ^H.paK\ia XeyoPTcov 
ap)(r)yiTrjv tovtcov, t&v Se top ^AXfc/MijvTjs /cal 
Ai6<;, OP /cal ajcopLaaadaL Trp&rov Kal Pi/C7]<rar 
rh yctp TOiavra TVoXka'XjSy^ Xeyerai, koX ov irdw 
TnareveraL* iyyvripo) Be 7rLa‘T6co<;, otl 
T^9 hrrjfs /cal el/coaTrj<; ^OXopiridBo^ diro t^9 
7r/3C0T?79, ip V Ko/}Oi^09 ivL/ca (TTaBiov ’HX.6409, 
T^v TT poo-raaLav elxov rov re iepov /cal rod 
dyS>PO^ ^HXeloi. /card Be rd Tpcoi/cd rj ov/c fjp 
dyQ>v aT€ff>apLT7](; 4) ov/c evBo^o^, ov0* o5to9 ovt 
aXKo^ ovBeh t&p pvv epBo^cov' ovre^ pepvrjrai 
Tovrcop ^'Opr}po<; ovBev6<;, dXV erepa/v tlvcov eVt- 
Ta(f>iG)v, Kairoi Bo/cel Tial rov ^OXvpTTca/cov 
peppYjo-daLi orap top Avy eap aTroarepy^aai 
recraapa^ dOXo(p6pov^ Xinrov^^ iXOovras per 
deOXa* ^aa-l Bk tou9 Ilio-dTa<; prj peraax^h tov 
U pm/cov TToXepoVy lepov^ vopi(T0evTa<; 'rov Ato?. 
dXX^ ovd' 7} Utadrc^ vtto Avyea rod^ VTrrjpx^J^i 
iv y icrrl /cal y ^OXypirLa, dXX^ t) ^HXeCa povop* 
OVT iv ’HXeta crvveTeXea-Ori o ^ OXv p7na/co<; dydv 
ovS aira^j dXX^ del iv ^OXvpiria, 6 Be pvv 
TrapareOeh iv "^HXcBc (j)aCp€Tai yevopevo^^ iv y 
Kal TO %/)609 axpelXero’ 

Kal yap t& xpelo^ ^ b(^eL\eT iv '^HXlBc BLy^ 

reacrape^ ddXocpopot lttttoc, 

Kal o 5 to 9 piv ov a‘T€(j>apiTy^ {wepl T/otVoSo9 yap 

^ oHre, Meineke emends to obBL 

® Corais and Meineke insert /i4y after xp^Tos. 


92 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 30 

some alleging that it was Heracles, one of the 
Idaean Dactyli,^ who was the oiiginator of both^ and 
others, that it was Heracles the son of Alcmen^ and 
Zeus, who also was the first to contend in the games 
and win the victory, for such stories are told in 
many ways, and not much faith is to be put in them. 
It IS nearer the truth to say that fioni the first 
Olympiad, m which the Eleian Corebus won the 
stadium-race, until the twenty-sixth Olympiad, the 
Eleians had charge both of the temple and of 
the games But m the times of the Trojan War, 
either there were no games in which the prize was 
a crown or else they weie not famous, neither the 
Olympian nor any other of those that are now 
famous 2 In the fiist place, Homer does not mention 
any of these, though he mentions another kind — 
funeral games ^ And yet some think that he 
mentions the Olympian Games when he says that 
Augeas depiived the driver of "four horses, pi*ize- 
wmners, that had come to win prizes.”^ And they 
say that the Pisatans took no pait in the Trojan War 
because they were regarded as sacred to Zeus. But 
neither was the Pisatis in which Olympia is situated 
subject to Augeas at that time, but only the Eleian 
country, nor were the Olympian Games celebrated 
even once in Eleia, but always in Olympia. And 
the games which I have just cited from Homer 
clearly took place in Elis, where the debt was owdng : 
"for a debt was owing to him in goodly Elis, four 
horses, prize-winners ® And these were not games 
in which the prize was a crown (for the horses were 

1 See 10 3. 22 

® The Pythian, iTeineau, and Isthmian Games. 

8 Iliad 23. 255 ff ♦ See 8. 1 29 ^ n, 


93 



STRABO 


ejuLeWov devtreadat), etcelvof; 8i, fiera Se ryp €kt7]v 
K al eifCOO'Trjv 'OXv/jLiridBa ol UtaaTUL rrjv oiKeCav 
aTToXajSovre^ avrol avverekoWf rov ay&va 6p5)VTe<; 
evBoKLjJbovvra' j^povoL^ S’ varepov puer arr € a ov a 7}<; 
irdXtv T ^9 n^craTiSo? eh rov<; ’HXetou?, pLereTreaep 
eh avToi)^ iraXiv /cal r; aycovodeoria, avveirpa^av 
Se /cal OL Aa/ceSaL/JLOViOL fierd rrjv ia-xdrrjv Kard- 
\v(TLV rS)V yie(r<rr}vLcov avfi/iaxpjcraa-ip avroh 
rdvavTLa r&v Necrropo? diroyovc^v Kal r&v 
'Ap/cdScov, (TvpLTToXepLrjcrdvrciov roh yieaarjvLoLV 
Kal €7rl ToaovTov ye crvveTrpa^aVj Sare rrjv ^(^oopav 
diracrav rrjv fiexpi^ MecrcTTjVT]^ ^UXeCav prjdrjvaL 
Kal Siapbelvai pLexp^ IhaaT&v Se Kal TpL- 
f^vXicov Kal KavKcovcov pbrjS' ovopLa Xei^drjvai, 
Kal avrov Se top ILvXop top ffp^adoepra eh to 
Aeirpeov avv/pKicrap, x^P^^optepoL Toh AeirpedTat^ 
KpaTijcraai ^ TroXepitp, Kal dXXa<i woXXd^ tcop 
KaTOiKL&v KaTeorTraaav, oaa^ 9" edopcov avTOTTpa- 
yelp edeXovaa^i Kal dj>6poh^ eTrpd^avTO, 

31 . AicoPopudcrOr} Se TrXelaTOV^ rt IlLcraTL<i to 

pL€v TTp&TOP Sid Toi)? T^yepLova^ SvpTjdevTa^ TrXela- 

356 top, Olvopbaop re Kal lleXoTra, top eKelvov SiaSe- 
^dpiepop, Kal Toi/^ 7ralSa<; avTOv ttoXXov? yepo- 

^ Kpar-ficraffi ttoAcV^, Coiais and Groskurd emend to ov 
Koivcap^ffatfL rov Tro\4jj.ov, following conj, of Pletlio 

2 7r\€7(rTov, Memeke omits 


^ So, according to Thucydides (5. 34), the Lacedaemonians 
settled certain Helots in *Cepreura in 421 b c 

* Strabo seems to mean that the Lepi eatans had prevailed 
in a war’^ over the other Tnphylian cities that had sided 
with the Pisatae in their war against the Eleians Several of 
the editors (see critical note above, on this page), citing 

94 




GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 30-31 

to run for a tiipod), as was the case at Olympia. 
After the twenty-sixth Olympiad, when they had got 
back their home-land, the Pisatans themselves went 
to celebrating the games because they saw that these 
were held in high esteem But in later times 
Pisatis again fell into the power of the Eleians, and 
thus again the direction of the games fell to them. 
The Lacedaemonians also, after the last defeat of 
the Messenians, co-opeiated with the Eleians, who 
had been their allies in battle, whereas the Arcadians 
and the descendants of Nestor had done the opposite, 
having joined with the Messenians in war. And the 
Lacedaemonians co-operated with them so elFectually 
that the whole country as far as Messene came to be 
called Eleia, and the name has persisted to this day, 
whereas, of the Pisatans, the Triphylians, and the 
Cauconians, not even a name has suivived. Further, 
the Eleians settled the inhabitants of sandy Pylus ” 
itself in Lepreum,^ to gratify the Lepreatans, who 
had been victorious m a war,^ and they broke up 
many other settlements,^ and also exacted tribute of 
as many as they saw inclined to act independently, 

31 . Pisatis first became widely famous on account 
of its rulers, who were most powerful they were 
Oenomaus, and Pelops who succeeded him, and the 

Pausamas 6 22. 4, emend the text to read, “ had taken no 
part in the war,'' % e, on the side of the Pisatae against the 
Eleians , C Muller, citing Piiusanias 4. 15. 8; emends to 
read, “had taken the field with them (the Eleians) in the 
war.*’ But neither emendation seems warranted by the 
citations, or by any other evidence yet found by the present 
translator 

® Tor example, Macistus. According to Herodotus (4. 
148), this occurred “m my own time,*’ But see Pausamas 
6, 22 4, and Frazer’s note thereon, Vol. IV,, p. 97. 


95 



STRABO 


fjbivov<;* KoX 6 %a\fjL(t)vev<i S’ ivravda ^acrikevaai 
Xe^yerar eh yovv o/CTft) TroXei? /jL6pi^0jj,ivr]<; t^9 
Uto'driSo^?, fiia rovrcov Xeyerai Kal ?; 'ZaXficovr] » 
Blcl ravrd re Brj kcu ^ to lepov to ^OXvjLnrCao’i 
Blared pvXrjTai ar(f)6Bpa r) ^(i>pa. Bel Be r&v 
nraXaicov iaropc&v dtcovetv ovrco^, d)^ pbrj opboXoyov- 
fievcov ar(j)6Bpa* ol yap vecorepoi TroXXd tcaivd^ 
vopLi^ovaiv? &are real rdvavria Xeyeiv, olov rov 
pbev Avyeav rri<; n£craTiSo9 dp^at, rov S’ OlvofMaov 
/cal rov 'haXpbcovea rrj^ ’HXeta?* evcoi S’ eh ravro 
(TVvdyovcrL ra edvrj. Bel Be roh 6fioXoyovjjL€voc<; co? 
irrl TToXif d/coXovdelv' eTrel ovBe rovvopia rrjv 
Hiadriv irvpLoXoyovaiv opioLco^* oi fiev yap dirb 
ULarjf; opLcovvpLOV rf) /cp'qvr) TroXeew?, r^v Be /cpijvrjv 
Hicrav elprj<r6aij olov rricrrpav, oTrep earl rroriarpa* 
rrjv Be rroXiv iBpvfjiivijv €<!> v^frov^ Bei/cvvovai 
pcera^i/ Bvelv opolv, ^Oaar}^ /cal ’OXv/attou, d/zo)- 
vvpLcov roh ev ©erraXia, rtvh Bk rroXiv piev 
ovBepbiav yeyovevai Hiaav (l)aaiv* elvai yap dv 
pbiav r&v 6/crco* /cp'^VTjv Be fiovTjv, tjv vvv /caXelaSai 
Biaav,^ Kc/cvaiov TrXrjaioVy rroXeco^ pbeyiarr}<i r&v 
o/cr&* '%r7)ai')(ppov Be /caXelv ttoXcv rr^v ')(copav 
Uiaav Xeyopbivrjv, 6 rroirjrr)^ rr)v Aea^ov 
M«/ca/)09 TToXiv, Ev/>47rtS979 S’ iv ^'Icovr 

^v^ob ^Ad7]vai^ earl ns yeLrcov nroXts’ 

^ Before rh hp6v Memeke inserts did, 

2 Kaivd, con 3 of Edward Capps, for Kat 

® po/iiCovcriVy Memeke (following conj. of Casaubon) emends 
to Katvl^oviTiVy omitting the preceding Kat 

96 



GEOGRAPHY, 8.3.31 

numerous sons of the latter. And Salmoneus,^ too, 
IS said to have reigned there ; at any rate, one of 
the eight cities into which Pisatis is divided is called 
Salmon^ So for these reasons, as well as on 
account of the temple at Olympia, the country has 
gained wide repute. But one should listen to the 
old accounts with leserve, knowing that they are 
not very commonly accepted , for the later writers 
hold new views about many things and even tell 
the opposite of the old accounts, as when they say 
that Augeas ruled over Pisatis, but Oenomaus and 
Salmoneus over Eleia : and some writers com- 
bine the tw^o tribes into one But in general one 
should follow only what is commonly accepted 
Indeed, the writers do not even agree as to the 
derivation of the name Pisatis ; for some derive it 
from a city Pisa, which bears the same name as the 
spring ; the spring, they say, was called Pisa,” the 
equivalent of pistra,” that is potistra ” , ^ and 
they point out the site of the city on a lofty place 
between Ossa and Olympus, two mountains that 
bear the same name as those m Thessaly. But 
some say that there was no city by the name of 
Pisa (for if there had been, it would have been one 
of the eight cities), but only a spring, now called 
Bisa, near Cicysmm, the largest of the eight cities ; 
and Stesichorus, they explain, uses the term ^^city ” 
for the territory called Pisa, just as Homer calls 
Lesbos the city of Macar”;® so Euripides in his 
Zow,^ there is Euboea, a neighbouring city to 
^ OdmeyW 236 

^ Both words mean “ drinking- trough ” 

^ Ihad 24 544 ^ Fmg, 294 (Sauck). 

* BiVar, the editors, for Brjffav (MSS ), Bicrcrav [EjjU ). 

97 

VOL. IV H 



STRABO 


Kal iv ^VahafidvOvL* 

OL fyrjv €%oi/a-’ Eu/3o/Sa nrpocrx^pov ttoXlv* 
'Xo<I>ok\7]<5 S’ iv Mvoroc<^* 

^AorLa fiev f) (TvpLTraaa /cX'p^erat, ^iv€j 

TToX^? Bk Mva&v Mvaua •irpoaTjyopo^. 

32. "H Be XaXpbdovyj ttXt^ctlov earl t ^9 oficovvfjLov 
f£p7jv7)<;, ^9 pel 6 ^Eviwev^' ifijSdWei S’ ek rov 

^A\(j)€t6v, fcaXelrat Bk vvv ^apvixLO^'^ rovrov S’ 
ipaa07]vai T7 }v Tvpd) <paaiv, 

f) TTorapLov rjpdaaar ’Ez^i7r^09 detoio, 

evravOa yap ^aaCXevaai rov warepa avT^9 rov 
XaXpLcovea, fcaOdwep /cal lEiifpiiriBy]^ iv Al6Xq> 
(jyyai* rov S’ iv rfj ©erraXta evioL ^ ^EiPiaea 
ypd<povacv, 09 cItto rr]<i^O0pvo<i pecov Be)(erac rov 
^AmBavov /carev€x06vra i/c ^apadXov.^ 6771/9 Be 
T^9 XdXpd>vr}<; *Jlpd/cX€ia, /cal avrrj p,ia rwv 
OKrco, BUxovaa rrepl reaaapdKOvra araBlov^i t?^9 
^OXvpbTTLaf:, /ceipkvY} Be rrapd rov Kv07jpiov irora- 
fiov, ov TO rcov ^IcovidBcov vv/a<f>S>v lepov, r&v 
rreTTcarevpbevcov 0epaiT€V€tv v6aov<; rok liBaai, 

^ Kci\urai . Bapvlx^oSf Kramer and others suspect ; 
Melneke ejects. 

® ^piot, before ^EyttrSa, Jones inserts 
® rhy V h , . ^ap(r<i\oVj Memeke ejects. 


^ Frag. 658 (Nauck). 


98 


^ Frag. 377 (Nauck). 




GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 31-32 

Athens ” ; and in his Rkadmianthys^ who hold the 
Euboean land, a neighbouring city ; and Sophocles 
in his MysianSf^ '^^The whole country, stranger, is 
called Asia, but the city of the Mysians is called 
Mysia.’" 

32 Salmon^ is situated near the spring of that 
name from which flows the Empeus River The 
river empties into the Alpheius, and is now called 
the Barnicliius ® It is said that Tyro fell m love 
with Empeus : She loved a river, the divine 
Empeus”^ For there, it is said, her father 
Salmoneus leigned, just as Emipides also says in 
his Aeolus^ Some write the name of the rivei in 
Thessaly Eniseus ” ; it flows from Mount Othiys, 
and receives the Apidanus, which flows down out 
of Pharsalus ® Near Salmon^ is Heracleia, which 
is also one of the eight cities; it is about forty 
stadia distant from Olympia and is situated on the 
Cytheiius Rivei, wheie is the temple of the loniades 
Nymphs, who have been believed to cure diseases 

® Meineke, following Kranier, ejects the words “and it 
. . Bainichius ” on the assumption that “Barnichms” is 

a word of Slavic on gin * Odyssey 11. 238 

® See Frag 14 (Nauck), and the note. 

® In 9 5 6 Strabo spells the name of the river in Thessaly 
“ Empeus,” not “Eniseus”; and says that “it flows from 
Mt Othrys past Pharsalus and then turns aside into the 
Apidanus ” Hence some of the editors, including Meineke, 
regarding the two statements as contradictory, eject the 
wqrds “ The name . . Pharsalus ” But the two passages 
can easily be reconciled, for (1) “flows out of” (Pharsalus), 
as often, means “flows out of the tenifoiy of,” which was 
true of the Apidanus , and (2) in 9 5 6 Strabo means 
that the Empeus “ flows past Old Pharsalus,” which was 
true, and (3) the apparent conflict as to which ot the two 
rivers was tiibutary is immaterial, since either might be so 
considered 


99 


STRABO 


'rrapa Be t7}v ^OXvpbmav icrrl koX fj "'Apinva,^ KaX 
C 357 avTTj T&v ofcroo, Bi ^9 pec irorapco^i HapBevia^, w? 
€A9 ^7]pacav^ avLovrcav*^ 17 Be ^rjpaia icrrl rij^i 
^ApKaBca<;* vTrepKecrac Be t ?;9 Avpcaca^ /cal Bou- 
irpaaLov /cal ''HXfSo?* ar/rep earl 7r/)09 dp/crov rfj 
TicadriBc,^ avrov 3 ’ ecrrc /cal to Kt/cvcriov r&v 
o/cT(h Kal TO Avarrovrcov /card rrjv 6B6v rijv e^ 
*^HXiSo9 €49 ^OXypuTTcav iv rreBccp Keijxevov' ef^;- 
\el<f>d7] ^ Biy /cal dirripav 01 m^Xecov^ eh ^^rrcBapcvov 
Kal ^ ArroWccvcav* /cal rj ^oXor) S’ vnep/cecrac t^9 
^OXvfjc7rca<} iyyvrdrco, opo9 ^Ap/caBiKov, &(jre rd^ 
viraipeLa<s t7}<; nccrdrcBofi elvai, Kal rrdcra S’ 17 
n40‘aT49 /cal T^<i 'T pL<f>vXLa<i rd TrXecara ofJLopet rfj 
^ApKaBca* Bed Be rovro xal ApKaBcKa elvac Boxec 
rd TrXecara twp JlvXiaKcov iv J^araXoytp <^pa^o~ 
pcevcov x^picov ov fjcivroc ^aalv oi epcirecpor rov 
yap ^Epvfjcavdov ® eevat rov opc^ovra rr]v ^ApKaBcaVy 
T&v €49 ^AX<f)eLOV ip/TTLirTOVTCOV TTOTapc&Vy S’ 

iKeevov rd xcopia iBpva-6ac ravra, 

33 , '^E(f)opo^ Be (pnjcriv AireoXov eKirecrovra vtto 

^ ‘'ApTripa, Tzschucke, for ''Ettipol {A^cJnllno)^ Atmia (A 
wan, sec ) , so the editors 

2 ^TipaiaPf Meineke emends to 'Hpalap, 

® apiSprup (Acgf?ino), for Uvrup, Jones restores. 

* ^ Se Unpaid . Tlicrdridi, Meineke ejects. 

^ i^7]\ei<pdrjy Meineke emends to i^eKel^dy} 

® ’EpvfMapdop, Palmer, for *Ap.(ipvpBop , so the editors 


^ According to Pausanias (6 22 7), with the waters of a 
spring that flowed into the Cytherus (note the spelling). 

® On Arpina and its site, see Prazer’s PaiisamaSy 4. 94 ff , 
and Pauly- Wissowa, s,v “Harpina.” 

* Strabo means “ through the temto'iy of which.” 

* On the Parthenias (now the Bakireika), see Frazer, I c. 


100 


GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 32-33 

with their waters.^ Near Olympia is Arpina^^ also 
one of the eight cities, through which ® flows the 
River Parthenias,^ on the road that leads up to 
Pheraea. Pheraea is m Arcadia, and it is situated 
above Dymaea and Buprasium and Elis, that is, to 
the north of Pisatis,® Here, too, is Cicysium, one 
of the eight cities ; and also Dyspontium, which is 
situated in a plain and on the road that leads from 
Elis to Olympia; but it was destroyed, and most 
of its inhabitants emigrated to Epidamnus and 
Apollonia. Pholoe, an Arcadian mountain, is also 
situated above Olympia, and veiy close to it, so that 
its foot-hills are in Pisatis. Both the whole of 
Pisatis and most paits of Triphylia border on 
Arcadia ; and on this account most of the Pylian 
districts mentioned in the Catalogue^ are thought 
to be Arcadian , the well-informed, however, deny 
this, for they say that the Eiymanthus, one of the 
rivers that empty into the Alpheius, forms a 
boundary of Arcadia and that the districts in 
question are situated outside that river 

33 Ephorus says that Aetolus, after he had been 

® The words “and it is situated . , . Pisatis” would 
seem to apply to the Achaean Pharae, not to some Arcadian 
city , and in that case, apparently, either Strabo has 
blundered or the words are an interpolation. Memeke 
ejects the words “Pheraea is . Pisatis” and emends 
“Pheraea” to “Heraea”, but Polybius (4. 77) mentions 
a “ Pharaea” (note the spelling) in the same region to which 
Strabo refers, and obviously both writers have m mind the 
same city The city is otherwise unknown and therefore 
the correct spelling is doubtful See Bolte in Pauly- Wissowa 
{s v, “ Harpina ”), who, however, wiongly quotes “ Pharaea ” 
as the spelling found in the MSS. of Strabo. 

6 Iliad 2 591 

’ i,e, on the seaward side. 


lOI 



STRABO 


'ZaXfjLwvi(o<;, rov fiao-cXem 'EireiMv re /cat Ili(ra- 
T&v, ifc T^9 ’HXeta? eh rrjv Alroikiav, ovofidaaL 
re d(j>* avrov r^v koX crvvoifciaai ra^ avroQi 

iroKei^' rovrou S* drro^ovov vrrdp^avra ^'O^vXov 
(j)[Xov roh rrepl T7]fjL6vov 'HpafcXeuBait; rjj'^aaaOai 
re rrjv oBov fcariovcriv eh rfjv UeXoTropvrjcrov Kal 
fiepicai r^v TToXejxLav avroh koX rdXka 

viroOecOai ra rrepl rrjv Kardtcrrjcnv rrj^; ^(^(opa^, 
dvrl Se rovrcov Xa^elv ^HXetav 

fcdOoSov, TTpoyovLKrjv oScraVs KareXOelv Be ddpoC- 
cavra arparidv ifc rrj^ AlrmXia^ e^rl rou? icarexov- 
Ta9 ’E7r64oz;9 r^v ’HXiz/* drravrrjcrdvrcov Be r&v 
^Eiirei&v pLeO^ ottXcov, eTreiBrj dvrhrdkoL ^aav ai 
Bvvdfxei^i eh pLovopuaxl'^v nTpoeXOelv Karh e0o9 ri 
TTaXaiov r&v ^^XXijvoov HvpaLXP'V'^ AlrcoXov 
Aiypievov r ^Eiretov, rov p.ev Aeyp,evov puerd ro^ov 
yjrtXov, 609 Treptea-opLevov paBloof; oirXirov Bed rt]^ 
eKi)^oXia<^, rov Be perd afpevBovtjf; koI 7rrjpa<; 
Xidcovy irreiBr} KarepiaOe rov SoXov rvxelv Be 
vecocrrl vtto rcov Air(oXS)v evprjpievov to t^9 
<r<f>evB6v7]^ elBov parpo^oXwrepas S’ ovaf]<; T 779 
cxcpevBovr]^, rreaeiv rov Aeypbevov, fcal tcaracrxelv 
Toi)9 AlrcoXov^ rrjv yf]v,iK^aX6vra^ rov^^EiT€Lov<;* 
TrapaXa^etv Be /cal rrjv impbeXetav rov lepov rov 
^OXvpbrriaaiv, fjv elxov ol Btd Be rrjv 

rov ^O^vXov ^tXCav rrpm rov<; 'Hpa/cXelBa<; 
<TVvopLoXoy'i')07]vai paBi(a<; e/c rrdvreov pL€0^ op/cov 
0 358 rrjv ^HXeiav lepdv elvai rov Al 6<^, rov S’ imovra 
102 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 33 

driven by Salmoneus, the king of the Epeians and 
the Pisatans, out of Eleia into Aetoha, named the 
counti'y after himself and also united the cities 
there under one metropolis ; and Oxylus, a 
descendant of Aetolus and a friend of Temenus and 
the Heracleidae who accompanied him, acted as 
their guide on their way back to the Peloponnesus, 
and appoitioned among them that part of the 
country which was hostile to them, and in general 
made suggestions regaiding the conquest of the 
country; and m return for all this he received as 
a favour the permission to return to Eleia, his 
ancestral land ; and he collected an army and 
returned from Aetoha to attack the Epeians who 
were in possession of Elis, but when the Epeians 
met them with arms,^ and it was found that the 
two forces were evenly matched, Pyraechmes the 
Aetolian and Degmenus the Epeian, in accordance 
with an ancient custom of the Greeks, advanced to 
single combat Degmenus was lightly armed with 
a bow, thinking that he would easily overcome a 
heavy-armed opponent at long lange, but Pyraechmes 
armed himself with a sling and a bag of stones, 
after he had noticed his opponent’s ruse (as it 
happened, the sling had only recently been invented 
by the Aetohans) , and since the sling had longer 
range, Degmenus fell, and the Aetohans drove out 
the Epeians and took possession of the land ; and 
they also assumed the superintendence, then in the 
hands of the Achaeans, of the temple at Olympia ; 
and because of the friendship of Oxylus with the 
Heracleidae, a sworn agreement was promptly made 
by all that Eleia should be sacred to Zeus, and that 

1 Cp. 8. 3 30. 



STRABO 


€ 7 rl T7]v %copaz^ TavTTjv fled' ottXcov evayi] ehai, m 
S’ afiro)? ivayrj Kal rov firj eirafivvovra eh Svva- 
fiiv* i/c Be TOVTov Kal tov^ Kria-avra^ T^v'UXeLoDV 
TToXtv vcrrepov arei'^iaTOV iacrais Kal tou? Bl' 
auT?79 T^9 iopTa^ arparoTriBa, ra 07r\a 

irapaBovra^;, aTroXap/Savecv pera rrjv etc r&v opodv 
eK^acTiv* ''l(pLT6v Tedeivai Tov'OXvpiTLicov ay5>vay 
iep&v ovT(ov T&v 'HXeicov. eK B^ tS>v tolovtodv 
av^Tfcriv Xa^elv tou? avdpco7rov<^* t&v yhp aXXcov 
TToXefiovvTcov del 7 r /)09 dXXofXov^, fiovoi^ inrap^ai 
TToXXffV elpTjVTfVs ovK avToh fiovoVi dXXd Kal roh 
^evoi<ii &(Tre Kal evavBprjaai pdXtara rrdvroov 
Tvapd rovro ^euBcova Be rov 'Apyetov, BeKarov 
fiev ovra diro HifpevoVy Bvvdpei S’ virep^e/SXrjpePOv 
TOU 9 Kar' avrov, dcj^ ^9 rrjp re Xrf^LV oXrjV dveXa^e 
TTfP Hrffievov BceaTracrpivTjv eh 'jrXelo) fiepT), Kal 
fierpa i^evpe rd ^etBcovia KaXovpeva Kal crraO- 
pov^ Kal vopicrpa Kex<x>payfievov to t€ oXko Kal 
TO dpyvpovv, irpo% tovtol^ eiriQeaOai kuI Tah 
^]ipaKXeov^ alpedeCaai^; iroXeat Kal tov9 dy&pa^ 
d^iovp Tidevat avTov 0&9 eKelvo^ edrjKe* tovtcov Be 
elvai Kal top 'OXvpttlkov* Kal Brj ^lacrdpevov 
iireXOavTa Oelvai avrov, ovt 6 t&v ’ HXetwz / ixov~ 
TWP dirXa^ &aTe KmXveLV, Bid Trjv elprjvrfv, r&v 
T€ aXXcov KpaTOvpevcDV Tfj BvvacrTeia* ov ptjv 
TOV9 76 'iiX€LOV<; dvaypd^frac Trjv Qkaiv TavTtjv^ 
dXXd Kal oirXa KTrfaauQai Bid tovto kcu dp^a- 
pevov^ eTTiKOPpelv o‘(f)Lcnv avToh' cvpirpaTTeiv Se 

^ According to Pausanias (5. 8 2) the games were dis- 
continued after the reign of Oxylus and ‘‘renewed’* by 
Iphxtus. 

® So Herodotus 6. 127. 

104 




GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 33 

whoever invaded that country with arms should be 
under a curse, and that whoever did not defend it 
to the extent of his power should be likewise under 
a curse, consequently those who later founded the 
city of the Eleians left it without a wall, and those 
who go through the country itself with an army 
give up their arms and then get them back again 
after they have passed out of its borders ; and 
Iphitus celebiated ^ the Olympian Games, the Eleians 
now being a sacied people; for these reasons the 
people flourished, for whereas the other peoples 
were always at wai with one another, the Eleians 
alone had profound peace, not only they, but Iheir 
alien residents as well, and so for this reason their 
country became the most populous of all , but 
Pheidon the Argive, who was the tenth m descent 
from Temenus and surpassed all men of his time in 
ability (whereby he not only recwered the whole 
inheritance of Temenus, which had been broken up 
into several paits, but also invented the measures 
called Pheidonian,” ^ and weights, and coinage 
struck from silver and other metals) — Pheidon, I 
say, in addition to all this, also attacked the cities 
that had been captured previously by Heiacles, and 
claimed foi himself the right to celebrate all the 
games that Heracles had instituted. And he said 
that the Olympian Games were among these , and 
so he invaded Eleia and celebiated the games 
himself, the Eleians, because of the peace, having 
no arms wherewith to resist him, and all the others 
being under liis domination ; however, the Eleians 
did not lecord this celebration in their public 
register, but because of his action they also procured 
arms and began to defend themselves, and the 

105 



STRABO 


/cal Ka/ceZaifioviov^^ etre ^Oov'qcravTa^ rij Sta Trjv 
elp'^vrjv evTvxl'^i ^iVe /cal crvvepyov^ e^eiv vopbLaav- 
ra? 7rpo<; to /caraXvaaL rov ^eihcDvas dcprjptjfiivop 
avTOv<i rrjv rjyepboviav rcov HeXoTTowj^aicoVt 
i/c€tvoi 7rpoe/c€Kr7]vro^ /cal Srj /cal cvy/caraXycraL 
rov ^eLhcova' rov^ Be avy/caraa-Kevdcai roh 
’HXe/oi9 rrjv re Uiaariv /cal rrjv Tp^c^uXtar. o 
Be TTapdnrXov^i dira^ 6 tt}? vvv^HXeLa<; /jlt} /cara- 
/coXrrL^ovrt ofiov /cal Bia/cocricov^ iorrl 

araBCcov, ravra pt.ev irepl tt)? ’HXe^a?. 


IV 

1. Bi Meaa-Tjvla crvvexv^^ icrri rp 
TTepivevovcra to rrXeov eirl rov votov /cal to 
Al^vkov rreXayos, avrp S* iwl puev t&v Upoii/cdiv 
VTTO yieveXdcp eTera/CTO, pL€po<; oiaa tt)^ Aa/cco- 
viKrjf;, eKaXeuTO 8’ rj %e»pa yiea-cn^vp' rpv Se vvv 
ovopa^opevpv ttoXiv Meaapvpv, aKpoTroXi^ fj 
C 359 ^iddp/r] vTTpp^eVj ovTtco avvk^aivev eKTiadaC puerd 
Be TTjv MeveXdov TeXevTTjv, i^aadevi^advrcov t&v 
BcaBe^apbivcov rpv Aa/ceovcKpVf ol l^rjXelBai tt}^ 
'Meo-<T7}via<i eirrjpxov, Kal Brj Kara t^v t&v 'Hpa- 
/cXecB&v /cdOoBov /cal rov tots yevpOevra pLepia-pcov 

^ For • • Siahocricoy cr'), C. Muller con- 
jectures e^aKocrtoi . e^Sofi^KOvra (x^ . • ©0 

^ The correct distance from Cape Araxus, which was m 
Eleia (8 3 5), to the Neda River is about 700 stadia. And 
C Muller seems to be right in emending the 1200 to 670, 
io6 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3, 33-4. 1 

Lacedaemonians co-operated with them, either 
because they envied them the prosperity which 
they had enjoyed on account of the peace^ or 
because they thought that they would have them 
as allies in destroying the power of Pheidon, for he 
had deprived them of the hegemony over the 
Peloponnesus which they had foimerly held; and 
the Eleians did help them to destroy the power of 
Pheidon, and the Lacedaemonians helped the Eleians 
to bring both Pisatis and Tnphylia under their 
sway. The length of the voyage along the coast 
of the Eleia of to-day, not counting the sinuosities 
of the gulfs, IS, all told, twelve hundred stadia.^ 


IV 

1, Messenia holders on Eleia, and for the most 
pait it inclines round towards the south and the 
Libyan Sea Now in the time of the Trojan War 
this country was classed as subject to Menelaus, 
since it was a part of Laconia, and it was called 
Messen^, but the city now named Messen6, whose 
acropolis was Ithom^, had not yet been founded 
but after the death of Menelaus, when those who 
succeeded to the government of Laconia had become 
enfeebled, the Neleidae began to rule over Messenia. 
And indeed at the time of the return of the 
Heracleidae and of the division of the country 

since 670 corresponds closely to other measurements given 
by Strabo ^8 2, 1, 8 3 12, 21). See also Curtins, Pelopon’- 
nesoSf vol 11 , p 93. 

8 The city was founded by Epamemondas in 369 B c. (Diod 
Sic 15 66). 

107 



STRABO 


%<»/3a9 ?}v yik\av6o<; ^acnXev^ r&v MeacrTjvLcov 
tcaS* avTOv<; racraofievcov, irporepov S’ vir'qfcooi, 
rjaav rov MeueXdov. arjjieLov Se* ix yap rov 
MecrarjvLafcov koXttov teal rov crvve')(pv<i ^Aatpaiov 
Xeyofievov diro rrj^ 'M.eaarjvtaicyi^ \Xcr[v7}(^ at iTrrd 
fjaav TToXei?, a? v7ria‘)(6T0 Bcocrecv 6 'Ayafie/xucov 

T(p 

KapBapbvXrjv ^Evotttjv t 6 xal ^Iprjv Troiijeacrav 
^rjpd^ re i^aOea^ rjB^ "^AvOeiav jSadvXecpov 
tcaXYjv r AcTreLav /cal U^Baaov apuTTeXoea-aav, 

ov/c av rd<i ye prj Trpoar] /cover a^; prjT avr& pLrjTe 
dB6X(f)& v7TO(rxop>€vo<i, i/c Be r&v *i*r]pS)p /cal 
avexTparevaavTae; IS/LeveXdep Br/Xol 6 iroirjT'q^^ 
TQV Be OtTvXov ^ /cal crvy/caraXiyec Aa/ccovt/c^ 
KaraXoyepf iBpvptevov ev M.eacr'qviaKcp koXttco, 
ecrri S’ t) ISHecrorrivYi per a lipK^vXLav' /cotvr} S' 
iarlv dp<f>OLv d/epa, peS* fjv i) Kvirapiacria /cal to 
1Siopv<jid<riov ^ virep/ceiraL S’ 0/509 iv eirrd araBioi^^ 
TO AlyaXeov rovrov re /cal tt}^ daXdrrT)^* 

2. 'H pev ovv rraXaia no\o9 M.e(T(rrjvia/cy] vrro 
AiyaXeq) 770X49 KareG-iraerph/]^ Be TavT'/]<; 
6774 Tw Kopv(l>a<rLw rivh avr&v op/erjuav" TTpocre- 
KTierav S’ avr^v ^Adrjvaloi rb Bevrepov irrl 

^ OirvKoVf Kramer inserts (space for six or seven letteis in 
A). 

2 Jones exchanges the positions of rh Kopv(pd(riou and ^ 
Kviraptcrorta Memeke omits koI ^ Kvirapicrcria, 

J08 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 4 1-2 

which then took place, Melanthus was king of the 
Messenians, who were an autonomous people, although 
formerly they had been subject to Menelaus An 
indication of this is as follows : The seven cities 
which Agamemnon promised to give to Achilles 
were on the Messenian Gulf and the adjacent 
Asinaean Gulf, so called after the Messeiiian Asine 5 ^ 
these cities weie ^^Cardamyle and Enop^ and giassy 
Hir^ and sacred Pherae and deep-meadowed Antheia 
and beautiful Aepeia and vme-clad Pedasus ” , ^ and 
surely Agamemnon would not have promised cities 
that belonged neithei to himself noi to his brother. 
And the poet makes it clear that men from Pherae ® 
did accompany Menelaus on the expedition , and in 
the Laconian Catalogue he includes Oetylus,^ which 
is situated on the Messenian Gulf. Messend ® comes 
after Triphylia , and there is a cape which is common 
to both , ® and after this cape come Cyparissia and 
Coryphasium Above Coryphasium and the sea, 
at a distance of seven stadia, lies a mountain, 
Aegaleum 

2. Now the ancient Messenian Pylus was a city 
at the foot of Aegaleum ; but after this city was 
torn down some of its inhabitants took up their 
abode on Cape Coryphasium , and when the Athenians 

^ Now the city Koron, or Koioni. See Fra7er’s note on 
Pausanias 2. 36 4, 4 34 9 

2 Uxad 9 150. 

® Iliad 2 582, where Homer’s w»-ord is “ Phans.” 

* Iliad 2 585 , now called Vitylo 

® The coanh y Messenia is meant, not the city Messene 

® In Strabo’s time the Neda River was the boundary 
between Trip’nylia and Messenia (S 3 22), but in the present 
passage be must be referring to some cape on the “ancient 
boundary” (8 3 22). 



STRABO 


XifceXtav TrXiovre^ fJLer Ei;pi;/46Sor/TO<? koL ^ Srpa- 
TOfcXeov^i^ i7rLTeL)(tcrfia roi? Aa/ceSacfiovLoc^;, 
avrov S’ iarl /cal 97 KvTrapLcrcTLa 9 ; MecrcrTjvLa/crj 
/cal 7) Hp/jOTT) vr}(To<;^ /cal 9 ; TTpofceipbev)] ^ TrkrfaLov 
rov IlyXoy X<f>ayia v^cro<}, 9 ? S’ av7r} /cal S(j)a/CT7}^ 
pia XejofievT}, Trepl fjp aire^aXov ^oyypia Kaicehai- 
fiovLOL Tpia/cocriov^ iavT&v dvhpa<; vir *A.6if]vaLcov 
i/ciroXiop/crjOevra^. Kara Se rr^v rrapaXiav ravrrjv ® 
TOiv KvitapiaaLayv ireXdyLaL rrpoKeLvrai Suo v^aoL 
TrpoorayopevofJLevat 2T/}o^aSe95 rerpaKoaLov^^ dire- 
j(pv(Tai fiaXiard ttw? rjrreLpov (rrahLov^i 

iv Kl^vkS Kal /jL€orr]pL0pcv^ ireXdyec. <f)7jal 
Se ©ovKvSiSy]^ vavaraOfjLOV vrrdp^aL twz/ Mecro*?^- 
vLcov ravTTjv rrjv JlvXov, Sie^a Se ^rrdprr]^ re- 
TpaKoaiovf;, 

3. S’ icrrl Xledcovr}* Tavr>]v S’ elpai <f>aai 

Trjp VTTO Tov iTOtTjTOV TlyjBaaop rrpoaayopevofiiprjp 
fiCav r&p errrd, &v i'Tre^r^j^ero rep ’A%iXXe? 0 
^Ayapbippcov ipravda ^Aypimra^ top r&v Mav - 
povaiciop jSaaiXia T 979 ^ AvreovLov o-Ta<Te&)9 opra 
Hoyov Kara top rroXe/iop top ^ Aktiukop hte^^deipe, 
Xa^d>p errLrrXov to x^pLOP, 

^ For Kal Wesseling conj ctt/, and so Meineke leads 
2 For :$rpaTOK\ious Palmer conj. So^o/cAeous , and so Corais 
and otlieis read See footnote on opposite page 

® Up'joT^ yrjeros, Jones inserts from conj of Kramei (space 
for about ten letters in A) 

^ TFpoKei/jLevrjy Corais, foi irpoffKsiixivri , so Mcineke 
^ at, after ravrriv, the editois omit 

^ But according to Diodorus Siculus (12 60) Stratocles was 
arohon at the time of this expedition (425 B c ) , and accord- 
ing to Thucydides (4 3), it w^as Eurymedun and Sophocles 
who made the expedition. Hence some emend “ and Strat- 


IIO 




GEOGRAPHY, 8. 4. 2-3 

under the leadership of Eurymedon and Stratocles^ 
weie sailing on the second expedition to Sicily, they 
reconstructed the city as a fortress against the Lace- 
daemonians Here, too, is the Messeiiian Cyparissia, 
and the island called Piot^, and the island called 
Sphagia that lies off the coast near Pylus (the same 
IS also called Sphacteria), on which the Lacedae- 
monians lost by capture three hundred of their own 
men, who were besieged and forced to surrender by 
the Athenians ^ Opposite this sea-coast of the 
Cyparissians, out in the high sea, lie two islands 
called Strophades; and they are distant, I should 
say, about four hundied stadia from the mainland, 
in the Libyan and Southern Sea Thucydides ® says 
that this Pylus was the naval station of the Mes- 
senians It is foui hundred^ stadia distant from 
Sparta 

3. Next comes MethonA This, they say, is what 
the poet calls Pedasus,® one of the seven cities which 
Agamemnon promised to Achilles It was here that 
Agrippa, during the war of Actium,® after he had 
taken the place by an attack from the sea, put to 
death Bogus, the king of the Maurusians, who 
belonged to the faction of Antony. 

odes” to ‘*111 the archonship of Stratocles,” while others 
emend “ Stratocles ’ to “ Sophocles.” It seems certain that 
Strabo wrote the word “ Sophocles,” for he was following 
the account of Thucydides, as his later specific quotation 
from that account shows , and theiefore the present translator 
con 3 ectures that Stiabo wrote “ Eurymedon and Sophocles, 
m the archonship of Stratocles,” and that the intervening 
words were inadvertently omitted by the copyist 
2 For a full account, see Thucydides, 4 30ff. ® 4. 3. 

* Thucydides says about four hundred 
® lhad 9. 152, 294 So Pausanias (4. 35, 1) 

® 31 B c. 


Ill 



STRABO 


4. Sk MeOdovr) avvexv^ icrrcv 6 ’A/cptra?, 
^PXV Mecro-TjPtaKov koXttov /caXovat S’ avrov 
C 360 Kul ^Aaivalov diro ^Aaivr]9> ttoXCxvv^ 7rpcoTr}<; iv 
T& fcoXirtpi ofMcovvfiov TT] *Epfiiovt/C7], avTTi pLev 
ovv 7} dpxv 7rpo9 Sv<TLv rov fcoXirov iarl, 7rpo<; 
€co Se ai KaXovfjbej^ac ©uyOiSe?, opbopoc Trj vvv 
AaKcoviKT) 77) Kara K.vvai6iov^ koX Taivapov, 
fiGra^ij Se dno r&v SypiScov dp^apLevoi<^ OirvX6<? ^ 
i(TTL* KaXelraL S’ vtto tlvcov 'BaLrvXo^*^ elra 
Aev/crpov, r&v iv ry Boicorla AevKrpcov aTTOLKO^, 
elr iirl 7reTpa<; ipvfiv^^ iBpvrai KapSapbvXrj, elra 
^7)paij^ opbopo^ ®ovp[a Kal d(j>^ ov 

TOTTOV Teprjviov top ^licrTopa fcXrjOrjvaL cfiacrc Bid 
TO ivravda acodrjvat avrov, cS? TTpoeLprjKapiev, 
BeLfcvvrai S’ iv rfj Tep7)via HpiKfcaiov iepov 
^A(TKXr)7nov, dcfiLSpvfjba rov iv rf) ©erraXLKf) 
^piKKrj, olKiaai Be Xiyerac UiXoyjr to re AeO- 
KTpov Kal XapdBpav Kal SaXapbov^,^ tov? vvv 
Bo40)too9 KaXovpLevov<;, rrjv dB6Xcf>7)v l^io/Stjv 
iKBovf; 'ApKplovi fcal iK rijff Boicorla<; dyopevo^ 
riva^, irapd Be ^r)pd<; NeScoz; iK^dXXec, pecov 

1 YLvvaiBioVi Xylander, for KwaiBiou (see Dionys Hal. 
A'titiq Bom 1. 50) , so most editois. 

2 OirvKos, the editors, for b XlbKos 

® BatTuXos, Meineke emends to Bo(tvAos j Kramer prefers 
BefruXos 

^ See footnote on ^Tjpuv in next §. 

® Tep 7 }plois (AcghtnoJc) 

® &aXdp.ovs, Coral s and Meineke emend to ®a\dpas (as 
spelled hy other Greek writers). 


II2 



GEOGRAPHV, 8. 4 - 4 


4. Adjacent to Methon^ ^ is Acntas,® \vhich is the 
beginning of the Messenian Gulf, But this is also 
called the Asinaean Gulf, from Asin^, winch is the 
first town on the gulf and bears the same name 
as the Hermionic town.® Asiii^, then, is the be- 
ginning of the gulf on the west, while the beginning 
on the east is formed by a place called Thyrides,^ 
which holders on that pait of the Laconia of to-day 
which is near Cynaethius and Taenarum ® Between 
Asme and Thyndes, beginning at Thyrides, one 
comes to Oetylus (by some called Baetylus ®) ; then 
to Leuctrum, a colony of the Leuctii in Boeotia, 
then to Cardamyl^, which is situated on a lock 
foitified by nature; then to Pherae,^ which borders 
on Thuiia and Geiena, the place from which Nestor 
got his epithet Gerenian,*' it is said, because his 
life was saved there, as I have said before,® In 
Gerema is to be seen a temple of Tnccaean Asclepius, 
a reproduction of the one in the Thessalian Tricca 
It is said that Pelops, after he had given his sister 
Niob^ in marriage to Amphion, founded Leuctrum, 
Chai adra, and Thalami (now called Boeoti), bringing 
with him certain colonists from Boeotia. Near Pherae 
is the mouth of the Nedon River , it flows through 

^ Stiabo means the temtor}’’ of MethonS (as often) 

® Now Cape Gallo. 

® The Hermionic Asin^ was m Argohs, south east of Nauplia 
(see Pauly- Wissowa, sv. “Asme”) 

^ See foot-note on “Thyndes,” 8. 5 1, 

® See Map IX in Ciirtius’ Tdofonnms at the end of vol. li. 
® Or “Boetylus” (see critical note on opposite page) 

^ Now Elalamata, 

8 8. 3. 28 


^ ay6ix€t os, Meineke emends to ay ay6iJ(.€Pos» 


1^3 


VOL, IV 


I 


STRABO 


Bia t/)9 Aa/ccoviKi]<;, erepo*; Sbv ri)? NeSa?* 

S’ Upov eTTLcrrjpLov t^9 ^Ad7jvd<} NeSovcrla^' fcal 
iv Uoiaeacrr}^ S' earXv ^ A6r}vd<; l^^eBovcrLa^ Upov, 
iTr(ovvpbov TOTTou rtvo<i NeBovTO<;, ov cj)acrlu 
olfCLaai T'^XeKXov JloLd€(T(rav^ /cal ’E;j^64a9 /cal 
Updr^iov? 

5. Tct)z/ Be TrpoTadeia&v iirra iroXecov 7& 
^AxiXXel Trepl piev KapBa fxvXr}^ /cal ^rjpS>v^ 
elprjKapev /cal TlT^Bdaov. ^EvoTrTjv Be oi pcev ra 
UeXXavd ® ^a<nv, ol Bi tottov rcvd irepl KapBa- 
fjbvXrjv, OL Be Ti)v T€pr}VLav* rr)v Be Ipr^v /car a 
TO opo<; BeiKvvovaL to /card rrjv MeyaXorroXiv 
Tr]<; ^Ap/caBLa^ 0)9 errl r^v ^AvBavLav lovrcov, 
e<f>apb€v Ol')(aXLav viro rov rroLrjrov /ce/cXTjadaL, 
OL Be rrjv vvv yieaoXav ovra> KaXetadai (paai, 
/cad'^KOvaav eU top pLera^v /coXttov rov T^av^yerov 
/cal T^9 Me(rcTr)VLa^» r} S’ AtTreia vvv ®ovpia 
/caXelrai, fjv e<}>apLev opcopov ^apal^'^ XBpvrai S’ 
errl Xo^ov v-jrT^Xov, d<j>^ ov /cal rovvopLa, drro 
Be T ^9 ®ovpLa<^ /cal 6 ©ovpidrr]^ KoXrro^, iv tp 

^ Tloi7i4(rffri ^ lloi^fearcrav (bno) 

® The words /cai . . . Tpfiy/o*' are suspected by* Meineke. 

* ^ 7 ]pS>j/, not ^apwv (the Doric spelling), is the spelling 
used in Homer; and so lead the MSS. of Strabo in this 
case, but in subsequent uses the MSS , though variant, 
favour the Done spelling. 

^ XleWava, Kramer, for Tl4\avva A, Tl4\apa B7 , so the 
later editors ® See footnote 4 on ^ripwv (above). 


^ *Tt” can hardly refer to Pherae, for Paiisani as appears 
not to have seen, or known of, a temple of Athena there. 
Hence Strabo seems to mean that there was such a temple 
somewhere else, on the banks of the river Nedon (now River 
of Kalainata) The site of the temple is as yet unknown 
(see Curtius, Feloponnesos u., p 159). 

114 




GEOGRAPHY, 8. 4. 4-5 

Laconia and is a different river fiom the Neda It ^ 
has a notable temple of A thena Nedusia. In Poeaessa,^ 
also, there is a temple of Athena Nedusia^ named 
after some place called Nedon^ from winch Teleclus 
is said to have colonised Poeaessa and Echeiae ® and 
Tragium. 

5 . Of the seven cities ^ which Agamemnon 
tendered to Achilles, I have already spoken about 
Cardamyle and Pherae and Pedasus As for Enop^,® 
some say that it is Pellana,® others that it is some 
place near Cardanayle, and others that it is Gerenia. 
As for Hire, it is pointed out near the mountain that 
is near Megalopolis in Aicadia, on the load that 
leads to Andania, the city which, as I have said,^ 
the poet called Oechalia, but others say that wliat 
is now Mesola,^ which extends to the gulf between 
Taygetus and Messenia, is called Hir^ And Aepeia 
is now called Thuria, which, as I have said,® 
bordeis on Pharae , it is situated on a lofty hill, and 
hence the name From Thuria is derived the name 
of the Thuriates Gulf, on which there was but one 

^ “Poeaessa” is otherwise unknown. Some of the MSS 
spell the name “Poeeessa,” in which case Strabo might be 
refeiring to the “Poeeessa”m the island of Ceos “JN^ear 
Poeeessa, between the temple ” (of Snnnthian Apollo) “and 
the rums of Poeeessa, is the temple of Nedusian Athena, 
which was founded by Nestor when he was on his return 
horn Tioy” (10. 5 6) But it seems more likely that tlie 
three places here mentioned as colonised by Teleclus were all 
somewhere in Messenia 

® Otherwise unknown 

* For their position see Map V m Curtius^ Pelopmneso,% 
end of vol. 11 

® Uiad 9 loO ® Also spelled Pellene , now Zugra 

’ 8 a 25 « See 8 4. 7. ® 8 4. 4. 

‘ ‘ Aepeia ” being the femimneform of the Greek adjectiv^e 
“aepys,” meaning “sheer,” lofty.” 

ns 

i2 



STRABO 


7roX^9 fJLLa ^ fjVi ^VLov rovvo^a^ aTvevavrLov Taivd-^ 
pov. "'AvOeiav Be ol fiev avrrjv rrjv %ovpiav 
(j)aaLv, AiTreiav Be rr)v ^le 9 a)vr]v ol Be rrjv 
fjLera^v ^AaLvrjv,^ r&v IsHeaarivLcov iroXecov oltceio- 
rara ^advXeijiov Xe^Oelcrav, rj^ 7r/?o<? daXdrrrj 
TToXi^ Kopcoprj* fcal ravTr]V Be ripe^ UtjBaa-ov 
XexSfjval j>a<TCv vtto tov Trocrjrov. 
nrdaai S’ 6771)9 aXo^, 

C 361 TS.apBapLv\r} pt£v eV’ avr^, ^apaX^ S’ diro nrevre 
araBlcov, vcpoppLOV e^ovaa depivov, ai S’ aXKai 
dvcoiidXoL<^ fcexp'^vrai to ?9 cctto OaXarTr}^ Bta- 

(TTTjpiaaL, 

6. TlXriaLov Be rfj<: K.opoopr]<; fcarh fiecrov ttcoc; 
TOV koXttov 0 na/x»icro9 Trora/io? iK^dXXeL, ravvTjv 
pilv ev Be^ia excov fcal &v eicrlv ecrx^Tat 

'irpb<> Bvcriv lluXo? fcal K.V7rapi(rcrla* fiecrri Be 
rovTcov "'Epava (^v ov/c ev rivh ^ Api]vr}v elvai^ 
vevopbiKacn irporepov), ©ovplav Be teal ^apd^ ev 
dpLcrrepa, fieyccrro^ S’ iarl Trorapb&v t&v ez^ro? 
^l(7$piov, tcatirep ov TrXeLOv^s i) eKarov araBlov^ 
in: rd>v irijy&v pv6l<; BayfriXrj^; vBari Bid tov 
yiedo-rivLaKov ireBiov Kal t ^9 Ma/capla^ /caXovfie- 
d(f>€a7i]Ki re t ^9 vvv M.ecra7]vlcov TroXeoo^ 
6 TTorafio^ craBLov^^ TrevT'^Kovra eari Be fcal 

^ v6Ki 5 jj-la, Corais and Memeke emend to v6\i(rfj.aj 
perhaps rightly. 

2 ’AerlyriVy Corais, for ^Afflvris , so the later editors. 

3 See footnote 4, p. 114, on ^ripSiv 

^ dvm (boio)^ supplying lacuna of about five letters m A , 
KakeiaOat {h man, sec, and ^), 

1 16 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 4. 5-6 

city, Rhium^ by name^ opposite Taenaium. And 
as for Antheia, some say that it is Thuiia itself, and 
that Aepeia is Methone ; but others say that of all 
the Messenian cities the epithet deep-mead owed’' ^ 
was most appropriately applied to the intervening 
Asin^, in whose territory on the sea is a city called 
Coron6,^ moreover, according to some writers, it 
was Coron^ that the poet called Pedasus ^'And 
all are close to the salt sea,” ^ CardamyI6 on it, 
Pharae only five stadia distant (with an anchoring 
place in summer), while the others are at varying 
distances from the sea. 

6 It is near Corone, at about the centre of the 
gulf, that the river Pamisus empties. The river has 
on its light Coron^ and the cities that come in order 
after it (of these latter the farthermost towards the 
west aie Pylus and Cyparissia, and between these is 
Erana, which some have WTongly thought to be the 
Arene of earlier time),® and it has Thuria and Pharae 
on its left It IS the laigest of the iiveis inside 
the Isthmus, although it is no more than a hundred 
stadia in length from its sources, from which it flows 
with an abundance of water through the Messenian 
plain, that is, through Macaria, as it is called. The 
river stands at a distance of fifty® stadia from the 
present city of the Messenians. There is also another 

1 See 8 4. 7. 

* Deep-meadowed Antheia,” Ihad 9 151, 

® Now Petalidi Paiisanias (4. 36. 3) identifies Coron^ 
with Homer’s Aepeia 

4 Ihad 9 153 5 See 8 3 23. 

® The MSS read “ two hundred and fifty ” 


® BtuKocriovs ((r') Hal, before v^vr'^iKovTa, Memeke and others 
omit 

117 




STRABO 


aXXo9 Ila/^tcro? 'x^apaSpcoBrj^;, juifcpo^, irep] Aev- 
KTpov peo)v TO Aafca)vc/c6v, T-epl ov fcpiciv 6cr)(^ov 
Meaarivioi irpo<i AafceBaipLovLov*; iTrl ^iXimrov* 
TOP Se Ua/iicrov, op '^Apiadop Tire? 0)p6p,a<Tav} 
TTpoetp'^Kapep, 

7 . *^E<popo<s Se TOP Kp€(T(f>6pTr]v, eVetS^ eZXe 
Me<Tcr92r^r, BteXeip (f)ij<rlp eh Trerre TroXei? avTtjV, 
&(TTe %T6vv/cXapop /iiep iv t^ /lia^ t^? Xo>pa% 
TavT7](; /ceipbiprjp airoBel^ai ^aaLXeiop avT&, eh 
Be ra? aXXa?^ ^acrcXea^^ TrejMy^aL HvXov KaX 
^P/or Kal TAedoXap /cal^ ^Tapehcp TrocTjcrapTa 
lo-op6pLOV9 TrdpTa^ roi? Acoptevcn tov^ MecraTjvlov^* 
dyapafCTOVPTOOp Be t&p AcopUcop, peraypopra 
fjLOPOp TOP 'l^TepvKXapop popLaat, ttoXip, eh to£)- 
Tor Be KaX tou? Aeopcea^ avpayayeip Tra/^ra?. 

8. Be Mecrcri^pLcop TroXi? eoiKe K.opivd^* 

vwepKeiTai yap t7j<; TroXeco? eKaTepa<; opo^ vyjri^Xop 
teaX diroropbOPi Tei^^i Koipm nrepieiXrjfxpLhoVy &<Tr 
cLKpoTToXei KaXovpepop 'Wwpurjy 

TO Be ^AKpoKopipBof;* &<rT olKeiw^; Soksc Arjpri- 
Tpio<; 6 ^dpLO<; ® irpo^ ^LXiTnrop ehrelp top 
A7}pLr]TpL0Vy 7rapaKeXev6pLepo<; ® tovtcop e%ec70ai 
T&p TToXecop dpapotv eTTLOvpLOvpTa HeXoTTov- 
V7]crov* T&p KepdTmv yap dpLcj>OLP,'^ 6 ^ 97 , KaOe^ei^ 

1 a>s, before Trpoeip’fiKafj.ev^ Kramer and Meineke omit 

2 €ls §€ rks kwas, Kramer, supplying lacuna of about 
twelve letters in A (see same phrase in 8. 5 4) ; so 
Meineke, 

® jSao-iA-eas, Meineke, from conj of Kramer, for ^aertXeias 
(op. ^acriheas in 8 5 4) 

* Kal M 6 < 7 <JAav Kal, Meineke, supplying lacuna of about 
twelve letters in A. For a long reading in B and also two 
marginal notes, see C, Muller, Ind. Far, Lett , p. 994. 

® ^dptos, correction in n, for ^oXfip^h ; so the editors. 

118 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 4. 6-8 


Pamisus, a small torrential stream, wlncli near 

th^ Laconian Leuctrum ; and it was over Leuctrum 
that the Messenians got into a dispute with the 
Lacedaemonians in the time of Philip Of the 
Pamisus which some called the Amathus I have 
already spoken ^ 

7 * According to Ephorus : When Cresphontes took 
Messenia, he divided it into five cities , and so, since 
Stenyclarus was situated in the centre of this country, 
he designated it as a royal residence for himself, 
while as for the others — Pylus, Rliium, Mesola, and 
Hyameitis — ^lie sent kings to them, after confernng 
on all the Messenians equal rights with the Dorians , 
but since this irritated the Doiians, he changed his 
mind, gave sanction to Stenyclarus alone as a city, 
and also gathered into it all the Doi ians, 

8 The city of the Messenians is similar to Corinth ; 
for above either city lies a high and precipitous 
mountain that is enclosed by a common ^ wall, so that 
it is used as an acropolis, the one mountain being 
called Ithom^ and the other Acrocorinthus. And 
so Demetrius of Pharos seems to have spoken aptly 
to Philipp the son of Demetrius when he advised 
him to lay hold of both these cities if he coveted 
the Peloponnesus,^ for if you hold both horns,” he 

1 8 3. 1. 

2 Le common to the lower city and the acropolis, 

® Philip V— reigned 220 to 178 b.c 

* This same Demetrius was commissioned by Philip Y to 
take Ithom^ but was killed in the attack (see Polybius 3 19. 
7. 11) 


® 7rapafce\€vSjinsyos, Xylander, for vapctKeKevSfjievoy, 

’ After afKpotu, Xylander and others insert Kpar-l}<ras 
Meineke emends afKpQty Kpxrm (cp, Polybius 7. 11). 

I19 




STRABO 


^ovVi fcipara fiev Xeycov rr}v ^Wco/jltjv ml 
TOP ^AfcpoKoptvdov, 0OVV Sk T^v HeKoTT 6vvYicsj:>v , 
KoX hr) hih Tr)v evfcacpLav ravTrjv ap^ipijpKTTOL 
yeyovacLv at TroXet? avrat* ULopivdov pev ovp 
KareaKa'y^av ^Vcopatot ^ ml apiarTjcrav Traktv* 
M€<xcr')]vr)v Be avetXov pep AaKehaipovtoi, irdXtv 
S’ dpeka^op @'i)^atOL ml perd ravra <I>tXt7r7ro9 
^Apvprov' at S’ dKpoTr6Xet<; dotfcr}rot htepetvap, 

C 362 9, To S’ ep ALpvai^ Trj<i ^AprepiSo^ iepop, i<j)* ^ 

Meaa-'^vtoc rnrepl rd^ •jrapdivov<; v/Sptcrac So/cov<rt 
rd<i d(f>iypipa<; im rr)P dvcrlav, iv pe6opiot<i icrrl 
re AaKcovtKT]^ ml Tr]<; Mea(Tr)via<:, ottov 
fcoLPTjP arvveriXovp rravrjyvptp ml dvcrtav dp- 
(porepot* perd Be rrjv v^ptv ov BiBovrcov BL/ca<s 
tS>p M€(T(Trjvtcov, (rv<TT7)vat pacrt top 'iroXepov. 
diro Be T&p Atpp&p tovtq)V ml to iv rfj 'XTrdprr) 
Aipvatov etprjTac ^ ApripcBo^ lepov. 

10. TlXeopdfCL<; 5’ eTroXiprjcrav Bid Td<; diro- 
ardaei^ tcov ls/[e<T(Tr)vt(iov* ttjv pep ovv jrpdrrjp 
mrd/CTrjcnp avrcov prjal Tvpratofi iv ro2<; ttolt)- 
pacTL mrd tov<; tcop irarepcov irarepa^: yeveadai* 
Tfjp Be Bevrepav, md' fjv eXopevot <TVppd')(pv^ 
Apyetov^ re ml ’HXe/oi;? ^ ml Tltcrdra^ /cal 
^Ap/cdSa<;^ direarricrav, ^Ap/cdBcop pev ^Aptaro- 
KpdTr)v Tov 'Opxopevov ^acrtXea Trapexopevcov 

^ ^Poofiaioij Xylander inserts , so the later editors. 

* *H\€/ous, Memeke emends to *ApKciSa$, following coiij, of 
Kramer; but according to Pausanias (4 15. 4) both “the 
Eleians and Arcadians were with the Messenians.” 

® Kal *ApHddas, after nKrdras, Jones inserts (see Pausanias 
4 15. 4 and 4. 17 2). 

120 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 4. 8-10 

said, ^^you will hold down the cow^” meaning by 

horns” Ithoin6 and Acrocorinthus, and by ^^cow ” 
the Peloponnesus And indeed it is because of their 
advantageous position that these cities have been 
objects of contention Corinth was destroyed and 
rebuilt again by the Romans;^ and Messen^ was 
destroyed by the Lacedaemonians but restored by 
the Thebans and afterward by Philip the son of 
Amyntas The citadels, however, remained un- 
inhabited 

9 . The temple of Artemis at Limnae, at which 
the Messenians are reputed to have outraged the 
maidens who had come to the sacrifice,^ is on the 
boundaries between Laconia and Messenia, where 
both peoples held assemblies and offered sacrifice in 
common ; and they say that it was after rhe out- 
raging of the maidens, when the Messenians refused 
to give satisfaction for the act, that the war took 
place And it is after this Liinnae, also, that the 
Limnaeum, the temple of Artemis m Sparta, has 
been named 

10 Often, however, they went to war on account 
of the revolts of the Messenians. Tyrtaeus says in 
his poems that the first conquest of Messenia took 
place m the time of his fathers’ fathers ; the second, 
at the time when the Messenians chose the Argives, 
Eleians, Pisatans, and Aicadians as allies and re- 
volted — ^the Arcadians furnishmg Aristocrates ® the 
king of Orchomenus as general and the Pisatae 

1 Leueius Muminius (cp, 8 6 23) the consul captured 
Corinth and destroyed it by fire m 146 B c , but it was 
rebuilt again by Augustus 
Cp 6. 1. 6 

® On the perfidy of Aristocrates, see Paiisanias 4 17 4 


I2I 



STRABO 


orTparrjyov, UKTaT&v Se UavraXiovra tov 
^O fM(^aXi(ovo<;* '^vC/ca cj> 7 ]a\v avrb^ arpar^jy^jaat, 
TOP TToXep^ov TOL^ AaKeSatpovioc^^p- Kal yap dvai 
(j>r]a-cv ifcetOev iv rfi iXeyeia, rjv einypd^ovciv 
^vvopLiav* 

avTo<; yap KpovicDP, KaXXicrTe<f>dvov ttogl^ 

Zev^ ^YlpatcXeihai^ TTjvhe BiBcoxe ttoXiv' 

oXaiv dpLa ^poXiirovre^ ’ Eipiveov rjvepboevra) 
evpelav UeXoTro^ vrjaov a(f>iK6p£0a» 

&(TT r} ravra rjtcvpmrai ra iXeyeta, ^tXox&ptp 
dTrta’Trjreov rip (pTjaavrt ’ABrjvatov re Kal 
vaioVj Kal KaXXiaBivei Kal aXXoc<^ rrXeLoo’t roU 
elrrovat^v ^AOrjv&v d(j)iKi(70ac, SerjOevroov Aa/^te- 
Baipbovlmp Kard XPWH'OPt 09 iTrirarre rrap ^A9r}- 
vaimv Xa/Seip rjyepopa. irrl pep ot}p rov Tvpraiov 
6 Bevrepo^ virrjpl^e Tr6Xepo<;* rpirov Be kuI reraprov 
avarrjpai <j>aaip, ip w KareXvOrjcrap oi Mecrcn^vtot* 
6 Be 7ra9 7rapd7rXov<i 6 MeararjPiaKOf; ardBioi 
OKruKoatoL rrov KaraKoXiTL^opri. 

11 , AXXd yap eh TrXeCco Xoyop rov perpiov 
TvpoLpev, aKoXovBovvre^ rep TrXrjdec r&v icrropov- 
pevcov rrepl %C!)/)a9 eKXeXeippevr]^ rrj<: iTXeL<Trr)<;* 
oiTOV ye Kal 97 AaKcoviKr) XirravBpel, Kpivopevr} 
7r/>09 r^v iraXaidv evapBpiav, e^eo yap t^9 

^ After AuKe^atfiovioiSf Corais inserts 6| ^Tpiveov ; so 

Memeke and others But see Bergk, Foe£ Lyr, Graec, 
2 p. 8, footnote on Frag, 2, 


132 



GEOGRAPHY, 8.4 io*ii 

furnishing Pantaleon the son of Omphalion , at this 
time, he says, he himself was the Lacedaemonian 
general in the wai,^ for in his elegy entitled Eunomia 
he says that he came from there * For the son of 
Cronus, spouse of Hera of the beautiful crown, Zeus 
himself, hath given this city to the Heracleidae, in 
company with whom I left windy Erineus, and came 
to the broad island of Pelops.” ^ Therefore either 
these verses of the elegy must be denied authority 
or we must disci edit Philochorus,® who says that 
Tyrtaeus was an Athenian from the deme of 
Aphidnae, and also Calhsthenes and several other 
writers, who say that he came fiom Athens when 
the Lacedaemonians asked for him in accordance 
with an oracle which bade them to get a commander 
from the Athenians. So the second war was in the 
time of Tyrtaeus ; but also a third and fourth war 
took place, they say, m which the Messenians were 
defeated.^ The voyage round the coast of Messenia, 
following the sinuosities of the gulfs, is, all told, 
about eight bundled stadia in length 

11. However, I am overstepping the bounds of 
moderation in recounting the numerous stories told 
about a country the most of which is now deserted ; 
in fact, Laconia too is now short of population as 
compared with its large population in olden times, 

1 Frag, S (Bergk). 

* Frag 2 (Bergk) Ermeus was an important city in the 
district of Lons (see 9 4. 10 and 10. 4 6). Thucydides 
(1. 107) calls Dons the “ mother-city of the Lacedaemonians.” 

^ Among other works Philochorus was the author of an 
AtihiSi a history of Attica in seventeen books from the 
earliest times to 261 B c Only fragments are extant, 

^ Diodorus Siculus (15, 66) mentions only three Messenian 
wars, 

123 



STRABO 


'ZTrdprrjf; ac XolttoX ttoXlx^^^ rivh elci Trepl 
Tpidfcovra top dpiOpov* to Se iraXaLOV kfcajopiroXiv 
(paorcv avrrjv fcaXeladai, fcaX rd eKarop^aia hid 
Tovro 0 vecr 6 ai irap^ avTOi<; /car 6T09. 


V 

1. ”E<jTi S’ odp perd rov MeacTTjpiafcov kqXttov 
6 KaKOi)ViKo<i pera^if Tatvdpov /cal MaXe&v, 
i/c/cXbVcov pi/cpov drrb pearjp^pia^ rrpo^ eco* Bie- 
Xovcxh he crrahLov<i e/carov rpid/covra ai &vpiS6<i 
rod Taivdpov iv r^ M6cro‘7]VLa/c& ovaai /coXirtp, 
pocbhri<i /cpr)pv6<;, rovrcov S’ yrrep/ceirai ro 
303 rov* earl S’ opo9 pi/cpov vrrep 7779 OaXdrrrj^ 
vy{rr]X6v re /cal opOcov, awdirrov Kard rd rrpo- 
(xdp/cria pipv ral<; ^Ap/ca8iKai<^ v7r(DpeLai<;, &a‘re 
/caraXeirreorOai pera^v avX&va, /ca6^ ^ Mecr- 

(frjvia (Tvvexv^ icri rfj Aa/ccoviKrj, virOTreTTrco/ce 
he ry Tao^er^ ^ Zrrdprrj iv peaoyaia /cal 
Apv/cXai, ov TO rov ^AiroXXcovo^; iepov, koX j; 
4>api9. earl pev odv iv KOiXorepcp to 

t^ 9 7ro\eo)9 eSa^09, /caLirep diroXdp/Savov oprj 
pera^v* aXA.’ ovhev ye pepo^ avrov Xipvd^ei, to 
Se rraXaiov iXlpva^e to irpodareiov, xal i/cdXovv 
avro ACpva^, /cal to rov Aiovvcrov iepov iv 
Aipvai^ 6</)’ vypov ^e^rj/co^ irvy^ave* vvv S’ IttI 

1 Now Cape Matapan 2 ]s^ow Cape Malea 

2 Literally, “Windows’’, now called Kavo Grosso, a 
peninsular promontory about six miles in circumference, 
with precipitous cliffs that are riddled with caverns (Frazer, 
Fausaiiias 3, p. 399, and Curtius, Peloponnesos 2, p 281). 

* For a description of this temple, see Pausanias 3. 18. 9 ff. 

124 



GEOGRAPHY, 8 4 11-5 i 

for outside of Sparta the remaining towns are only 
about thirty in number, whereas in olden times it 
was called, they say, country of the hundred 
cities ” , and it was on tins account, they say, that 
they held annual festivals in which one hundred 
cattle were sacrificed. 


V 

1. Be this as it may, after the Messeman Gulf 
comes the Laconian Gulf, lying between Taenarum ^ 
and Maleae,^ which bends slightly from the south 
towaids the east , and Thyrides,® a precipitous rock 
exposed to the cuiients of the sea, is in the 
Messeman Gulf at a distance of one hundred and 
thirty stadia from Taenarum. Above Thyrides lies 
Taygetus ; ifc is a lofty and steep mountain, only a 
short distance fiom the sea, and it connects in its 
northeily parts with the foothills of the Arcadian 
mountains in such a way that a glen is left in 
between, wheie Messenia borders on Laconia 
Below Taygetus, in the interioi, lies Sparta, and 
also Amyclae, where is the temple of Apollo,^ and 
Phans. Now the site of Spaita is in a rather hollow 
district,® although it includes mountains within its 
limits , yet no pait of it is marshy, though m olden 
times the suburban part was mat shy, and this part 
they called Limnae , ® and the temple of Dionysus 
m Limnae^ stood on wet ground, though now its 

® Hence Homer’s ** Hollow Lacedaemon” {Odyssey A 1) 

® ‘‘Marshes” 

’BoMq [Mitleilunqen d. Kaisei I deidsch Arch Inst Atlmv, 
AU vol 34, p 388) shows that Tozer [SelectionSf note on 
p 212) was right in identifying this “temple of Dionysus m 
Limnae” with the Lenaenm at Athens, where the Lenaean 
festival was called the “ festival in Limnae ” 


125 



STRABO 


^T]pov TTjp ihpvcnv 6X^1. ip Be icoXir^ r^g 
TrapaXla^; to jaev Taivapov clkti^ iariv iKK€i/jL€vr}, 
TO iepov e^ovcra tou HocreLBcovog ev aXaei IBpv- 
pbivov 7 rXr)(TL 0 V S' icrrlv dvrpov, Bt ov top 
KepjSepov dvax^V^ccL fivOevovaiv v^' ^HpaxXiovg 
aBov, ivrevdev S’ eh fMev ^PvKOVPra UKpap rrjg 
Kvprjpaiag irpog potop BLapfid earc crraBLCOP 
T/ 04 cr%iX 6 Ci)z^' eh Be Hdxuvov ^rpog Bvcrip, to t^J9 
l^t/ceXtag dfCpcoTrjpLop^ rerpafCLcrx^XLoiP e^aKOtrLccp, 
Tiveg Be reTpafCtcrx^XLCop’ (paaiv eh Be MaXeag 
TTpog eco e^a/cocTbcop ejSBojiTjKOpra fcarafcoXTrL^opTr 
eh Be ''Opov ypddop, raTreivrjp ')(epp 6 vr)(rov evBo-- 
rep(i> T&p yLaXeot 3 v,TTePTaKo<TL(£)P etfcoot (npofcevrai 
Be /caret rovrov Kvdrjpa ep redcrapd/copra araBioLg, 
PYjCTog evXlpePog, rroXiP e')(pvaa ofidpOptop, f]P 
eax^v "EiVpv/cXrjg ep fiepei KT'/^aeco^ IBtagy 6 /cad' 
fjptdg r&p Aa/ceSatptoptcop '^yepcop* Trept/cetrat Be 
pY)(TLBia TrXeiCt), rd /Jtep iyyvg, rd Be /cal pti/cpop 
dwcorepcoy eh Be J£copv/cop, a/epap rfjg Kp/jrrjg, 
iyyvTarco 77X009 ^cttI araBCcov eirra/codLcop^ 

2. MeTa Be Tatpapop TrXeovri iirl rrfp '^Opov 
ypdOop /cal MaXeag '^apadovg ^ iorrl 770X49* elr' 
'Adtpr] /cal TvBetoPi to XTrdprijg iirLpeiop, ip 
Bia/codbocg /cal rerrapd/copra araBLoig IBpvpepop* 
e)(eb B\ &g (paert, to pavarad pop opv/crop* eld' 6 

^ eTTraKOcricaVi Jones, for Trepr-fiKovTa Wltlx <r' (BiaKocriiav) 
inserted above the ir first hand in A, Groskurd, Mem eke, 
and others read eitraKoainoP irepT'fjKovTa ((tV). Seven hundred 
IS the correct measurement on Ki^pert’s Wall Map, and is 
the same figure given by Strabo in 10 4 5, where Meineke 
pioperly inserts 4irl Taivapov (not Ma^eaj^, Gioskurd and 
others) in the lacuna after Kifzdpov* 

® ^a/ia8ovs, the editors in general, for *A/Ji.a$ovs. 

126 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 5. 1-2 

foundations rest on dry ground. In the bend of the 
seaboaid one comes, first, to a headland that projects 
into the sea, Taenaruni, with its temple of Poseidon 
situated in a grove ; and secondly, near by, to the 
cavern^ through which, according to the myth- 
writers, Cerberus was brought up from Hades by 
Heracles From here the passage towards the 
south across the sea to Phycus,^ a cape m Cyrenaea, 
IS three thousand stadia ; and the passage towards 
the west to Pachynus,® the promontory of Sicily, 
IS four thousand six hundied, though some say four 
thousand , and towards the east to Maleae, following 
the sinuosities of the gulfs, six hundied and seventy ; 
and to Onugnathus,^ a low-lying peninsula some- 
what this side of Maleae, five hundred and twenty ; 
off Onugnathus and opposite it, at a distance of 
forty stadia, lies Cythera, an island with a good 
harbour, containing a city of the same name, which 
Eurycles, the ruler of the Lacedaemonians in our 
times, seized as his private property , and round 
it he seveial small islands, some near it and others 
slightly farther away ; and to Corycus,® a cape in 
Crete, the shortest voyage is seven hundred stadia.® 

2 After Taenarum, on the voyage to Onugnathus 
and Maleae, one comes to the city Psamathus ; then 
to Asm6, and to Gythiura, the seaport of Sparta, 
situated at a distance of two hundred and forty 
stadia from Sparta. The roadstead of the seaport 
was dug by the hand of man, so it is said. Then 

^ The “ Taenanas fauces” of Veigil {Georgies 4. 467) 

^ Now Ras-al Razat. ® Now Cape Passero 

^ Literally, ** Ass’s yiw ” , now Cape Elaphonisi. 

® To be identified with Oimarus (10 4. 5) ; see Murray’s 
Small Classical Atlas (1904, Map 11). The cape is now called 
Garabusa. ® From Cape Taenarum 


127 



STRABO 


Evp(ora<; ifcBiBcoai, fJLera^v Tvdeiov Kal ^A/cpatcov*^ 
T 6 C 09 fiev odv 6 ttXoS? €(ttI Trap aljiaXov ocrov 
BiaKoaicov koX TeaaapdicovTa araBicov' el6^ eXcSSe? 
virep/ce^rai ')(copLov /cal /cclopLTj "'EX 09 * TTporepov S* 
rjv ttoXl^, KaOdirep /caV^O/Lcrjpo^ cj)7]atv* 

01 T ap 'Afjiv/cXa^ el'xpv "'E\o9 t\ etpaXov 
TTToXiedpov' 

/cricTfia S’ 'EXtou (^aal rov Uepcreoyfi, ecrrt Be 
/cal TreBiov /caXovfievop Aev/crj* elra 7roX/9 cttI 
^eppov^aov IBpvjMevrj EvirapcaaLa, XifMeva exovaa* 
364 elra fj ''Ovov <ypddo<;, Xipueva exovaa' elra Bo/a 
770 X 49 * elra MaXea^* ardBcoi S’ eU avrd<i drro 
Tr]<i "'Ovov yvddov Trevr/j/covra /cal e/carov* eari 
Be /cal ’Ao'(W7ro9 770 X 49 ev rfj AaKcovi/cfj 

3. Tooi^ S’ u^’ ^OfiTjpov KaraXeyofievcov rrjv puev 
Meacrrjv ovBajiov Bei/cvvcrOaC <^a<J4* Meaaoav S’ 
ov T »}9 elvac fikpo^, dXxd ^ 7779 %rrdprri(;, 

/caddrrep Kal ro Aifxvalov Kara rov . . . /ca.® 
eviOL Se Kara diroKorr^v Bexovrai rrp Xl6aa7jv7}V' 

1 'AKpaicojff the editois m general, foi ’A/craW (ABErp'7(^^7lo). 

2 &\a 4, Corais inserts , so the later editors 

® The words yiea-aSav . kk me omitted by BEZ4 and 
Pletlio But t has the words as far as r6v , and so g, which 
leaves a lacuna after r6y» In A about four letters between 
r6y and «a have perished with the margin ; hence the same 
lacuna in cghno* Meineke, Muller-Dubnei and others write 
®6ppaKa, but Kramer writes Qp^xa Capps, citing 8, 5. 1, 
suspects that Strabo wrote KaBdts irpoelpriKa 


1 “ Helus ” means “ Maish.” 2 2, 584. 

® This plain extends north-east from Cyparissia 
^ Between Acraeae and Cyparissia. Kow in rums near 
Xyh, 



GEOGRAPHY, 8, 5. 2-3 

one comes to the Eurotas, which empties between 
Gythium and Acraeae. Now for a time the voyage 
IS along the shore, for about two hundred and forty 
stadia; then comes a mai shy district situated above 
the gulf, and also a village called Helus ^ In earlier 
times Helus was a city, just as Homei says ^^And 
they that held Amyclae, and Helus, a city by the 
sea.” 2 It IS said to have been founded by Helms, 
a son of Perseus And one comes also to a plain 
called Leuce , ® then to a city Cyparissia, which is 
situated on a peninsula and has a haibour ; then to 
Onugnathus, which has a haibour ; then to the city 
Boea , and then to Maleae And the distance from 
Onugnathus to Maleae is one hundied and fifty 
stadia ; and there is also a city Asopus ^ in Laconia 

3 They say that one of the places mentioned in 
Homer's Catalogue,^ Mess^, is nowhere to be seen; 
and that Messoa was not a part of the country but 
of Spaita, as was the case with Limnaeurn ® 

But some take Messe ” as an apocopated form of 

5 Ilmd 2. 484-877. 

® “Limnae or Lminaeum, Cynosura, Messoa, and Pitane, 
seem to have been the q^uarters or wards of Spaita, the 
inhabitants of each quarter forming a local tribe” (Frazer’s 
Fausanias^ note on 16, 9, Vol III, p 341) 

’ Three or four Gieek letters are missing Meineke's 
conjecture yields *‘near Thoinax,” which, according to 
Stephanus Byzantinus, was a mountain in Laconia. But as 
yet such a mountain has not been identified, and on still 
other grounds the conjecture is doubtful (cp the note on 
10. 8, “ Thornax,” in Frazer’s Fausamas^ Vol III, p 322). 
Kramer’s tempting conjecture yields “according to the 
Thracian,” t e Dionysius the Thracian, who wrote Com* 
mentaries on Homer ; but it is doubtful whether Strabo 
would have referred to him merely by his surname (cp. the 
full name in 14 2. 13) 

129 

VOL. IV K 



STRABO 


eLprjrai yap ore /cal avrrj puipo^ AaKcovL/ci]<;* 

rrapahelypaa-L Se %pa)z/Tai rov fiev Trocrjrov 
Kpl /cal Sco /cal pud^yfr, /cal ere* 

7]pco^ ^ S* AvropeiScov re /cal "^AX/cipo^;, 

dvrl rov ^ A\/cipbiSa)V* ^HaioBov Se, on to jSpidv 
/cal ^piapbv ^pl Xiyei* Se /cal ''Icov ro 

paSiov, pa* ^EiTTLX^pP'O*; Be to XCav Xt* XvpaKoa 
Be T<^9 'Zvpa/cov(Ta<;* irap ^^perreBo/cXel Be, 

peia yiverai dpb^orepcov Syfr, 
rj o'v/r49' /cal Trap ^Avr ipLdx(p' 

ArjpLTjrpof; roe ^EiXevcnvirj^ iepr) oyir* 

/cal TO dXcjyerov aX(f)e* ^vcjyopicov Be /cal rop fjXov 
Xeyei ^X* rraph ^eXrjrci Be* 

BpeoiBe^ el<s raXdpov^ Xev/cov dyovcriv epi,^ 
eh dvepeov Be rd TrySd, 

rd TTTjSdXia ^Apar6<;^7jae' AcoBco Be r^v AioBdvrjv 
'Ztpepeea^^ rcbv S’ dXXcop r&u vtto rov Trocrjrov 
Karcavopeaa peevcov rd puev dvpprjrac, royp S’ ex^rj 
Xeinrerai, rd Be pbercovopeaerrat, /caOdirep ai Avyeial 
Alyaiai al^ ydp ev rfj Ao/cpiBi ovS' oXo)? irepieKTi, 
rrjv Be Adv oi AioaKOvpoi irore e/c rroXtop/cia^ 

1 But the MSS. of Homer {II, 19 392) read Xtttovsj not 

^peos 

2 After ^pi Oorais inserts rb ^piou, so Memeke and Mulier- 
Bubner 

® at, before ydp, Corais inserts in a lacuna of about four 
letters ; A, 7)ian, sec , inserts o^, and so read cghtno 


T30 


1 8 3 29, 8 4 1. 




GEOGRAPHY, 8. 5 3 

Messen6,” for, as I have said,^ Messene too was a 
part of Laconia. As examples of apocope from the 
poet himself, writers cite ^^kri,” and ^^maps,”^ 

and also the passage *^^the heroes Automedon and 
Alcimus,*' ® for Alcimedon ** ; then from Hesiod, 
who uses for *^^brithu” or "briaron*’; and 

Sophocles and Ion, ^^rha” for '^^rhadion” ; and 
Epichaimus, "li” for ^Mian,’* and Syraco *’ for 

Syracuse ” ; and m Empedocles,^ "ops'’ for 
" opsis ” : " the ^ ops ’ ^ of both becomes one " ; and 
in Antimachus, the sacred ‘ ops ’ of the Eleusinian 
Demeter,” and ^^alphi” for "alphiton”; and 
Euphonon even uses hel ” for " Helos ” ; and in 
Philetas, "eri” for"euon”: "maidservants bung 
white ^eri’® and put it in baskets”; and Aratus 
says " peda ” for " pedalia ” " the ^ peda ’ ^ towards 
the wind ” ; and Simmias, " Dodo ” for " Dodona.” 
As for the rest of the places listed by the poet, 
some have been destroyed ; of others traces are still 
left ; and of otheis the names have been changed, 
for example, Augeiae ® to Aegaeae ; ® for the 
Augeiae in Locus no longer exists at all. As for 
Las, the story goes, the Dioscuri once captured it 

* For "knthe,” “doma,’* “ mapbidion,” Aiistotle {?oet 
1458 A) quotes the same examples. 

® Iliad 19 392 (but see critical note on opposite page). 

* Frag 88 (Diels) Aristotle {I c.) quotes the same 
example 

® ** Vision ” ® For “erion,’* “wool,” 

’ “Rudders ” « Iliad 2 583. 

® That IS, the Laconian (not the Locrian) Augeiae, which 
was thirty stadia from Gytheium (Pausamas 3. 21 C), near 
the Limni of to-day. 

Iliad 2 532, 8. 364, 9, 426. 

Castor and Pollux. 

131 



STRABO 


kXelv icrropovvraiy ov Br) Aairepaai 'Trpoa‘'r)fyo- 
pev9r}(TaVy xal Xo(l>o/c\r}<; \4yei ttov* 

PT) TOt) Aarripaa, vt) top Evpwrav rpiroVy 

in] T0V9 ev *'Apy€L fcal Kara 'Zrrdprrjv ^eov9.^ 

4. ^7](rl S’ ’'E<^opo9 T 0 W 9 Karacrxovraf; rrjv 
AafccovLKrjv ^UpafcXeiBat;, RipyadivT] re /cal 
Tlpo/cXrj) Btekecv ek If p-^pV iroXiaat ttjv 
'Xd>pav piav pev ovv rcdv pLepiBcov, t<^9 ’AyLti5/r\a9, 
i^aiperop Bovpai irpoBovri avTok tyjv Aa/c(o~ 
ptK7}v /cal ireicrapTL top Kare'xpvra avrrjv dTreXdeiv 
VTroaTTOvBop pera r&v ^A^ai&p ek r7)v 'Icovlup* 
Trjp Be '27rdpT7]v ^aarLXeiop aTvoc^riPat a^Lcriv 
avTok* 6i9 Be tA9 aXXa^ irep^^at /SaaiXea^, 
€TrLTpeylraPTa<; Bex^adai crvvol/cov^i tov<; ^ovXo- 
pepov^ T&v ^ipcop, Bid rrjv XeciravBpLav* 'XprjcdaL 
Be Aal pep pavcrraOp/p Bed to evXLpepop,^ Atyvi^ 
Be 7r/?09 T 0 V 9 7roXepLOv<; 6pprjTr]pi(p, /cal^ yap 
opopeip Tok KVKX<py ^dptBt ® Be 0)9 ya^o(f>vXa/cLtp ® 
dwo T&v €a:to9 ^ dcrc^dXeiap e-)(pvar) t . . WTra- 

^ The words koX 2o<^>o/c\^s . . . deotJs, Meineke ejects. 

2 A has va . . Klp.evov with space for about fifteen 
letters ; for \lfievov bno have cvKifievov, The above restora- 
tion of the text follows Ourtius {Peloponnesos ii, p. 309), 
so Meineke, and Muller-Dubner, 

® Aiyvif the editors, following 0 Muller, for AXtvi, 

* A has vo\G . . . y^p ktK with space for about fifteen 
letters , whence iroK^fii in gi, iroKepiovs m h The above is 
the restoration of Curtius (2c.), so Muller-Dubner; and 
Meineke (except TroAeyuoi/s instead of TroX^fiiovs) But see 0 
Muller, Ind. Far. Lect p 995. 

® Meineke, for &/ic, ^^paict (other MSS.) 

Others read 4?apalot. 

® A has 5 . . airh kt\ , with space for about fifteen 
letters. Jones restores as above (cp yaCo(l>vKaKt^ in 7. 6, 1) ; 

TC32 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 5 3-4 

by siege, and it was from this fact that they got the 
appellation Lapersae ^ And Sophocles says, 
^^by the two Lapersae, I swear, by Eurotas thud, 
by the gods m Argos and about Spaita/’ ^ 

4 . According to Ephorus Eurystheues and 
Procles, the Heracleidae, took possession of Laconia,® 
divided the country into six parts, and founded 
cities , ^ now one of the divisions, Amyclae, they 
selected and gave to the man® who had betiay^ed 
Laconia to them and who had persuaded the ruler 
who was m possession of it to accept their terms 
and emigrate with the Achaeans to Ionia, Sparta 
they designated as a royal residence for themselves , 
to the other divisions they sent kings, and because 
of the sparsity of the population gave them pei- 
mission to receive as fellow-mhabitants any strangers 
who wished the privilege ; and they used Las as a 
naval station because of its good harbour, and 
Aegys ® as a base of operations against their enemies 
(for its territory bordered on those of the sur- 
rounding peoples) and Phans as a treasury, because 
it afforded security against outsiders; . . . but 

^ “ Sackers of Las ” ^ Frag 871 (Nauck) 

® Tradition places the Dorian Conquest as far back as 
1104 BC 

* Cp 8 5 7. ® Philonomus (§ 5 following), 

® Aegys was situated in north-western Laconia near the 
source of the Eurotas 

’ Its territory included Carysbus (10 1 6 ) 


Curtms, §6 rafiieltf , Muller-Dubner, $€ ; 

Meineke, §€ 

^ ^/crJs, Meineke emends to evT6s 

® After the letter t A leaves a space for about fifteen 
letters; and restoration seems hopeless, though Curtius 
proposes Boiats S’ i/airopicp 


133 



STRABO 


fcovovTa<; K drravTa<i rov<; TrepioLKov^ %irapTiaTm 
365 oyLco)? icrovojjuov^ elvai, jMeTexovra^ ical iroXcreia^ 
fcaX dpx^LOiv^ KaXelcrdai Se Et\&)Ta9*^ ^Ayiv Se 
Toz^ ISiipvadivov^ d(j>e\i(jdai T?)y icroTipiiav kqX 
(TvvTeXeiv irpoard^ai Xnapr^* tov<; pev oZv 
aXXov<s VTrafcovaai, rov^ S* ^E\6 lov<;, tov^ €Xovra<; 
TO ‘‘'E\o9, 7roP](rapipov^ aTToaraaiv Kara KpaTo^ 
aX&vai TroXepcp /cal /cptdrjvat hovXov^ eirl Ta/cTol<i 
TLo-LVi &(TTe TOP 6 X 0 VTa pTjT iXevOepovv i^ecvai 
prjre nrcoXelv e^co r&v opcov TOvrov<^* rovrov Se 
XexS^vai Tov 7rpo9 tou 9 E?Xa)Ta9 TtoXepov, 
ax^Sop Si TL /cal ttjp eiXmreiap Tt)p varepop 
avppeLpaaap pixP^ ^Ecopamv iinKpaTeLa<; ol 
irepl '^Aycp elalp ol /caraSeL^avTev rpoTTov yap 
Tipa S7]po(xLov<i SovXov^ elxop ol AuKeSatpopioi 
rovTov<s, /caroiicia^ rcpd^ avrol^ aTroSei^apTef^ /cal 
XeiTOVpyLa^ ISla^, 

5 Uepl Se T^9 ha/cwpcop TroXcreCa^ /cal r&v 
yepopipoop nrap^ avTol<i pera^oX&p ra pep TroXXa 
TrapetT] tc<; up Sid ro ypcopipoPt tipS>p 3' d^iov 
lVcy9 ppr](T0‘^vat, ’A%a4oi)9 ydp tou9 ^&ici}ra<i 
<j>aarl avyicaTeXOoPTa^ IleXoTri €A9 ttjp Il€\o- 
Tropprjaop ol/crjo'ai ttjp Aa/ccopi/c'^v, Tocrovrov S^ 
dperf) Supey/ceip, &ar€ ttjp TJeXoTTOPPrja-ov, etc 
TToXX&p tjSt] ''Apyo<; Xeyophr^p, Tore 

^Axo>ifcbp ’^A /5709 Xexd^vciij /cal ov popop ye rrjv 

^ The words Ka\eT<T6aL de EXhuras, Meineke transposes to a 
position after "EA.py 

134 



GEOGRAPHY, 8 5. 4-5 

though the neighbouring peoples, one and all, wei e 
subject to the Spartiatae, still they had equal rights, 
sharing both in the lights of citizenship and in the 
offices of state, and they weie called Helots but 
Agis, the son of Eurysthenes, deprived them of the 
equality of rights and ordered them to pay tribute 
to Spaita; now all obeyed except the Heleians, the 
occupants of Helus, who, because they levolted, 
were foicibly reduced in a \var, and weie condemned 
to slavery, with the expiess reseivation that no 
slaveholder should be permitted either to set them 
free or to sell them outside the borders of the 
country ; and this war ^vas called the War against 
the Helots One may almost say that it was Agis 
and his associates who introduced the whole system 
of Helot-slavery that persisted until the supremacy 
of the Romans, for the Lacedaemonians held the 
Helots as state-slaves in a way, having assigned to 
them certain settlements to live in and special 
services to perforin 

5 Concerning the government of the Laconians 
and the changes that took place among them, one 
might omit most things as well known, but there 
are certain things which it is perhaps worth while 
to mention. For instance, they say that the 
Achaeans of Phthiotis came down with Pelops into 
the Pelopomiesus, took up their abode in Laconia, 
and so far excelled in bravery that the Peloponnesus, 
which now for many ages had been called Argos, 
came to be called Achaean Aigos, and the name 
was applied not only m a general way to the 

1 Meineke and Forbiger transfer “and they were called 
Helots” to a position after “Helus ” (following). 


135 



STRABO 


]le\o7r6vv7](XOV, oKKiu xal ISloo^ rrjv AafccovLKrjv 
ovrco TTpoa-ayopevd^var to yovp tov ttop^tov, 

TTOv MevdXao^ er]v ; 

^ ovK ''Ap7€09 7]€v W.'xau/cov ; 

he'Xpvrai rLve<i ovrco^* rj ovk rjv iv rfj Aarccovifc^ ; 
Kara Se rrjv r&v ^]ipaK\eLhS>v Kadohov, ^L\ov6p.ov 
TTpoSoPTO^ rrjp 'xcopap roh Acopievcn., perapiarriarav 
GK rrj<; AaKCOPtKYjt; eh rrjv r&p ^Idovcov, rrjv Kal 
vvp ^ A’)(aLap KixKovp.kvy\v' ipovpuev Se Trepl avr&p 
ip Toh AxaiKoh, oi Be Karaa-xovre^s rr}p Aafcco- 
viKTjp ^ Kar dpx^^ P'^v icraxf^popovv, eVel S' odp 
AvKOVpyoi rrjp irdXireLap iTrirpeyjraVj roaovrop 
virepe^aXovro 702)9 aWot'9, &(7r€ popoi robv 
^EWt^pcop Kal 7^9 fcal daXdrTr}<; iTrrjp^ap, Bee- 
riXeadp re dpxovre^ r&p ^EXX'tjvcop, 60)9 a^e/- 
Xopro avrov<; r7)v rjyepopiap @7}l3aloh fcal per 
eKeivov^ ev6v9 MaKeBope^, ov prjv reXeco^ ye ovBe 
rovroc9 el^aPy dXXd <pvXdrrovr6fi rrjv avropoplav 
epip elxop irepl 7rpmTeL<op del irpo^ re rov<; aXXov<s 
]SiXXr}va<s Kal irpo^ tov9 r&p MaxeBopcop ^aaiXea^* 
KaraXvdivrcoP Be rovrcop viro ^Vwpaicop, pcKpd 
pep riva rrpoaeKpovo-ap roh irepiropepoi^ vtto 
^Pcop^aCcop crrparTjyoh, rvpappovpepoi rare Kal 
iroXirevopevoL pox^VP^^* dpaXajSopre^ Be 
irtp7]07]crap Bca<j>ep6prG)^ xal epLetvav eXevOepoi, 
TrXrjp r&p (j>iXiK&p Xeirovpyi&p dXXo crvpreXovpre^ 
C 366 ovBiv, peoxTrl S’ EvpvKX'fj^; avrov^; irdpa^e, So^a9 
diroxp'n^cLadai rfj Kaiaapof; ^iXia irepa rov 

1 ml, before mr\ Meineke omits, 

^ Odyssey 3. 249. 


136 




GEOGRAPHY, 8 5. 5 

Peloponnesus, but also in a specific way to Laconia ; 
at any late, the words of the poet, Wheie was 
Menelaus ^ ^ or was he not in Achaean Argos ^ ^ 
are interpreted by some thus : or was he not in 
Laconia?” And at the time of the return of the 
Heracleidae, when Philonomus betrayed the countiy 
to the Doiians, the Achaeans emigrated from 
Laconia to the country of the lonians, the countiy 
that still to-day is called Achaea But I shall speak 
of them m my description of Achaea.® Now the 
new possessors of Laconia restrained themselves at 
first, but after they turned over the government to 
Lycuigus they so far sui passed the rest that they 
alone of the Gieeks ruled over both land and sea, 
and they continued ruling the Greeks until they 
were depiived of their hegemony, first by the 
Thebans, and immediately after them by the 
Macedonians. However, they did not wholly yield 
even to the Macedonians, but, preserving their 
autonomy, ah\ays kept up a struggle for the 
primacy both with the rest of the Greeks and with 
the kings of the Macedonians And when the 
Macedonians had been overthiown by the Romans, 
the Lacedaemonians committed some slight offences 
against the praetors vrho were sent by the Romans, 
because at that time they were under the rule of 
tyrants and had a wi etched government, but when 
they had recoveied themselves, they were held in 
particular honour, and remained free, contributing 
to Rome nothing else but friendly sei vices But 
recently Eurycles has stirred up trouble among them, 
having apparently abused the friendship of Caesar 

2 Odyssey 3. 251 3 S 7. 1 

x37 



STKABO 


fierpiov irpo^ rrjv iTricrraaiav avr&v, iiravaaro 
S’ r} Tapa)(ri ^ Tap^€ci)9> ifcdvov fiev Trapa')(mp}}-‘ 
<TavTO<; eh to Xp€(i>Vi rov S’ viov r^v ^CkLav aire- 
crrpafipbevov rr)v roiavrrjv Trdaav* crvvi^i] Se fcal 
Tou? ^EXevdepoXdfccovaf^ Xa^etv rtvd rd^tv 7ro\t- 
reia^i eireih^ 'Pa)/iam 9 rrpoaidevTO Trp&roL oi TrepL 
otfcoLi TvpavvovpLevr}<; TTj<; STra/JT^/?, ot re dXXob koX 
oi ErXa)T€ 9 . ^l^XdvLfco^ jMev ovv EvpvaOevT) fcal 
UpofcXea (j)r)(rl Ztard^ab rrjv iroXireLav, ’'E^ 0^009 
S’ eTtiTipa^ (j)7]ara<; Avfcovpyov piev avrov p.r}Sapov 
fiefivrjadabi rd S’ i/ceivov epya roh pbrj Trpocrrj- 
fcova-LV dvariOivai* p,6v(p yovv Avicovpytp iepov 
ihpvcr&at teal OveaOai Kar eVo?, eKelvoi^^ Se, 
Kavwep ol/cLarah yevopiivoi^, yLt??S6 tovto SeSocrdait 
&<7re Toif^ UTT avr&v tou? puev ^vpvcrdevL^a<;s 

^ To.pax'hi Corais, for apx^> 


^ Enrycles likewise abused the friendship of Herod the 
Great and others (Josephus, Antiq. Jiid, 16. 10 and Bell 
Jud 1 26 1-^5). 

® Others interpret the clause to mean simply “ he died,” 
but the Greek certainly alludes to his banishment by Caesar 

138 




GEOGRAPHY, 8. 5. 5 

in order to maintain his authority over his subjects , 
but thetiouble^ quickly came to an end, Eurycles 
retiring to his fate,^ and his son ^ being averse to 
any friendship of this kind ^ And it also came to 
pass that the Eleuthero-Lacones ® got a kind of 
republican constitution, since the Peiioeci*^ and also 
the Helots, at the time when Sparta was under 
the rule of tyiants, were the first to attach them- 
selves to the Romans. Now Hellanicus says that 
Eurysthenes and Procles drew up the constitution ; ^ 
but Ephorus censures Hellanicus, saying that he 
has nowhere mentioned Lycurgus and that he 
ascribes the work of Lycuigus to persons who had 
nothing to do with it. At any rate, Ephorus con- 
tinues, it is to Lycurgus alone that a temple has 
been erected and that annual sacrifices are offered, 
whereas Eurysthenes and Procles, although they 
were the founders, have not even been accorded 
the honour of having their respective descendants 

(Josephus, Bell, Jud, 1. 26. 4 and Plutarch, Jpophth 208 A), 
after which nothing further is known of him (see Pauly- 
Wissowa, sv “ Eurykles”). 

® Gains Julius, apparently named after Julius Caesar, In 
an inscription found on Cape Taenarum by Falconer he was 
extolled as the special benefactor of the Eleuthero-Lacones 

* i,e disloyalty to Gaesai- 

® That IS, “ Free Laconians.” Augustus released them 
from their subjection to the Lacedaemonians, and hence the 
name At first they had twenty-four cities, but in the time 
of Pausanias only eighteen. For the names see Pausanias, 
3 21 . 6 . 

® “Perioeci” means literally “people living round (a 
town),” but it came to be the regular w'ord for a class of 
dependent neighbours They were not citizens, though nob 
state-slaves as were the Helots. 

’ Strabo now means the Spartan constitution. 


139 



STRABO 


Tov^ Be UpoKXeLSa^'^ fcaXeicrdai, aWa rov<s jilv 
'AyiBa^ aTTo '^AyiSo<; rov Evpvcrdivov<;, tov9 8* 
EvpvTTcovTLBas aiTo EvpVTr&vro<^ tov Upo/c\6ov<^j 
Tov^ pev yap jSacrtXevcrai ^ BiKaLco<;, tou? Se, 
Se^apiivov^ €7r??Xi;Sa<? av0poo7rov<;, Bi iKeivcov 
Bwacrrevaat' odev ovB^ ap')(y)yeTa<; vopnaOrjvaiy 
oirep Traariv airoBCBorat ol/ctcrTal^^ Havcraviav 
re r&v EvpVTrccvrtB&v efcireaovTa e;3^0€i ® 
iripa^ ol/cLa<; iv rfj (pvyrj avvrd^aL Xoyov Trepl 
Twi/ Avfcovpyov 0 Z/T 09 rrj^ i/cjSaXkomr}^ 

olKia^, iv w teal ^ rov 9 Xpr)crp,Qv^ Xeyei T 0 U 9 
Bo6ivra<i avrep Trepl t&v TrXeiorTCov, 

6 . Uepl Be Trj<i (pvcreco^ t&v tottcov kuI tovtcov 
/cal T&v yLea<T7]VLaf€&v TavTa pev diroBe/cTeoVi 
XeyovTo<^ EvpLTrtBov' Tr)V yap AaKoavLKrfV (f>7}aiv 
exuv 

TtoXvv pev dpOTOv, i/CTroveiv S’ ov paBtov* 

/coiXr} ydpi ope<rL TrepiBpopo^t Tpa^^id re 

Bvereio’^oXof} re TroXepioi^' 

^ The passage rohs de UpoK^eidas TrAeiVrwJ', winch, 
down to irKeia-rav, filled ten lines of A, is coiiiipt Theie is 
a lacuna of from 11 to 16 letteis at the end of each line 
The other MSS are helpful only in supplying A’s third, 
fourth, and fifth lacunae (see Kramer’s notes ad loc II 163). 
There is viitual agreement on the text except Uaveraviav 
TrXeiVTWj/, where Jones adopts the reading of Ed Meyer 
{Forsch zur alt Oesch 1892, I 233 and Hermes, 1907, 135) 
Mej^er’s restoration is based on Jacob’s new collation of the 
passage, which veiifies that of Kramer in his Praefatio, p 62. 
The various editors, including Kramer and Meineke, read 
QiK^ias (before eV tt) ^vy^) instead of ouc/as, and \4yeiv instead 
of Kiyet, but with no MS authority See also B. Niese in 
Hevihr* von der Icomgh Gesellscli, der Wisscmch, zu Gottingen^ 
1906, 138 ; K J Neumann m Syhels hist Zcitsch N, F 1906, 
55 ; Wilamowitz in Hom&nscke UnUrsucK 272 ; and Cobet in 
MtscelL Orvtica 175. 

140 



GEOGRAPHY, 8 5. 5-6 

called Euiysthenidae and Piocleidae ; instead, the 
respective descendants aie called Agidae, after Agis 
the son of Eurysthenes, and Eurypontidae, after 
Eurypon the son of Piocles ; foi Agis and Eurypon 
reigned in an honourable way, wheieas Eiirysthenes 
and Piocles welcomed foreigners and through these 
maintained their overlordship ; and hence they 
were not even honouied with the title of ^‘^arche- 
getae,” ^ an honour which is always paid to 
founders, and further, Pausanias/ after he was 
banished because of the hatred of the Eurypontidae, 
the other royal house, and when he was in exile, 
prepared a discouise on the laws of Lycurgus, who 
belonged to the house that banished him,® in which 
he also tells the oracles that were given out to 
Lycurgus concerning most of the laws. 

6. Concerning the nature of the regions, both 
Laconia and Messenia, one should accept what 
Euiipides says m the following passages: He says 
that Laconia has much aiable land but is not easy 
to cultivate, for it is hollow,^ suuounded by moun- 
tains, rugged, and difficult for enemies to invade ” ; 

^ le the original, or independent, founders of a new race 
or state 

2 A member of the house of the Agidae, and king of Sparta, 
408-394 B 0 (Diod Sic 13 75 and 14 89) 

® He was the sixth in descent from Procles (10. 4 18) 

“low-lying” Cp Homer s “ Hollow Lacedaemon ” 
{Jltad 2 581) 


® fiaffiXevcraif Cobet ; others Svyatrrevcrai 
® Or juicrei 

* Meineke and others read A<57[ov rov Auko^pI^ou, 
1 / 6 /jLcav (note punctuation). 

® Others €K:;3o\A.oiJcr7}[s (MSS ), or l/c)3#;\oT5<roj[s, aWhv ttiriov 
/cai] Kr\. 




STRABO 


r7}v Se TAe<T(rrivLafcr}v 

fcaXKiKapTTOv 

fcardppvTOP re pLVpioiat vdy^acii 

fcal $oval fcal TroLpLvaccnv evjSoTc^raTrjv, 

OUT iv TTvoalat x^Lpbaro^ hvcr^etpepov 
OUT ad redpLiTTrot^ 7]\iov Oeppbiju dyav* 

Kal VTTO^d^ r&p irdX(dv cj^rjarip, a)P oi ^VipaicXelhai 
rrepl iiroii]cravro, top pbev nrporepov 

yepiadai 

yaCa^ AafcaLvr}<; fcvptop^ <j>av\ov x6ovq<;" 

TOP Be Bevrepop Trj<i M.6a<T7]P7j<;i 

dpeTrjp ixovcrr}<; pbel^op* ?) Xoytp (j^pdaat, 

OLav /cal 6 Tupratoff (j>pd^€i rrjv Be Aa/ccoviKrjp 
Kal Tfjp Meo’CT'rjvlap opi^etp, avrov <jE)?f(ravT09, 

Tlafic<roP eh doKaaarav i^oppicafiepop, 

ov o’vyx^PVT’^^'^y fjbecrrjf; pec t/)? Meaa'qpLa<i, 

ovBap^ov T^9 pvp AaKcopLK7j(} diTTopevo^^, ovk ed 
Be ovB" on, t^9 Meaarrjpca^ opcocm iTridaXarnaias 
oiiaTj^i Tjj AaKcovcKj}, (f)r)(rlp avTrjp Trpocro) vav- 
tlXoktlp elvai. aXV ovBe T7)v‘^H\ip ed BiopL^ei, 

Trpocrto Be iSdpTt rrorapcop rj Ato<; 

yecTcop, KddrjTat?’ 

367 eire^ yap t7]v pvv ^\iXeiap /SovXerai Xeyecp, 
opopei MecraT^pca, ravnjt; ov ^rpocraTTrerac 6 
Hapcccrof;, dtcnrep ye ovBe ^ T7 }<s AaKccvcK^^' eipujrac 
yap on Bed fjce<Tri<; pel tt}^ yiea/xYivia^* ecre rrjv 
TTCcXacdv rrjp ILoLXtjv KaXovpceprjp, •ttoXv pdXXop 
142 



GEOGRAPHY, 8, 5. 6 

and that Messenia is land of fair fruitage and 
wateied by innumerable streams, abounding in. 
pasturage foi cattle and sheep, being neither veiy 
wintry m the blasts of wintei nor yet made too hot 
by the chariot of Helios ” ; ^ and a little beloiv, m 
speaking of the lots which the Heracleidae cast for 
the country, he says that the first lot conferred 
lordships over the land of Laconia, a poor country,” 
and the second over Messenia, whose fertility is 
greater than words can express ” , and Tyrtaeus 
speaks of it in the same manner But one should 
not admit that the boundary between Laconia and 
Messenia is formed, as Euiipides says, ^^by the 
Pamisus, which rushes into the sea,” foi it flows 
through the middle of Messenia, nowhere touching 
the present Laconia. Neither is he right when he 
says that to manners Messenia is far away, for 
Messenia like Laconia lies on the sea ; and he does 
not give the right boundary of Elis either, and far 
away, after one crosses the river, lies Elis, the 
neighbour of Zeus , ” foi if, on the one hand, he 
means the present Eleian country, which borders 
on Messenia, the Pamisus does not touch this 
country, any more than it does Laconia, for, as 1 
have said, it flows through the middle of Messenia ; 
or if, on the othei hand, he means the old Coeld 

1 Frag 1083 (Nauck). 

^ KddrjTatf Meineke emends to KoKeiraL 
2 The passage ydp . . . '^UKis is corrupt (see C. 
Muller’s Ind Var Lett, p 995 and Kramer) On the several 
lacunae see Muller {Ind Var. Lect.) or Kramer The editors 
agree upon the above restorations with the exception of 

AeTTpear&j/, 

® ou5e, Casaubon inserts | so the later editors. 


143 



STRABO 


eKTriTTTei rm aX7]deLa<i* hia^dvTi yap rov Ua/xt- 
arov eari woXkrj Mecro-'tjidat;, eW" rj r&v 

AeTTpear&v^ anracTa koX MafciaricoVi^ fjv TpL^v- 
Xiav i/cdXovv, eW^ ?; Iltcrdri<} /cal rj ^OXvpLTTLat 
€CTa pLera rpiafcocriov^; crrahLovf; fj 

7 . T pa(^6vr(]0v Se tSp pulv AaKeSaipova /crjrcoecr- 
craVi r&v Be /caterdeacrav, ^'/'jTova-t, rrjv /crjr&ea-aav 
rLva Be)(ecrdai XPV^ /C7}r&v, etre 

pbeydXrjv, oirep Bo/cel TriBav&repov elvar ttjp re 
/caierdecraap oi p^ev /caXaptvBcoBr] Bexovraiy oi Be, 
on oi arro r&v (xeiap&p pco^pol KaieroX Xeyovravy 
/cal 6 /caUra^ to Becrpcorrjpiov evrevdev ro rraph 
Aa/ceBaLpovioi^f o-mijXaiov rr evioi Be /c&ov^ pdX- 
Xov rd roiavra /coiX&para XeyeaBaL (pacnv, d(j)* 
ov /cal TO 

(l)'r]p(Tlv ope(TK&OL(nv. 

evauaro^ S’ f) AaKtopiKi^* /cal Brf rov Tavyirov 
/copv^d<i rtva^ aTroppayrjvai rive^; pprjpovevovcnv* 
etcrl Be XaropLai XLBov ’7roXvreXov<; rov pev Tatva- 
pLOV iv Taivdpq) rraXaiaii vecoarl Be /cal iv r& 
Tavyerw peraXXov dvecp^dv rtve^ evpiyede^, 
Xop'qyov exovre^ rrjv r&v 'Pcopaiwp TroXvreXeiav. 

^ [A€7rp€aT]wv Muller-Dubner (in Latin tianslation) fiom 
conj of Memeke Kramer conj [’E7r€t]wy, Ourtius [Kau- 
Kd>i^(av, 

2 yiaKicrritav, Jones, for Mecrtrafw?', from conj of Memeke. 
Groskurd conj. Uecrffrivitov, Kramer and Curtins Mipv&v, 


1 See 8. 3 2 

^ t e in Homer’s text, Jhad 2 581 and Odyssey 4 1 
® The usual meaning of Ket^ is “deep-sea monsters,” or 
more specifically the “cetaceans,” but Strabo obviously 
speaks of the word in the sense of “ravines” or “clefts” 
(see Buttman, Lexilogtcs s.r., and Goebel, Lexilogm s.u). 
144 




GEOGRAPHY, 8. 5 6-7 

Elis/ he deviates much further from the tiuth ; for 
after one crosses the Pamisus there is still a large 
part of Messenia to traverse, and then the whole 
of the territoiies of the Lepieatae and the Macistii, 
which they used to call Triphylia ; and then come 
Pisatis and Olympia, and then, tin ee hundred stadia 
farther on, Elis. 

7 . Since some critics write ^ Lacedaemon Keto- 
essan*’ and others Kaietaessan,” the question is 
asked, how should we interpret Ketoessa,” whether 
as derived from Kete,” ^ or as meaning large,” ^ 
which seems to be more plausible And as for 
" Kaietaessan,’’ some interpret it as meaning Kala- 
minthod^,” ® whereas others say that the clefts caused 
by earthquakes are called ^^Kaietoi,” and that from 
^^Kaietoi'* is derived ^^Kaietas,*' the word among 
the Lacedaemonians for their prison,” wdiich is a 
sort of cavern. But some prefer to call such 
cavernous places ‘^^Kooi,” and whence, they add, 
comes the expiession ^ oreskoioi ’ monsters”® 
Laconia is subject to earthquakes, and in fact some 
writers record that certain peaks of Taygetus have 
been broken away. And there are quarries of very 
costly marble — the old quarries of Taenarian marble 
on Taenarum , and recently some men have opened 
a large quarry in Taygetus, being supported m their 
undertaking by the extravagance of the Romans. 

* The meaning given to the word in the scholia to Homer, 
and one which seems more closely associated with, the usual 
meaning, “ deep-sea monster ” 

^ % e “abounding m mmt ” 

® Iliad 1 268, where Homer refers to the Centaurs, which, 
according to the above mterpretation, are “monsters that 
live in mountam-caverns.” 


14s 



STRABO 


8. "'Ori Se AafceBaLfMcov 6fM(ovvficd<; \eyerai ml 
7] V B'r)Xol ml ^^O/Jbrjpo^ (Xiya 

X(i>pav avv TY) M.ecr(Tr}vLqy irepl piev Br} r&v ro^m 
orav Xe<yrp 

/caXd, rd ol ^€lvo<; AafceBatpiovi B&xe Tvxvcra<s 

*'I<^iT09 ^VpVTiBT)^* 
ecT eTrepeyKij'^ 

Tft) S* iv Meacn^VT} ^vpbjSX'^rrjv dXX'qXouv 
oXtccp iv ^OpriXoxoto* 

rrjv x^pav Xeyet, ^9 pLcpo^ ml f) Mecrcr>jz/6a* 
ov BiYjv&yicev ovv avT^ ml ovra)^ elireiv* 

^ ^elvo<; ^ AamSaLpLovt B&m rvx^o'd^, 
ml 

TO) S’ iv yLecra-rjvy ^VfijSXijTrjv* 

on yap at ^ijpai uaiv o toC ^OpTiXoxov ot/co^if 
SijfXov 

69 ^7]pd^ S’ LKOVTO AlokXtio^ ttotI Ba>pa, 
vlio9 ^OpnXoxoiOf 

o T€ TrjXipLUXO^ Kal 6 HeiaCcrTpaTO^* at Be ^rjpal 
Ti]<i M€crcr7]VLa<; elaiv. orav S’ etc t&v ^rjp&v 
6ppL7jdevTa<; tou9 irepl TTfXepbaxov iravrjpt€piov<; 
aeieiv ^vyov, elr’ etTT'p, 

Bvaero r ^€X.409, 

Oi S’ l^ov KOLXr)v AaKeBaLptova fcrirdearaav' 

7rpo9 S’ apa Bmptar eXayv Mei^eXaou, 

368 Tr}v TToXtv Bel Bex'^^^Gai' el Se ptrjy etc AatceBaipLOVC^ 
eh AaiceBaiptova <j>av€lrai Xeycov rrjv d<f)i^iv"^ 
aXX(o<; re ov irtOavov, ptrj iv ’SiWapry] rrjv oiKfjcnv 
146 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 5. 8 

8 Homer makes it clear that both the country 
and the city are called by the same name, Lacedaemon 
(and when I say ^^country*' I include Messema with 
Laconia). For in speaking of the bows, when he 
says, beautiful gifts which a friend had given him 
when he met him in Lacedaemon, even Iphitus the 
son of Eurytus,” ^ and then adds, “ these twain met 
one anothei m Messene in the homeof Ortilochus,” ^ 
Homer means the country of which Messenia was 
a part Accordingly it made no diffeience to him 
whether he said ^'a fiiend had given him when he 
met him in Lacedaemon*’ or ^Hhese twain met in 
Messen^.” For, that Plierae is the home of Orti- 
lochus, IS clear from tins passage: ^^and they'* 
(Telemachus and Peisistratus) ^^went to Pherae, tlie 
home of Diodes, son of Ortilochus ” and Pherae is 
in Messenia, But when Homer says that, aftei Tele- 
niaclius and his companions set out from Pherae, 
^^they shook the yoke all day long,”^ and then 
adds, ^^and the sun set, and they came to Hollow 
Lacedaemon ‘ Ketoessan,’ ® and then drove to the 
palace of Menelaus,”® we must interpret him as 
meaning the city ; otherwise it will be obvious that 
the poet speaks of their arrival at Lacedaemon from 
Lacedaemon ^ And, besides, it is not probable that 

^ OdyssBy 21 13 ® Odyssey 21 15 

® Odyssey 3 488 * Odyssey S 486 

® See footnote 4, p 141, ® Odyssey 4 1-2 


1 isTceviyKy, Corais, for , so the later editors. 

® Xylander, foi KoivSts ; so the later editors. 


147 



STRABO 


elvai rov MeveXdov, ovSi,^ fiy ovcrr]^ ^ eKei, rov 
T7]\i/j,axop Xiyeiv* 

elfMi yap €? 'ZTrdprrjv re fcal eZ? UvXov, 

SoK€L dvriTrlirretp ^ rovro) to toI<; 
eiTideroL^ avrov 'X^prjaOaLy^ el /m 7] vrj Ala rroLTjriK^ 
TA9 TOVTO avyx^pV^^^ e^ovata, ^ekriov ® yap rr]v 
Meaarjv^'jv fiera rrj<^ Aafcoovi/cJ]^ ?)® HvXov t )}9 
VTTO Niarropi, fjbrjBe Brj /ca6^ avT7]v rarreadai 
ip T(p K.aTaXoy(p 9 /M7]Be KOivoavovaav Trj<; crpa- 
Teia^iJ 


VI 

1. Mera Be MaXea^ 6 ^ApyoXi/cb^ ifcBex^rai, 
koXtto^ fcal 6 'Ep/juLovifcof;* 6 [xiv p^e^pf' tov %icv\- 
Xaiov rtXkovri w rrpb^ ^co ^Xeircov /cal 7rpo<; 
Kv/cXdBa<;, 6 Bi eaydivd/repo^ rovrov p^XP^ "^9°^ 
Atyivav /cal rrjp ^EmBavpLap^ rd pep ot} irpcora 
rov ^ApyoXi/cov Ad/ccope^ exovat, rd Be Xocrrh 
^Apyetot* ip oh icrrl rcop pep Aa/ccopcop to ArjXioVi 
lepov ’A7roXX«e)z/09, opcopvpop t<5 EoKOTia/cw, /cal 

1 ou5e, Kramer inserts, from conj of Pletho 
® fjL^ aHorriSt Kramer, for iitivvoiaiis Agh and juryS’ oiSci^s 
(BlnOf and A man sec,). So Meineke, Muller Bubner and 
others. 

® [Se dyTijTTtVreij', Madvig, for y^p avp.ici'K'r^ip bno, Meineke 
and Forbiger read Se a-vfiirivreiv, 

* avlrhv XP^<3r6cw], Kramer , Forbiger, a.v[r}iv xp7)or0at], 

® A reads 4^o , , , nopf with a lacuna of about eight letters, 
but bno have i^ovfriq. . . . nov, Kramer conj. [p4x}rioVj 
and Meineke so reads, but the earlier editors read [ipap]riov, 
® Meineke inserts mi (as m bno) instead of ^ (Miiller 
Bubner). 

148 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 5. 8-6. i 

the residence of Menelaus was not at Sparta, nor 
yet, if it were not theie, that Telemachus would 
say, ^^for I would go both to Sparta and to Pylus ^ 
But the fact that Homer uses the epithets of the 
country ^ is iii disagreement with this view ® unless, 
indeed, one is willing to attribute this to poetic 
license — as one should do, for it were better for 
Messen^ to be included with Laconia or with the 
Pylus that was subject to Nestor, and not to be set 
off by itself in the Catalogue as not even having a 
part m the expedition. 


VI 

1. After Maleae follows the Argolic Gulf, and 
then the Hermionic Gulf; the former stretches 
as far as Scyllaeum, facing approximately east- 
wards and towards the Cyclades, while the latter is 
moie to the east than the foimer and extends as 
far as Aegina and Epidauna Now the first places 
on the Argolic Gulf are occupied by Laconians, and 
the rest by the Argives Among the places belong- 
ing to the Laconians is Delium, which is sacred to 
Apollo and bears the same name as the place in 

^ Odyssey 2. 359. 

® In Odyssey 4. 1, and Iliad 2. 581 [Catalogue of Ships)* 
But the epithets are omitted in Odyssey 21. 13. 

^ i e that Homer’s cou7it7y of Lacedaemon includes 
Messenia 


’ A reads arpa X^as with a Idouna of about twelve 
letters, but Merct 5e M«\ (see next §) is supplied mart* sec. 


149 




STRABO 


Mivd^a ^povpioVi ofLo^Wfio^ koX avrfj rf} M€ 7 a- 
pifcf}, fcal fj \ifJLrjph ’E7riSav/?09, ft>9 ^Aprepbihcopo^ 
(^rjaiv, ^AiroWoBcopo^ Be K.v$7jpcjov irX'qa-iov 
laropel ravTijv, evXifxevov Be ovcrav 0pax^(o^ fcal 
eirnerp/qpievtji}^ Xt^firjpav elprjadaL, &<; av XLiievrfpdv, 
fiera/Se^Xijfcevai, Be rovvopLa* ecrrt Be o 

•TrapdirXov^ €v6v<; arro ISiaXemv dp^dfi€vo<^ p^ixP^ 
TToXXoS 0 Aa/ccovi/co*;, exei S o/no)^ v^6pfjbov<; /cal 
Xifi6va<;. ^ Xonrr} S’ earl irapciXia €vXip>€vo<i, 
vYjaLBid re rroXKa irpo/ceirai avT7j<; ov/c d^ia 

2. T&v B’ ’Apyeioov aX re Upacrial /cal to 
Trifiivtov, ev & ridarrrai /cal ere irpore- 

pov TO Bl oh pel 7rorafjLo<} rj Aepvrj /caXov- 

pievrjj ofxdvvfjLO^ rp Xipvrji iv y pepvOevrai ra 
TTepl r7}v ^'TBpav. to Be liTjpLevtov a7r6%€i rod 
’^Apyov<; Kal e’Uoci araSiov^ vnrep rrj^ OaXdr- 
rr)<;, diro Be rod ’'Apyov^ eh to ^Hpalou rearcra- 
pd/covra, evQev Be eh Mv/CTji^a? Be/ca, p^erh Be to 
Trjpeviov ^ l^avirXia, rb r&v ’Apyeicov vavorraO- 
pov* TO B’ ervpov drrb rod rah vaval irpocrTtXeia- 
6at, ttTTO TOVTOu Be rreirXdaOai (pacrl rop 
l^avnrXiov /cal Toi? 7ralBa<; avrod irapd roh 
vea>r€poi<;' ov yetp ''Oprfpcv dpvrjpov^crai av 
rovrcov, rod pev TlaXap'^Bov^; roa-avrrjv (ro(f)bav 
/cal avvetTLV erriBeBebypevov, BoXocj>ovri9€VTo^ Be 
dBifcco^, rod Be NavirXbov roaodrov dnrepyacra- 
pevov (fidopov dvdpmTTwv irepl rbv Ka<f>r}pia» Be 

^ The Boeotian Deluim was on the site of the Dilesi of 
to day. The site of the Laconian Delium is uncertain, 

^ Limera; an epithet meaning “with the good harbour.” 

ISO 




GEOGRAPHY, 8 6. 1-2 


Boeotia;^ and also Minoa, a stronghold, which has 
the same name as the place in Megans ; and 
Epidaurus Limera,^ as Artemidorus says. But 
Apollodorus observes that this Epidaurus Limera 
IS near Cythera, and that, because it has a good 
harbour, it was called Limenera,'" which was 
abbreviated and contracted to "Limeia,” so that 
its name has been changed Immediately after 
sailing fiom Maleae the Laconian coast is rugged 
foi a consideiable distance, but still it affords 
anchoring-places and harbours The rest of the 
coast IS well provided Avith harbours ; and off the 
coast he many small islands, but they aie not 
worth mentioning. 

2. But to the Argives belongs Prasiae, and also 
Temenium, where Temenus was buried, and, still 
before Temenium, the district through which Bows 
the river Lern^, as it is called, bearing the same 
name as the marsh in which is laid the scene of 
the myth of the Hydia. Temenium lies above the 
sea at a distance of twenty-six stadia from Argos ; 
and from Argos to Heraeum the distance is forty 
stadia, and thence to Mycenae ten. After Temenium 
comes Nauplia, the naval station of the Argives ; and 
the name is derived from the fact that the place is 
accessible to ships.® And it is on the basis of this 
name, it is said, that the myth of Nauplius and his 
sons has been fabricated by the more recent writers 
of myth, for Homer would not have failed to mention 
these, if Palamedes had displayed such wisdom and 
sagacity, and if he was unjustly and treacherously 
murdered, and if Nauplius wrought destruction to 
so many men at Cape Caphereus But m addition 

® ^.e, ‘‘Nans” (ship)-]- <<ple6” (sail). 

^51 



STRABO 


yeveaXoyia 7 r /?09 fivdcoBec fcal roh %poz/o £9 
Btrjfjbdprrjrai* BeBoaOco ydp UoaeLB&vo^ ehai, 
369 ^ApLvpLcovTjc; Be 7r(39 rov /card rd Tpcoifcd gtl ^S>vra ; 
€^€^^9 Be T'p NavTrXia rd crTrtjXaLa /cal oi ev 
avroh ol/coBopi7]Tol XajSvpivOoi, Kv/cXcoTreia S’ 
ovojjid^ovaiv, 

3. EZt’ dWa ')(copLa, /cal o ^EppbLovi/cb <5 

/c6\7ro<;* /cal yap rovTOv 'OpLrjpov ^ rd^avro^ vtto 
TT} ^ApyeLa /cal rjpZv ov 7ra/?07rTeo9 evi(j>r]V€V ^ 6 
puepiapLOf; t^9 TrepLoBeia^; oBto<;, dp')(eTaL S’ aTro 
’A(jti/979 ® 7ro\Lxvri<;' el6* ^Epp^iovr] /cal TpoL^rjv' ev 
Trapdir\(p Be irpo/ceLTac /cal KaXavpia vrjao^^ 
KV/cXov exovaa i/carov /cal ^ rpid/covra araBicoVy 
TTopdpL^ Be Terpa<TTaB[(p Biear&aa rjiveipov, 

4. EZ0’ (5 XccpcovL/co^ koXtto^* oi Be ttovtov 
X eyovcriVy ol Se TropoVy Ka0* o /caX 7TeXayo<i Xeyerai 
Xapavi/cov KaXetrac 8e 7ra9 o awdiTTcov wopos 
diTo T7]^ ^Epficovi/crjf; /cal t^9 '/repl rov ^la-Qp^ov 
QaXdrrrj^; t& re lAvprdxp rreXdyei Kal rm EpT)- 
TL/c^» rov Be ^apcovi/cov ’E7rtSav/)09 re iari /cal 
t) TTpo/ceipbevrj vrjcro^ Ps^lyiva' elra Keyxp^CLh to 
r&v Kopivdicov cttI rd 7r/309 €co peprj vavaraSpLOv* 

1 A reads koI . , , "fipov, with lacuna of about ten letters, 
which Kramer supplies as above 

® The lacuna of about twelve letters m A is supplied by 
hknol as above 

® ’Ao-iVtjs, added in marg. A, ma?^, sec, ; ^Aaidvris, mm, sec. 
Kramer would supply the lacuna in A ( — av^s) thus C*AAi]- 
KYjs (see Pausanias 2 36 1). 

* €Karhi/ Kaiy Jones inserts (op 8. 6. 14, where the same 
insertion is made)^ 

152 



GEOGRAPHY, 8 6. 2-4 

to its fabulous character the genealogy of Nauphus 
IS also wholly incorrect in respect to the times 
involved ; for, granting that he was the son of Posei- 
don, how could a man who ^vas still alive at the time 
of the Trojan war have been the son of Amymon^ ^ ^ 
Next after Nauplia one comes to the caverns 
and the labyrinths built in them, which are called 
Cyclopeian.2 

3. Then come other places, and next after them 
the Hermionic Gulf; for, since Homer assigns this 
gulf also to Argeia, it is clear that 1 too should 
not overlook this section of the circuit The gulf 
begins at the town of Asin^ ^ Then come Hermione 
and Troezen , and, as one sails along the coast, one 
comes also to the island of Calauria, which has a 
circuit of one hundred and thirty stadia and is 
separated from the mainland by a strait four stadia 
wide. 

4. Then comes the Saronic Gulf ; but some call 
it a sea and others a strait ; and because of this it 
is also called the Saronic Sea Saronic Gulf is the 
name given to the whole of the strait, stretching 
fiom the Hermionic Sea and from the sea that is 
at the Isthmus, that connects with both the Myrtoan 
and Cretan Seas, To the Saronic Gulf belong 
both Epidaurus and the island of Aegma that lies 
off Epidaurus; then Cenchreae, the easterly naval 
station of the Corinthians , then, after sailing forty- 

^ Strabo confuses Nauplius, son of Poseidon and Amymoa^ 
and distant ancestor of Palaniedes, with the Natiplius who 
was the father of Palamedes 

a Op. 8 6 11. 

3 The Asin^ in Argolis, not far from Nauplia, not the 
Messenian Asin^, of course (see Pauly-Wissowa). 

IS3 



STRABO 


elra \tfirjv 'rrXevcravrt recra-apdfcovra /cal 

Trevre arahiov^' diro Be MaXewi' rov^ Trdvra^ 
Trepl 'x^ikiov^ Kal o/cra/cocrLov^, Kara Be rov 
'S4')(ptvovvTa 0 BioXfco<;^TO (rrevcoTarov rov^lcrO pLov^ 
Trepl t>v TO Tov 'Icrdfiiov TlocreiB&vo^ iepov* dXkd 
vvv rd pev VTrep/ceicrdco* e^co ^dp ecm rrj^ 
^Apy€La<;. dvaXa^ovre^ S* icj^oBevcrcopLev TrdXcv rd 
/card rr]v ^Apyelav. 

5. Kal TTp&rov Trocra^w Xeyerac irapd 
TTocTjTy TO "'Apyo <5 Kul /cad^ air 6 /cal puerd rod 
emdeTOV^ ^A')(aiKdv ^Apyo^ kclKovvto^ rj '^lacrov rj 
trcTTLOV 7] TleXacrytKov rj iiTTro/Sorov, koI yap 
Tr6Xi><; ''A /3709 Xeyerac' 

’'A /)709 t € ^Trdprrj re* 

oi S’ ’'A/>709 t ’ el')(pv TipvvOd re, 

Kal fj TleXoTr6vv7jcro<i, 

r}pberep(p ivl otKcp ev "Apyei* 

ov ydp 7} 7roXi9 76 fjv oIko<$ avrov* Kal oXrj ij 
^EXXa9* ’A/37€tou9 yovv KaXel rrdvra^y Kaddirep 
Kal Aamov<: Kal ’A;^aiou9. yovv opcowpiav 

roL<; imderoL<; BiacrreXXeraiy rrjv pev ®erraXtav 
TleXaayLKov ’'A /3709 KaX&Vf 

vvv ai rov9i oacroi to UeXacrytKov *'Apyo^* 
haiov, 

r^v Se n6Xo7roi/i/r7a'oi', 

el Be Kev *'A/3709 lKoipe0* 'AxauKov* 

^ ovK *'A/) 7€09 ^ev ^AxauKov ; 

arjipaivoav evravda^ on Kal ^Axatol IBim d>vo^ 

154 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 6 4-5 

five stadia, one comes to Schoenus,^ a harbour. From 
Maleae thither the total distance is about eighteen 
bundled stadia Neai Schoenus is the Diolcus/" ^ 
the narrowest part of the Isthmus, where is the 
temple of the Isthmian Poseidon. However, let 
us for the piesent postpone the discussion of these 
places, for they he outside of Argeia, and let us 
lesume again our description of those in Argeia. 

5 . And in the first place let me mention in how 
many ways the term “ Argos ’* is used by the poet, 
not only by itself, but also with epithets, when he 
calls Argos Achaean,’" or ^^lasian,” or ^^hippian,"’ ^ 
or Pelasgian,” or horse-pasturing.’" ^ For, in the 
first place, the city is called Argos: Argos and 
Sparta,” ^ ^^and those who held Argos and Tiiyns."" ® 
And, secondly, the Peloponnesus : " m our home in 
Argos,” ^ for the city of Argos was not his ® home. 
And, thirdly, Greece as a whole; at any rate, he 
calls all Greeks Argives, just as he calls them 
Danaans and Achaeans. However, he differenti- 
ates identical names by epithets, calling Thessaly 
^^Pelasgian Argos **• ^^Now all, moreover, who 
dwelt in Pelasgian Argos ® and calling the 
Peloponnesus " Achaean Argos."" And if we should 
come to Achaean Argos,*’ Or was he not in 
Achaean Argos And here he signifies that 

^ Now Kalamaki 

2 See 8. 2 1, and foot-note. 

® But this epithet {tvwiovj “land of horses”) is not 
applied to Argos anywhere in the Iliad or the Odyssey, 
Pindar so uses it once, in Isth 7 (6). 17. 

* e.g Ihad 2. 287. ® Iliad 52. 

6 Iliad 2 559 ’ Iliad 1. 30. 

® Agamemnon’s. ® Iliads. 681. 

Iliad 9. 141. Odyssey 3 251. 

HS 



STRABO 


fjLa^ovro oi TLeXoTrovvrjcrLOi Kar aXkt'jv crrjfiaalav, 
^lacrov T€ *'Apyo^ ttjv TLeXoTTOvvrja-ov Xeyei' 

el wavre^i 7’ icrihoiev av ^'lacrov "'Apyo^ ^Axcllol 

C 370 rrjv Ilrjve\67r'y]Vi ort rrXelov^ av Xd^oi iJbvr)<TTrjpa<i* 
ov yap Tov<i oX7}<; ^KXXdSo^ elKO^y dXXd 
TOU9 €77U9. LTrrro^OTov Be koX lttttlov kolvw 
€lpr]K€, 

6. Ile/jl Be T^9 'EXXa3o9 fcal ^EXXojvcov teal 
TlaveXXrjvmv dvriXeyerai, ©ov/cvBCBrjg fiev ydp 
TOP TTOirjr^v pbr]BapLOV ^ap^dpov^ elireiv (firfcrl Bid 
TO pb^jBe '^EXXrjvd^ ttco to dvTLTraXov eh €V ovopua 
aTTOKe/cpiadac, /cal *A' 7 roXX 6 Bo>po<; Be puovovq tou ? 
iv ©eTTaXia /caXelaOai (prjarev 

M.vpfMiB 6 v€^ Be /caXevvTO /cal ''EXX'rjve^. 

^HaLoBov pivTOL fcal ’A/DYtXo%oz/ ^By} elBevai /cal 
^^EXXi]va<; Xeyopbivov^; tov<; crvpTravTa<i /cal Ila- 
viXXrjva^f tov piev ire pi t5>v UpotTiBcov Xeyovra^ 
C&9 riaz^eXX-T^i^e? ip^vijcrTevov avTa^^ tov Be 

C09 llaveXXi]Vcov 0L^v<i h ®daov avveBpapiev. 

dXXoc 3 ’ dvTLTcdeacTiVy oti 0 TroirjTrj^^ /cal /Bap-- 
/Sdpov^ etpTj/cev^ elTTcov ye ^ap/ 3 apo(f>d)vov<} tov<; 
Kapa9, /cal '^EXXr}va<^ tov<; nrdvTa^* 

dvBp 6 <iy TOV a:X€09 evpif /caS* ^EXXaSa kclI pbiaov 

^'Apyo<i* 

/cal TrdXtv* 

el S’ idiXei^ Tpac^O^vav dv 'EXXaSa /cal pbicrov 
’'A/0709.^ 

^ 6 voirjT'fis, Kramer proposes to insert in the lacuna of 
about fifteen letters m A between ikvrirt and /ca(, thus supple- 
menting the SeacTiv 8 u supplied by man, sec, 

156 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 6. 5-6 

under a different designation the Peloponnesians 
were also called Achaeans m a special sense. And 
he calls the Peloponnesus lasian Argos ” : If all 

the Achaeans throughout lasian. Argos could see ” 
Penelope, she would have still more wooers; for 
it is not piobable that he meant the Greeks from 
all Greece, but only those that were near. But 
the epithets ^Miorse-pasturing ’’ and ^^hippian” 
he uses in a general sense. 

6 But Clitics are in dispute in regard to the 
terms Hellas/' Hellenes/' and Panliellenes " 
Foi Thucydides ^ says that the poet nowhere speaks 
of barbarians, because the Hellenes had not as 
yet been designated by a common distinctive name 
opposed to that of the barbarians." And Apollo- 
dorus says that only the Greeks in Thessaly were 
called Hellenes. and were called Myrmidons and 
Hellenes He says, however, that Hesiod and 
Archilochus already knew that all the Greeks were 
called, not only Hellenes, but also Panhellenes, for 
Hesiod, in speaking of the daughters of Proteus, says 
that the Panhellenes wooed them, and Archilochus 
says that ^^the woes of the Panhellenes centred 
upon Thasos.” But others oppose this view, saying 
that the poet also speaks of baibarians, since he 
speaks of the Caiians as men of barbarous speech,^ 
and of all the Greeks as Hellenes, the man whose 
fame is wide throughout Hellas and mid- Argos,” ^ 
and again, " If thou wishest to journey throughout 
Hellas and mid-Argos."^ 

MS 2 Ihad2. 684. » Ihad% 867. 

* OdySbey 1 344. ^ odyssey 15. 80. 


® Ka\ vdKiv . 


'Apyos, omitted by BEZ. 


157 



STRABO 


7. 'H fjiev ovv TToXi? ^ rS>v ^Apyeicov iv 
imirehoif; Lhpvrai to TrXeov, a/cpav K €%€i rrjv 
KaXovfjiivtjv Adptaav, X6<j)OP eveptci) pLerpLcof;, 
e^ovra lepov pel S’ avrrj^i ttXtjctlov o ’'Iz/a^o?, 

^apaSyocoS?;? iroTap^o^, Td<:7r7]yd^ ey^^v Ik AvpKeiov 
Tov Kara r7}v K.vvovpLav 6pov<; t/;? * ApKahLa<;?- 
irepl Se r&v pbvdevofMevcov irrjySyv etprjraiy hiOTi 
TrXdapLara iroLTiT&v icrri* TrXdcrpLa Se Ka\ to ''Apyo<; 
dvvSpoVi 

6eol S’ aS 6ecrav "'Apyo^ evvSpov^^ 

rrj<i T6 ^coyoa? KoiXrj<} ova-r)^ koX 7roTap,ol<; Siappeo- 
fM€vr}<; Kal eXrj xal Xlpbva^ 'TrapeyofjLepijf^y Kal 
TToXeox; evTropovfievri<; vSaac <p pear cop ttoXX&v Kal 
eTTirroXaLcov, alricovrai Srj ® d.Trdr'tj^; to 

KaL Key eXeyxicTTO^ TroXvSlyfrtoy ’'A/3709 ikol/itjp, 

rovTo S’ ijroc dvrl rod ttoXvttoOtjtov Kelrai, ^ 
ycopU tov S TToXviyjnov^ cE)9 

TroXv^6op6v re S&fia lleXoircScov roSe 

(fyrjcrl Xocf>OKXri<;* to yap irpoidy^ai Kal id-y^at Kal 
X^acrdat cpdopdv riva Kal l3Xd^rjv crrjfxatvei* 

The words rov Kark . . *ApKaBlas are by Kramer 
regarded as an interpolation, and Meineke ejects them C. 
Muller would emend Kvuovpiay to <rvvoptav. 

2 deal 5’ aS 04<rav "'Apyos ^wdpoy^ Memeke, following conj. of 
Tyrwhitt, emends to *'Apyos &yvdpoy ihv Aavaal Becray ^Apyos 
^yvdpoy, the verse quoted by Strabo in § 8 following. 

® 5^, Memeke emends to 8e, 

158 



GEOGRAPHY, 8 . 6 . 7 

7. Now the city of the Argives^ is for the most 
part situated in a plain, but it has for a citadel the 
place called Larisa, a hill that is fairly well foi tified 
and contains a temple of Zeus. And near the city 
flows the Inachus, a tonential river that has its 
sources in Lyrceius, the mountain that is near 
Cynuna in Arcadia.^ But concerning the sources 
of which mythology tells us, they are fabrications 
of poets, as I have already said.^ And waterless 
Argos ” IS also a fabrication but the gods made 
Argos well watered since the country lies in a 
hollow, and is traversed by rivers, and contains 
marshes and lakes, and since the city is well sup- 
plied with waters of many wells whose water-level 
reaches the surface. So critics find the cause of the 
mistake in this veise : And in utter shame would 
1 return to TroXvSu^tov ^ Argos ” ® ttoXvBC'^iov either is 
used for ttoXvttoOtjtov,’^ or, omitting the 8 , for 
in the sense of 7roXv(j)6opov,^ m the 
phrase of Sophocles, ^^and the 7roXv<l>0opov home of 
the Pelopidae there ” ; for the words Tpoidxf/ai and 
Idij/at and iij/aaSaL signify a kind of destruction or 

^ Argos. 

* It IS Mt. Lycaeus, not Lyrceius, that is “near Cynuna 
in Arcadia ” But Lycaeus (now Diophorti) is on the con- 
fines of Messenia and Arcadia. See critical note. 

» 6 2. 4 

* The authorship of these words is unknown. 

* ^ <j. “very thirsty,” though Strabo and Athenaeus 
(444 E) give the word a different interpretation. 

« Jhad 4 171 

^ z e “ much longed foi ” 

® z.e, “very destructive.” 

* The word means either “very destructive” or “ruined 
by the deaths of many "—clearly the latter in the phrase 
here cited from the Electra, L 10 


159 



STRABO 


vvv fjL€V TreLparai, S’ ty^erai v'ta<i ^A'X^at&v* 
/card %/)oa /caXov Idyjrr)* 

''AiBi 7rpoLayfr€V, 

aXXco^ T€ ov Tr}V iroXiv Xeyet to "'Apyo<^ (ov yap 
i/cetcre epbeWev d<!jii^€a 6 ai\ dXkd rrjv IleXoTrov- 
V 7 )aoVy ov hrj'irov /cal Tavrrjv Bcyjrrjpdv ovaav. /cal 
(Tvv rm S Se virep^arw BexovraL rive^ /card 
(TVvaXoKprjv /xerd rod avvBia/iov rod Be* tV 17 

OVTCO^y 

Kai /cev e\eyxt'O''T0<; ttoXv S’ X-^Sfiov ''Apyo<; 
i/coCpirjv, 

rjyovv 7 roXviy[rcoif ^ ''ApyoaBe i/coipbrjv dvrl rov 6t9 
’'Ap 709 . 

C 371 8. EI 9 /C6€j/ S^ ’Tm%09 icrrtv 6 Biappecov r^v 

^ApyeLav* dXXof; Be rrorapbo^ ^"Eipaaivo^ ev rfj 
^ A pyeLa earLv ovto<? Be rd^ dpxd^ i/c %rvpL^dXov 
T7]<; ^Ap/caBla^s Xafi/Sdvei /cal e/cet XcfivTjf; t?}9 
/caXov pbivT)^ %Tvpb(f)aXtSofSi ev y t ^9 opvei<i fiv0o- 
Xoyovat Ta9 vtto rov ^Upa/cXiovf; ro^evpaat /cal 
rvjx7rdvoL<s i^eXadeicra^, a9 ^ /cal avrd<; /caXovcn 
XrvficpaXiBa*;* Bvvra S’ vtto 7^9 (j^acrl rov tto- 
rapLov rovrov eKrrirrreiv eh rrjv ^ApyeLav teal 
rroLelv ercippvrov ro rreBtov* rov S’ ^Expaalvov 
KaXovcri /cal ^ Apcrlvov? pel Be /cal dXXo^ ojxcovv- 
yu .09 i/c T^9 ^Ap/caBia^ eh rov /card Bovpav 

1 Between IkoIixtiv and ^tou about ten letters have fallen 
out of the MSS. Instead of ^yow, which Kramer supplies, 
no has ^roi, 

® Oorais inserts. 

® The words rhy . , , ’Apaiyoy, Kramer suspects ; Meineke 
ejects. 

160 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 6. 7-8 

affliction: ^‘^Now he is merely making trial, but 
soon he will afflict ^ the sons of the Acliaeans ” , ^ 

mar ^ her fair flesh ^ untimely sent ® to Hades ’* ® 
And besides, Homer does not mean the city of 
Argos (for it was not thither that Agamemnon was 
about to return), but the Peloponnesus, which 
certainly is not a thirsty land either. Moreover 
some critics, retaining the 8, interpret the word by 
the figuie htjpefhaton and as a case of s^naloepha 
With the connective so that the verse would read 
thus: “And in utter shame would I return iroX^ 
8’ l\^iQv ’^Apyos,” that is to say, “\vould I return 
TToXvLil/tov ^'Apyocrhe/* "where ‘'ApyoorSc stands for et? 
’Apyos 

8. Now one of the rivers that flows through 
Argeia is the Inachus, but there is another 
river in Argeia, the Erasinus. The latter has its 
souice in Stymphalus in Aicadia, that is, m the 
lake there which is called the Stymphalian Lake, 
which mythology makes the home of the birds that 
weie diiven out by the arrows and drums of 
Heracles, and the birds themselves are called 
Stymphahdes, And they say that the Erasinus 
sinks beneath the ground and then issues forth in 
Argeia and waters the plain. The Erasinus is also 
called the Arsinus. And another river of the same 
name flows from Arcadia to the coast near Bura, 

1 the primary meaning of which is “press hard,” 

“oppress.” ® Iliad 2 193. 

* Primary meaning, “send on” or “ drive on ” 

* Odyssey 2 ® irpoia^ev, ® Iliad 1. 3. 

^ le they take -jro\w5(i|rioy as an error for TcoXh S’ tij/tov, and 
explain the error as due to the transposition {hyperhato)i) of 
the Se in *'Ap7o<r5€ and to the contraction into one word 
through the elision of the vowel e {syndloeplm), 

161 


VOL. IV 


M 



STRABO 


alyiaXov* aXXo9 S’ icrrlv 6 "Kperpt/cof;, /cat 6 iv 
rf} ^Attikt} Kara ^pavpo)va» heiKwrai Se Kal 
^ApLvpcopT] T49 Kpr)vrj fcara AipV7]v. rj 8e Aipvrj 
XuppT) ’A/?yeta9 icrrl fcal t^9 Mv/cTjvaia^, iv 
fi rrjv '^TBpav icrropovcrL’ Bia Be rov^s yivopevov; 
Kadappov<; iv avTrj irapotpia Ti9 i^eirecre, Aipyt-j 
KaicSiV, T^v pev ovv (Tvyxf^povcrtv evvBpelv, 

avTrjv Be Tr]V ttoXlv iv avvBpm^ 

Kei<y6aii (fipedrcov S’ evTropecv, a rat^ Aavalcrcv 
dvaTTTOvacVf 6)9 i/ceivcov i^evpova&v d(j> ov fcal 
TO 67ro9 elTreiv tovto* 

'^Apyo<i avvBpov iov Aavaal decrav ''Apyo^ 
evvBpov 

Toov Si <f>pedTQ)v rerrapa Kal lepd diroBeLxS'^vat 
Kal Tcpaadai Sia(j>€p6vTco<;f iv evTropia vSdrcov 
cLTropiav elo‘dyovT€<;, 

9 . Trjv Be aKpoTToXtv r&v ^Apyeiwv olKiaaL 
Xiyerai Aavao^, 09 rocrovrov 701)9 7rpo avrov 
Suvaarevovraf; iv T 0 Z 9 tottoc^ virep^aXeadac BoKet, 
&ar6 Kar EiVpt^TriSrjv 

TLeXacyidra^ d)vopa<r/jievov(^ ro irplv 

Aavaov^ KaXeiadac vof^iov edrjK dv 'EWaSa 

e<rrt Be Kal Td<p 09 avrov Kara fiearfv rrjv r&v 
^ApyeCcov dyopdv* KaXelrai Se TldXivdo^? olpai 
S’ on Kal tleXaayccora^ Kal Aavaov^, wairep Kal 
’A/?76tov9, 'f) Bo^a T?j9 '7roXe6)9 ravrijf^ dir avT^<s 
Kal rov<; dXXov<$ "EXX7)va9 KaXeladat irape- 

1 Betweeij ayC^pcp and K6Ta-$ai A has a lacuna of about nine 
letters , B has X^Ph above man sec Kramer 

adds fxev* 

® liiiXivOos^ Meineke emends to vXivBos, which is most 
tempting 
162 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 6. 8-9 

and there is another Erasmus in the teintoiy of 
Eretria, and still another in Attica near Brauron. 
And a spring Amymon^ is also pointed out near 
Lerne. And Lake Lern^ the scene of the story 
of the Hydra, lies in Argeia and the Mycenaean 
territory, and on account of the cleansings that 
take place in it there arose a proverb, k Lerne 
of ills” Now writers agree that the countiy has 
plenty of water, and that, although the city itself 
lies in a waterless district, it has an abundance of 
wells. These wells they ascribe to the daughters 
of Danaus, believing that they discovered them; 
and hence the utterance of this verse, The 
daughters of Danaus rendeied Argos, which was 
waterless, Argos the well wateied”;i but they 
add that four of the wells not only were designated 
as sacred but are especially revered, thus intro- 
ducing the false notion that there is a lack of water 
where theie is an abundance of it 

9 The acropolis of the Argives is said to have been 
founded by Danaus, who is reputed to have surpassed 
so much those who reigned in this legion before 
him that, accoiding to Euiipides,^ ‘‘^throughout 
Greece he laid down a law that all people hitherto 
named Pelasgians should be called Danaans ” ® 
Moi cover, his tomb is m the centre of the market- 
place of the Argives, and it is called Palinthus. 
And I think that it was the fame of this city that 
prepared the way, not only for the Pelasgians and 
the Danaans, as w^ell as the Argives, to be named 
after it, but also for the rest of the Greeks, and 

1 Hesiod, Fmg 24 (Rzaeh) ^ Frag 228 7 (IsTauck) 

8 Cp. 5. 2 4 



STRABO 


crfcevacrev* ovreo Be kuI ^lacriBa^ koX '^lacrov'* Ap^yo^^ 
KoX ^ArrLav xal ^ATriBova^ ol vecorepol (pacriv* 
^^OpLrjpot; B' 'AmBoj^a^ p^ev ov Xiyei, airiav Be rrjv 
TToppco pLoXXov, on B>* ''Apyo<i r^v THeXoirowricov 
Xeyei, •irpoaXa^eiv ean koX rdBe, 

^ApyeCr] 8’ ^T^iXevrj* 

/cal 


ean 7r6\t<; ^E^vprj ''Apyeo^, 

/cal 

fiecrov ''Apyo<?, 
/cal 


iToWfjacv vrjaoLCTL /cal ''Apyec iravrl dvdacreiv, 

0 372’A/0709 Se /cal ro veBiov Xeyerai rrapa to?? veca- 
T€poi9j Trap^ ^Opbripcp 8’ ovS" aira^* pdXccrra S’ 
oioprac Ma/ceBopc/cov /cal ©erraXi/cop ehai. 

10 T&p S’ diToyopcop Tov Aapaov BiaBe^apLevcop 
rfjp ip "'Apyei Bvpaareiap, e 7 np.i%QipTGip Be rovroL<i 
royp ^ApLv6aopcB&p, (hppLTjfiepcop i/c r ^9 Utardnho^ 
/cal ri]^ Tpc(l>vXoa(;, ov/c dv OavpidaeLe et 
avyyepecs Spre^ ovtco BieiXopro rrjp 
jSacnXela^^ to rrpwrop, coare t^9 r}yepi.opiBa<; ^ 
ovcra<s ip avrat^ Bvo iroXeis diroBeix^ TrX'qaiov 
dXXn^Xcdv iBpvpi^ipa<i, iv iXarrocnv ^ ireprrj/CQVTa 
araBLoi^i ro re "’Apyos /cal rd^ Mv/ci]Pa<;f /cal to 
^H paiop elvai /cocvov lepop cifc^ocp^ to Trpos rals 

^ ^y^ixovi^asy Tzschucke, Kramer, and Muller-Biibner, 
following Bl (adding o0cr«s), for ^y^}xovlr‘^' ny^H-oviKas 
na, ^ye/jLoyevo6(ras (Pletbo and Memeke). 

164 



GEOGRAPHY, B, 6. 9-10 

SO5 too, the more recent writers speak of lasidae/' 
^^lasian Argos,” ^^Apia,” and Apidones ’ ’ ; but 
Homer does not mention the Apidones,” though 
he uses the word ^^apia/*^ rather of a distant” 
land. To prove that by Argos the poefc means the 
Peloponnesus, we can add the following examples : 

Argive Helen,” ^ and There is a city Ephyra 
m the inmost pait of Argos,”® and ^‘'mid Argos,” ^ 
and and that over many islands and all Argos he 
should be lord.” ^ An4 m the more recent writers 
the plain, too, is called Aigos, but not once in 
Homei Yet they think that this is moie especially 
a Macedonian or Thessalian usage 

10 . After the descendants of Danaiis succeeded to 
the reign in Argos, and the Amythaonides, who 
were emigrants from Pisatis and Tnphylia, became 
associated with these, one should not be surprised if, 
being kindred, they at first so divided the country 
into two kingdoms that the two cities in them which 
held the hegemony were designated as the capitals, 
though situated near one anothei, at a distance of 
less than fifty stadia, I mean Argos and Mycenae, 
and that the Heraeum® near Mycenae was a temple 
common to both In this temple ’ are the images 

^ liiad 1 270, quoted by Strabo in L 1. 16 
® Odyssey 4. 296. ^ Ilmd 6. 152 

* Odyssey 1 . 344. ^ Iliad 2. 108 

® For a full account of the remarkable excavations at the 
Heraeum by the American School of Classical Studies, see 
Waldstem’s The Argtve Eeraeum^ 1902, 2 vols 
’ The old temple was destroyed by fire m 423 b 0 , (Thucy- 
dides 4 133, Pausanias 2 17) and the new one was built 
about 420 e c (Waldstein, op (yit , p 39) 


^ a/jLfotv, found here only m m, but in other MSS after 
MvKiivms. 

165 




STRABO 


lAvf€rivai<i, ev & ra Ylo\vK\eLrov ^oava, tj) [ilv 
Tixvj] fcdWicrra r&v Trdvrcov, TroXyreXeia Se /cal 
[xeyeOet t&v ^ethLov XeLirofieva. Kar dp^d^ p>hj 
ovv TO *'Ap709 eTTeKpdrei pudXXov, ai Mv/c^vai, 
fiei^ova iTTiSoatv Xa^ovcrai S/d rr/v t 5 )v IleXo- 
TriSS)v eU avra^ peOLSpvcriv^ Trepiardprcop yap et? 
TOv<; ’At/06(W9 7 raiSa<^ aTraprcop, ' A,y a p>ipLvcov d)v 
TTpeorySiirepo?, irapaXa^obv rrjv i^ovo-iav, dp/a 
TVXV ' 7 '€ /cal dperfj Trpo^ to 2 ^ ovai TroXXrjv TTpoae- 
KTrjcraTO t% Aa/ccopi/crjv^ 

rfj Mv/cf]paLa Trpoaed't'i/ce, Mez/eXao? p^ep S^ rrjv 
Aa/ccovLK^v eax^i lAv/criva>; Se /cal rd 
KopLvdov /cal %LKvS>vo<i /cal rij? ^Icovcdv p/ev Tore 
/cal AiyiaXicop /ca\ovpL€PY]<;, ^ Axai&v Se varepov, 

^ Ay apepLvcov 'irapiXa/Se, puerd Si rd Tpcoi/cd rP }9 
^Ayap/ippopo^ dpx/]^ /caTaXvdeiari^, raTreiPCodripai 
(Tvpi^r) ^ Mv/c^uac^f /cal pdXicTa perd rrjp t&v 
*] i{pa/cXGiSS)P /cddoSop, /caraaxoPTes yap ovroi 
T^p JleKo 7 r 6 ppy]<TOP i^e^aXop tou? irporepop Kpa- 
rovpTa<^, &a 0 * ol to ’'A/ 3709 e%oz/T €9 elxop /cal rd^; 
^iv/c'ijpa<; avvT&Xovaa^ €69 6 p* %poro 69 S’ varepov 
/carea/cd^Tjaav vrr ^ A pydwv, Mare vvv pr)S^ 6%i^09 
evpia/ceadai t//9 ^lv/c 7 ]paL(ov TroXeco^* ottov Si 
Mv/c'jjvai rocaOra Treiroi'OaaLV, ov Su Pavpd^e/v, 
oyS’ €6 TCP€^ Toyp viro rw "'Apyei /caraXeyopivccv 

1 Aa.KODnK'fiVf Xylander emends to ^ApyoKmiiv^ following the 
tradition that Lacedaemon was presented to Menelaus by his 
father-in-law Tvndareus ; so Meineke. 

® (Tvve^Tif Pletho inserts ; so Corais and Meineke 


^ In particular the colossal image of Hera, which ‘‘is 
seated on a throne, is made of gold and ivory, and is a work 

166 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 6. lo 


made by Polycleitus/ in execution the most beautiful 
in the world, but in costliness and size inferior to 
those by Pheidias. Now at the outset Argos was 
themoie powerful, but later Mycenae waxed more 
powerful on account of the removal thereto of the 
Pelopidae ; for, when everything fell to the sons of 
Atieus, Agamemnon, being the elder, assumed the 
supreme power, and by a combination of good 
foitune and valour acquired much of the countiy m 
addition to the possessions he already had , and 
indeed he also added Laconia to the tenitoiy of 
Mycenae Now Menelaus came into possession of 
Laconia, but Agamemnon leceived Mycenae and the 
legions as far as Corinth and Sicyon and the countiy 
which at that tune was called the country of the 
lomans and Aegiahans but later the country of the 
Achaeans But after the Trojan times, when the 
empire of Agememnon had been broken up, it came 
to pass that Mycenae was reduced, and particularly 
aftei the leturn of the Heiacleidae , for when these 
had taken possession of the Peloponnesus they 
expelled its former masters, so that those who held 
Argos also held Mycenae as a component pait of one 
wdiole But in later times My^cenae was rased to 
the ground by the Argives, so that to-day not even a 
tiace of the city of the Mycenaeans is to be found. 
And since Mycenae has suffered such a fate, one 
should not be surpiised if also some of the cities 
which are catalogued as subj*ect to Argos have now 

of Polycleitus” (Pausamas 2. 17). According to E L. 
Tilton’s restoration (m Waldstein, cd , Fig 64, p 127), 
the total height of the image including base and top of 
throne was about 8 metres and the seated figure of the 
goddess about 5 J 


167 



STRABO 


d<f)av€i<; vvv elarLv. 6 fxev S?) KaraX-oyo? e‘)(eL 

OUTO)?' 

ol S’ ''Apyo^ T el^ov Tipvvdd t€ reixf^oea-aav 
'EpfiLovrjv T ^Acrlvrjv re, ^a6vv Kara koXttqv 
ixov(Ta<ii 

Tpoc^rjv^ 'Utova^ re Kal dpLneXoevr ^EvLSavpov, 
OL r exov AtyivavMdo'^'jrd re, Kovpoo ^Axcli&v. 
rovra>v Be wepl puev roO ''Apyov<^ ecprjrat, irepl Se 
r&v aX\<ov XeKreov* 

11. pku oiv Tipvvdi opfirjrrjpL^ 

C 373 Bok€C Tlpotro<; Kal reixL<^ciL Bid KvkXoottcov, o^<? 
errrd puev elvai, KaXelaOai Be yacrrepox^Lpa^,^ 
rpe<fiopL€vov<; ex rrj(; r6xvr}f;, fjKeiv Be fieraTrepLirrov^ 
€K Au/cta?* Kal 1 (Tco<; rd airriXaia rd ire pi r^v 
^avirXCav Kal rd ev avroh epya rovrcov eTrdvvpid 
icrriv, fj Be dKp67roXi<s AiKvpLva eTTcowpio^ Ai- 
Kvpbvtov, Biex^i Sk T 979 NayTrXta?^ Trepl BcoBeKa 
(TraB[ov<i* eprjpLo^ S’ earl KaKeivT) Kal rj TrXrjaLOv 
MiBea, erepa oZ<Ta rrj^ BoicoriKrjf;* iKeivi] ydp 
iari MlBea,^ ce )9 irpovoia, avrrj Be MiSea, ct >9 
Teyia. r avrrj S’ ojMOpo^ UpoavpLva, . . . avrrj ^ 

1 Corais inserts &s before rpetpo/iet^ovs, following Eustathius 
(note on Od 9. 183 p 1622). 

® 'NavTrxias a, NouirAfow A Meineke reads ^NouTrA/oi/y, 

® MiSea (all MSS , and Eustathius, note on Iliad 2. 507, 
p. 270). Casaubon emends to M/Jeia ; so Meineke. 

* Between Upocrv and atrTj A has a lacuna of about nine or 
ten letters, except that man, sec adds Kai In B wal , , . 
’^Hpas IS omitted but added in margin man sec, Kramer 
conjectures Up6(Tv[p.yd ian «al] ai^rr) kt\ Meineke conjec- 
tures l/ipd iffri xdfpcL 7 } rh] omitting the aVrri ( Find, Strah , ), 
but in his text merely indicates a lacuna between Tlp6<xvpva, 
and «0r77, not accepting the kolI of the commonly adopted 
reading Kramer’s restoration may be right, but Jones con- 
jectures Kdjxiti instead of his Io-ti. 

168 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 6. lo-ii 

disappeared Now the Catalogue contains the follow- 
ing : And those who held Argos, and Tiryns of the 
great walls, and Herniione and Asine that occupy a 
deep gulf, and Troezen and Eiones and vine-clad 
Epidaurus, and the youths of the Achaeans who 
held Aegina and Mases.”^ But of the cities just 
named I have already discussed Argos, and now I 
must discuss the others 

11 Now it seems that Tiryns was used as a base 
of operations by Pioetus, and was walled by him 
through the aid of the Cj^clopes, who weie seven m 
number, and were called Bellyhands because they 
got their food fiom their handiciaft, and they came 
by invitation from Lycia And perhaps the caverns 
near Naupha and the works therein are named after 
them 2 The acropolis, Licymna, is named after 
Licymnius, and it is about twelve stadia distant from 
Naupha ; but it is deserted, and so is the neighbour- 
ing Midea, which is different from the Boeotian 
Midea , foi the former is Midea,^ like Pronia,^ while 
the latter is Midea, like Tegea And bordering on 
Midea is Prosymna, . . . ^ this having a temple of 

1 Ihad 2 659. » Cp. 8. 0. 2 (end). 

^ le, accented on the first syllable. 

^ The place and the name are still preserved m the modem 
Proma near Naupha 

^ The text is corrupt (see critical note) ; and scholais, 
mcluding Waldstein {cp, cU , p. 14), are still in doubt whether 
Strabo here refers to the same temple of Hera (“the common 
temple,’’ “the Heraeum”) previously mentioned or to an 
entirely different one. But the part of the clause that is 
unquestionably sound, together with other evidence, seems 
to prove that he is not refernng to the Heraeum : (1) He 
says “a temple of Hera” and not *^the temple” or ^*the 
Heraeum ” (2) According to Pausanias (2. 17) Prosymna 
was the name of “ the country helow the Heraeum , and 
therefore it did not include the Heraeum (3) According to 

i6g 



STRABO 


Upov exovaa rjp^ijucdaav Be ra? irXeLara^ 

oi ^Apyetot aireiQovaa^^?' oi S’ olfci^rope^ ol pbev etc 
T >;9 TLpvvOo^ aTr7)\9ov eU "^irLBavpoVy oi Be 
e , . . 669 Toi»9 ^AX£669 KaXovpbivov^, ol S’ e’/c 77)9 
^A<xlv 7}<; (ecTTL S’ auTT; KcopLT) TTj^ ^Apy6La<i 'irXTjaiov 
Nav7rXta9) vtto Aa/ceBaifiovLayv 669 t/)z^ lAecrarjviav 
pLercpKiad'Y^aav oitov /cal r) oficovvfjLO^ Tjj ^ApyoXiKf) 
^Aaivrj TToXixvYi oi yap Aa/ceBatp^ovioi, <f>7](7lv 6 
@eo7ro//.7ro9, TroXXrfv fcaTa/crr]crdpevot t^9 dXKo- 
Tpia<; 669 Tavrrjv /carcpKii^oVy 01/9 av viroSe^atvTO 
r&v ^vyovTCov en^ avrov<;* /cal oi^ e/c rrft; 
Nat>7rX6a9 i/ceicre dvex^iopv^^^ 

12. ^Fipp>c6v7] S’ iarl r&v ov/c da'^pcDV TvoXecov* 
^9 r^v rrapaXiav exovcTLv 'AX 6669 Xeyofievoi 
daXarrovpyoL rive^ dvBpe<i, Trap ^Epfitovevcri Be 
reOpvXrjrat rrjv €69 ^'^Bov /card^aaiv avvropLOV 
elvar BioTrep ov/c ivriOeacriv evravOa TO 69 v€/cpoU 
vavXov, 

^ In the passage 01 5’ ohliTop^s /ctA thcie aie six lacnnae 
111 A The othei MSS are also corrupt, but their readings 
and corrections (see Kiamer, note ad loc , and C Muller, 
fold Var Lect p 997) assure the correctness of the above 
restoiations (see Kramer’s and Meineke’s readings) The 
second lacuna Kramer, on the authority of B man. sec 
supplies as follows • ol dk l[^ *Epjut6v7is] eh rohs 'AXieh; but 
Ourtius (cited by Kramer) and Meineke ( Vind Strdb. 120), 
following conjecture of Ranke, rightly believe that Strabo 
wrote [/c T^s Mi^eas], 

® KoX ol, supplied by 


Stephanus Byzantinus, Prosymna was “a pait of Argos,” and 
its ** founder” was “ Prosymnaeus,” which cleaily indicates 

170 




GEOGRAPHY, 8. 6. 11-12 


Hera But the Argives laid waste the most of the 
cities because of their disobedience ; and of the 
inhabitants those fiomTiiyns migrated toEpidaurus, 
and those fiom . . . ^ to Halieis, as it is called ; but 
those from Asine (this is a village m Argeia near 
Naupha) were transferred by the Lacedaemonians to 
Messenia, where is a town that bears the same name 
as the Argolic Asin^, for the Lacedaemonians, says 
Theopompus, took possession of much territory that 
belonged to other peoples and settled there all 
who fled to them and were taken in And the 
inhabitants of Naupha also withdiew to Messenia. 

12 Heimione is one of the important cities , and 
its seaboard is held by the Halieis^^ as they are 
called, men who busy themselves on the sea And 
it is commonly repoited that the descent to Hades 
in the country of the Hermionians is a short cut; 
and this is why they do not put passage-money m 
the mouths of their dead. 

^ Either Hermionc or Midea (see critical note), but the 
Utter seems correct 

® “Fishermen’* 


that it was an inhabited country. And since Strabo is now 
discussing only cities or towns (see last clause of § 10), one 
may infer that the country ot Prosy mna contaiued at least 
one town, for it was clearly “a large and wide tract’* 
(Waldstein, op cit , p. 13, foot-note 1), perhaps even including 
“ the site of such modern villages as Chomca, Anaphi, and 
Pasia” [ibid , p 14; see also map on p 7) And one might 
further infer that the country even contained a town named 
Prosymna In short, there seems to be no ground whatever 
for trying to identify the temple last mentioned with the 
Heraeum, though it is entirely possible that Strabo refers to 
some prosymna, otherwise unknown, which had no connection 
with the Prosymna “ below the Heraeum.” 

17X 




STRABO 


13. Apvo'TTcov S’ olfcrjT'^piov ^aac xal^ rrjv 
^A<TLvr)v, etr etc tS>v Trepl %Trep')(QLov tottcov ovra^ 
avroif^ Apvoiros rov ’Ap/caSo? /caroLfcicravTo^ 
ivravda, a>9 ^ Ap terror ekr]^ ^rjertv, e?^’ ^^HpafcXiovf} 
ifc rrj^ rrepb rov Tlapvaaaov AwptSo? i^eXdaavro^ 
avrov<i» TO Se 'ZfcvXXatov to iv ^Epfitovrf odvo- 
fjbdaOat (fiaerlv diro ^fcvXXr)^ t^9 ^iarov ^i;7aTpo9> 

ef epoaro^ TTpoBoverav Mlvep rr}P 'Nteraiap 
fcaraiTovrcoO rival <j>aoriv vrr avrov, Bevpo S’ i/c- 
/cv/Jiavdelcrav ra(t>^<; rvx^’lv, ^Hiove^ Se Kcopr) rt<i 
7]Vj ip'r)pLd)(j‘avr€<s M.v/cr)vaLOt vaverraO (mov eTrolr]- 
(TaVf d<f>avi(rO€t<ra S’ varepov ovBe vavaradfiov 
ia-riv» 

14. Tpot^^v Be lepd eerrt nocr€t8o!)z^09, d(j> ov 
Kal HoeretBaypLa irore €X<€76To, vrrepicetrat Be t ^9 
daXdrrrj^ ek rrevreicaLBefca crraBlov<;, ouS’ avrrj 
d<xfifJLo<; TToXt^ rrpofcetrai Be rov Xl/i€vo<^ avrri^^ 
n<»7ct)z^09 rovvopba, KaXavpla vrialBiov ocrov kfca- 
rov fcal^ rptaKovra erraBlcov ^^(pv rov kvkXov* 
ivravda fjv davXov UoaeiScovo^; iepov, Kal (paat 
rov deov rovrov dXXd^aadat 7rpo9 p-ez^ Ariroi rrjv 

374 KaXavplav dvriBovra ArjXoVi rrpo^ ^ ArroXKoiyva 
Be Talvapov dvriBovra Tlvdeo. ’'E^op09 Se Kal 
rov 'xprjo-piov Xiyer 

larov rot ArjXov re ^aXavpetdv re vi pea 6 at, 

Hvf^co r fjjaOerjv Kal Talvapov rjvepoevra. 

riv Be Kal ^ Apj>tKrvovla rts rrepl to iepov rovro 

1 Kai IS omitted by E, but Eiistatbiiis (note on Iliad 
2. 560, p. 287) says Aeyei Se (6 ye(j^ypa(l>os) Koi 8ri ’‘Acriyrj 

/coni ^Epjui^ji ApyfJirftjy olKTiriipiov 

^ etd\ Kramer, for ^ v<f>* Aghvno , omitted by BE^. 

172 



GEOGRAPHY, 8 6. 13-14 

13. It is said that Asine too ^ was a habitation of 
the Dryopians — whether, being inhabitants of the 
regions of the Spercheius, they were settled here 
by the Arcadian Dryops,^ as Aristotle has said, or 
whether they were driven by Heracles out of the 
part of Doiis that is near Parnassus. As for the 
Scyllaeum in Hermione, they say that it was named 
aftei Scylla, the daughter of Nisus, who, they say, 
out of love for Mmos betrayed Nisaea to him and 
was di owned in the sea by him, and was here cast 
ashore by the waves and buried Eiones was a 
village, which was depopulated by the Mycenaeans 
and made into a naval station, but later it dis- 
appeared from sight and now is not even a naval 
station. 

14. Tioezen is sacred to Poseidon, after whom it 
was once called Poseidonia. It is situated fifteen 
stadia above the sea, and it too is an important city. 
Oif its harboui, Pogon by name, lies Calamia, an 
isle with a circuit ot about one hundred and thirty 
stadia Here was an asylum sacied to Poseidon ; 
and they say that this god made an exchange with 
Leto, giving her Delos for Calauiia, and also with 
Apollo, giving him Pytho® for Taenarum. And 
Ephorus goes on to tell the oracle . “ For thee it is 
the same thing to possess Delos or Calauna, most 
holy Pytho or windy Taenarum And there was 
also a kind of Amphictyonic League connected with 

^ 1 e as well as Hemiion^. 

® A fragment otherwise unknown ® Delphi. 


® enarhif /caf, Jones inserts (cp 
8 6 3 ). 


same emendation in 


173 




STRABO 


eTTTa iToXecdV, cu /ieret^oz^ t ^9 dvcrCa^* ffaav Be 
^Ep/jLLcov, ’E7rtSfltu^09, Atyiva, 'KOrjvai, Upaaiel^, 
Nav7r\i€i9, ^Op')(ppevo^ 6 M.ivveLo<;* virep piev oiv 
"NavTrXLoyv ' ApyeioL crvpereXovp, virep Ilpaatecov Be 
AaKeBaifJLOVLOL* ovtco S’ iirefcpctrijaev 'q ripir) tov 
6eov TOVTOV irapa roi<^ ''EXXtjctip, Sure /cal MaK€- 
B6ve<i Bwaarevovre^ ijBr) pbixpi^ Bevpo et^vXarTov 
ir(o<: T7)v aavXLav, /cal tov<s [/C€ra<; dirocnrdp ySovPTO 
Toi/^ eh KaXavpiav Kara/^vyovra^' ottov ye ovBe 
Arj/jL0(T6evr) eddpprjcrep /5i>d(Tacr0ac <TTpa- 

Ticora^ e^oov, S tt pocrerera/CTO vtto 'ApTiTrdrpov 
^&VTa dyayeiv /cdtcelvov /cal rcdv aXXcov prjropoov 
ov dv evpT} r&v ip raZ? alitaL^ ovtcov rah irapa- 
irXrfcrioi^i, dXXd ireiOeiv eireipdro* ov firjv eireicre 
ysy dXX' ecbdi) (j>ap/jLd/cG) irapaXvcra<; eavrov tov 
i^rjv* TpoLi^^v Be fcal Iltr6ev<;, oi n€Xo7ro9, opjai]- 
d€VT€<; i/c T^9 ILcadTiBof;, 6 p^ev r^v iroXiv 
opcopvpiov iavTOV /cariXiirev, 6 Be Utrdev^ 
h^aaiXeuaev, i/celvov BtaBe^dpepo^, 'Avdi)^ S’ 
6 irpoKaTej(c>^i^ irX6v<ra<; ^ AXc/cappacrov e/cricrev' 
epovpev S’ iv T0i9 Kapi/coh ire pi rovrcov^ /cal 
T0?9 Tpcoi/coh- 

15. ^EircSavpa^? S’ i/caXelTo ^EiriKapo<;*^ 
(ftijorl yap ^ Kpicr tot eXri<; KaTacrx^'^v avT^v ILdpa^t 
&(Tirep /cal ^Eppiova' rcov Be ^Hpa/cXeiBayv /caieX- 
dovTcop, ''lcova<; avToh avpot/crjcrat tou9 i/c ttj^ 
^Atti/ct]^ TerpairoXeco^ avveiropevov^ eh "'Apyo^* 

1 TT^pX rovroiv, the conjecture of Kramer for the lacuna, 
followed by — ov, of about eight letters in A 

2 'EirlKUpos, Jones, for ’Eirfraypos (see Muller’s Ind. Vo/r. 
Lect p 997, and especially Eustathius’ note on lhad 2. 567, 
p. 287), a having «« above ray, 

T74 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 6. 14-15 

this temple, a league of seven cities which shared in 
the saciifice, they were Heimion,^ Epidaurus, 
Aegiiia, Athens, Piasieis, Naupheis, and Oichomenus 
Minyeius , however, the Argives paid dues for the 
Nauphans, and the Lacedaemonians for the Piasians. 
The worship of this god was so prevalent among 
the Greeks that even the Macedonians, whose 
power already extended as far as the temple, 
in a way pieseived its inviolability, and were afraid 
to drag away the suppliants who fled for refuge to 
Calauiia; indeed Aichias, ivith soldiers, did not 
venture to do violence even to Demosthenes, although 
he had been oidered by Antipatei to hung him 
alive, both him and all the other oratois he could 
find that were under similar charges, but tried to 
persuade him , he could not peisuade him, however, 
and Demosthenes foiestalled him by suiciding with 
poison Now' Troezen and Pittheus, the sons of 
Pelops, came oiigmally from Pisatis , and the former 
left behind him the city which was named after 
him, and the latter succeeded him and leigned as 
king But Anthes, who previously had possession 
of the place, set sail and founded Halicarnassus ; 
but concerning this I shall speak in my description 
of Cana and Tioy ^ 

15. Epidaurus used to be called Epicarus, for 
Aristotle says that Carians took possession of it, as 
also of Hermioii^, but that after the return of the 
Heracleidae the lonians who had accompanied the 
Heracleidae from the Attic Tetrapolis ^ to Argos 
took up their abode with these Carians ^ Epidaurus, 

^ The same as Hermioiie. ® 14 2 16 

® “ Four-city,” i.e the northern part of Attica containing 
the four denies Marathon, OenoS, Probalinthus and Trico- 
r>nthus, ^ A fragment otherwise unknown. 


175 



STRABO 


Kal avrr] S* ovie acrYjfiofi r) 7 roX , i 9, Kal fMoXiara 
Bca rr)v eirKpaveiav tov ^Aa/cXijTriov Oepaiteveiv 
vocrov^ iravToha'ira^ ireTTiGTevixkvov, kcu to lepov 
7fKripe<i e^ovro^ ael r&v re /cafMvovrwv Kal rm 
avaKeipievcov irivaKcoVt iv ol^ avay€<ypapLp>iva& 
rvy')(avovaLV ai depairelai, Kadairep ev Kw re 
Kal TptKKy» Keirab S ' ^ rroXi^ iv p>vx^ tov 
^aprovLKOV KoXrroVi rov rrepLrrXovv exovaa (xra- 
Slcov irevreKaLBsKay ^Xerrovaa irpo^ avaroXa<: 
depivd<i^ TreptKXeCerab S ’ o pea tv vyjrrjXoc^ 

TT/oo? rr}v OdXarraVy &ar ipvpLvrj KareaKevaarab 
^vaiK&<; iravraxoBevA fiera^if Be Tpoc^^vo^ Kal 
^RrriBavpov ipvpvov MeOava Kal %e/)- 

p6v7]ao<; opLcowfLo^ rovrtp* rrapd ®ovKvBiBnp Be ev 
riaiv dvrLypd<f>OL<; yieddovr} <j)eperat 6ficovviico<i^ 
r^ XIaKeBoviKj), iv § ^iXbWTro^ i^eKOTrrj rov 
375 cx^daXpov rroXiopK&v* Biorrep oteraL riva^ i^arra- 
rridevra^ o XKTjyJrio^ Arjpb'^rpiof; r^v ev rfj Upoi- 
^Tjvla^ MeOcovrfv virovoeXv, kuO^ ^9 dpdaaaOai 
Xeyerai rov^ vw ^ Kyapepuvovo^ rrep(^6evra<i vav- 
T 0 A 070 V 9 , prjBeTTore rravaaadai rov ^ recxoBopecv, 
ov rovroov, dXXd rwv M.aKeB6vcov dvavevadvroovi 
0)9 <^y]aL %eQTTopTroV rovrov^ S’ ovk cIko^, €77i>9 
ovra^y direbOriaai 

16. AXyiva S’ iarl pev Kal T07ro9 t49 rij^ 
^ErriBavpla^, eari Be Kal vrjao<; irpo ri}? ‘^ireipov 
Tai5T^9, ^v iv TOi9 dprioi><; rraparedelatv erteai 

1 Here again (see Vol. III. p. 321, footnote 2), beginning 
with fjLeral-6 and ending with KvKK'fivii (8, 8 1), A has lost a 
whole quaternion , (see Kxamer, note ad loc,)* 

® dfJLtov^fjLciis, Kramer, for d/At^wfios ; so the later editors. 

® TpoiCrtvlif, Meineke, for TpoiOjvu 

176 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 6. 15-16 

too, IS an important city, and particularly because of 
the fame of Asclepius, who is believed to cure 
diseases of every kind and always has his temple full 
•of the sick, and also of the votive tablets 011 which 
the treatments are recorded, just as at Cos and 
TiiccA The city lies in the recess of the Saionic 
Gulf, has a ciicular coast of fifteen stadia, and faces 
the summer risings of the sun ^ It is enclosed by 
high mountains which reach as far as the sea, so that 
on all sides it is naturally fitted for a stronghold. 
Between Troezen and Epidaurus there was a strong- 
hold called Methaiia, and also a peninsula of the same 
name In some copies of Thucydides the name is 
spelled ^^Methone,” the same as the Macedonian 
city in which Philip, in the siege, had his eye 
knocked out. And it is on this account, in the 
opinion of Demetrius of Scepsis, that some writers, 
being deceived, suppose that it was the Methon^ in 
the teiritory of Troezen against which the men sent 
by Agamemnon to collect sailors are said to have 
uttered the imprecation that its citizens might never 
cease from their wall-building, since, in his opinion, 
it was not these citizens that refused, but those of 
the Macedonian city, as Theopompus says ; and it is 
not likely, he adds, that these citizens who were 
near to Agamemnon disobeyed him, 

16 , Aegina is the name of a place in Epidauna ; 
and it is also the name of an island lying off* this 
part of the mainland — ^the Aegina of which the poet 


^ North-east. 


VOL. IV 


^ ToS, Meineke inserts. 


177 

N 




STRABO 

^ovXeraL (f>pd^etv 6 Bib Ka\ <ypd<j>ovcrC 

Tive^ 

VYjo-ov r Ktyivav^ 
dvrl Tov 

01 T ^ e^ov Klr^tvaVy 

BiacTTeXKoiJievOL rrjv ofJbaovvfjLiav, on pev ovv r&v 
(T<f>6Bpa jvcopLpbayv icrrlv rj vijirof^, tl Bel Xiyeiv ; 
hvrevdev yap Ala/c6<^ re Xeyerai icai ol vrt avrov,^ 
avrrj S’ iariv r} koX daXarrofcparrjaaard TTore teal 
rrepl rrpayreLmv dfKpicrjSrjro^oracra 7 rpb<; *Adrjvaiov^ 
ev rfi rrepl ^aXaplva vavpLa')(La Kara rd HepaiKa. 
Xeyerai Be araBloov eKarbv oyBorjKovra 6 kvkXo^ 
T^9 vyjaov, rroXiv S’ opicbvvpov e%6i rerpapipevrjv 
TTpb^ Ai^a* rrepie')(pvai S’ avrrjv ^ re ^Attik^ 
Kal f) M.eyapl^ kuI UeXoTrovvycrov rci pe)(pi 
^EmBavpoVy or^^eBov ri eKarbv crraBLov^ eKacrrij 
Bie^ovaa* rb Be ecodivbv piepo^ Kal rb vonov 
rreXdyei xXv^erai r^ re Mvpr<p(p Kal r^ Kprj- 
nK&* vrja-iBia Be rrepiKeirai irol^Xa piev rrpb^ rfj 
r}rreLpcpy ^eX^iva Be rrpb<; rb rreXayo^ dvareivovaa. 
Tj Se avrrj<i Kara /Sadova fiev yecbSr)<; iarC, 

7rerpa>Br}<; S’ eTr^TroX?}?, Kal pLoXicra ^ rreBteW 
Bioirep 'jriXr) rrdad ean,^ Kpido(j)6po<; Be iKavm, 
yLvpfjiiBova^ Be KXrjOrjvai (paaiVj ovx o pvdo<$y 
rov^ AlyivYjra^y on Xoipiov pieydXov avpiTrecrovros 
Ol pivpp/r)Ke<; dvOprorroi yevoivro Kar AlaKOv, 

dXX on p^vppbijKcov rporrov opvrrovre^^ rijv yrjv 
emcnTeipoiev ® eVt rd^ rrerpa^y cwctt’ ex^tv ye- 

^ oX T* (as in 8 6 10), Corais, for ot 8*. 

^ {fTt* aMvy Memeke emends to &7r‘ avrov. 


X7S 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 6. i6 


means to speak in the verses just cited , ^ and it is on 
this account that some wiite ^^the island Aegina’’ 
instead of who held Aegina/’ ^ thus distinguishing 
between places of the same name Noiv what need 
have I to say that the island is one of the most 
famous^ for it is said that both Aeacus and his 
subjects w^eie fiom there And this is the island 
that was once actually mistiess of the sea and 
disputed with the Athenians for the prize of valour 
in the sea-fight at Salamis at the time of the Persian 
War The island is said to be one hundied and 
eighty stadia in circuit , and it has a city of the same 
name that faces south-west ; and it is surrounded by 
Attica, Megans, and the Peloponnesus as far as 
Epidaurus, being distant about one hundied stadia 
from each; and its eastern and southern sides aie 
washed by the Myitoan and Cretan Seas; and 
aiound it he small islands, many of them near the 
mainland, though Belbina extends to the high sea. 
The countiy of Aegina is feitile at a depth below 
the surface, but rocky on the surface, and particulaily 
the level part ; and thei efore the whole countrj^ is 
baie, although it is fairly pioductive of barley. It is 
said that the Aeginetans were called Myrmidons, — 
not as the myth has it, because, when a great famine 
occurred, the ants ^ became human beings in answer 
to a prayer of Aeacus, but because they excavated 
the earth after the manner of ants and spread the 
soil over the rocks, so as to have ground to till, and 

1 § 10 . 2 xi^ad 2 562 

® The transliterated Greek woid for is *‘niyr- 

meces,*’ 


® €m(r'7reipot€v (Bkl and Aid ), iTri^epoiev (Kacghino 
the editors in general) 


and 

179 



STRABO 


copy 61 V f iv Se roh opvyfjiacnv olfcetv (peiBo/jbevoL 
7r\tv0cov. mvofid^sTO S* Olvoovrj rraXat ojjlcopv/xco^ 
Bvcrl hrip,oi<; rep re tt / jo ? ^EXevffepai^j 

Olvcovrj ^ 

avy^opra vaUiv ireBLa ral^ S’ ^EXevQepal^, 

KoX p*ia T&v 6K rerparroXeco^ t^9 rrepl Mapad&vay 
Ka0* fj<; Y) TTapoLfiCa* Oivoovp ^ rrjv %apdBpav* 
iirmfcrjaav S’ avrrjv ^Apyetoi teal K/3^Te9 fcal 
^EmhavpLOL /cal Acopi6L<;^ varepov Se /care/eXT]- 
pov'x;r](Tav rrjv vrjerov ^AdrjvaLOi* d(f>6X6pb6vot Be 
0 376 Aa/ceBaipiovioi Tov<i^ A6rivaLov<i rr^v VTjaov aTreBoaav 
T049 dp'XjxioL^ olK'qropartv. d7roifcov<; S’ eerretXav 
AlyiV7]Tac eh re K.vScovtav rrjv ip Kp'tjrr} /cal eh 
'OpL/Spt/cov 9 . '^E<f>opo<; S’ ip Alyivy apyvpov irpSo- 
rov KOTTrjvai (jorjatv viro <l>e/Scwz/09* ipiropLov yap 
yevkcdaif Bih r^v Xvirporrjra rrj^ 
dvOpdorrmv 6aXarrovpyovvrcov epuropi/cw^ d<f>^ od 
TOP p&TTOv Alyipaiav ipmdXy^v Xeyeadai. 

17. Be 7roi7]T7}^ epia {jlIv %G)yo/a Xeyei 
avve^Wf &cnr€p /cal /celrar 

01 S' 'Tpirjv ipepovTo /cal AvXiSa, 
ot S’ ’'A/?709 t’ elxop Tlpvpdd re, 
^Eppcoprjp T ^AcrCprjp re, 

Tpoi^7]p' ^Hcova^ re* 

^ Tzschucke emends to Ob6r}f Corais to OIpSyis, 

® Meineke relegates dutovOfiays . . . 'to the foot of 

the page as a gloss. 


1 On the demes and their number see 9. 1. 16 ff. 
® The authorship of these words is unknown. 

® See foot-note on 8 6 15. 




GEOGRAPHY, 8. 6. 16-17 

because they lived in the dugouts, refraining from 
the use of soil for bricks. Long ago Aegina was 
called Oenone, the same name as that of two demes ^ 
in Attica, one near Eleutherae, to inhabit the plains 
that border on Oenon^ and Eleutherae” ; ^ 
another, one of the denies of the Marathonian Tetra- 
polis,® to which IS applied the pioverb, ^^To Oenone 
— the torrent ” ^ Aegina was colonised successively 
by the Argives, the Cretans, the Epidaunans, and 
the Dorians , but later the Athenians divided it by 
lot among settlers of their own , and then the 
Lacedaemonians took the island away fiom the 
Athenians and gave it back to its ancient settlers. 
And colonists were sent foith by the Aeginetans 
both to Cydonia in Crete and to the country of the 
Ombrici.® Ephorus says that silver was first coined 
in Aegina, by Pheidon ; for the island, he adds, 
became a merchant-centre, since, on account of the 
poverty of the soil, the people employed themselves 
at sea as merchants, and hence, he adds, petty wares 
were called " Aegmetan merchandise.’’ 

17 . The poet mentions some places m the order in 
which they are actually situated ; and these dwelt 
in Hyna and Aulis,” ® and those who held Argos and 
Tiryns, Hermione and Asin^, Troezen and Eiones ” ; ’ 

* The whole passage, “the same name . , . torrent,” is 
believed to be spurious, for “Oenon^” is well attested as a 
former name of Aegma, while the name of the two Attic 
demes was OenoS, ” not “ Oenon^.” Moreover, the proverb 
referred to “Oeno^,” not “OenonA” The inhabitants of 
Oenol diverted the torrent “ Charadra ” for the purpose of 
irrigation Much damage was the result, and hence the 
proverb came to be applied to people who were the authors 
of their own misfortunes 

« See 5. 2. 10. « lhad 2. 496. 


7 lhad 2. 559. 



STRABO 


aXkore B\ ov^ w earc rfj rd^ei, 

X)^0lv6v T€ 'SifC&XoV T€, 

©ecrirecav Tpaidv re* 
rd T €v rjireLpcp ral^; vrjaoL^ (7vpb(f>pd^€h 

0% p ^\6dKr}v elxov, 

/cal KpofcvXei evipLovro* 

rd yap Kpo/cvXeca iv rot? ^ A.Kapvdo'iv, ovrm Se 
/cal vvv rfj AlyLvr) top MdcrrjTa avvrj^ev, ovra 
T?}? ^ApyoXL/C7]<; 7]7r€Lpov, @vpea^^ Be ^'Opurjpo^; 
pb€V ov/c oivofiaaevj oi S’ aXXoi dpvXovat* wepl 
&v 'ApyeLOi<i /cal Aa/ceBaipbOvioL^ avvecnr) dydvt 
rpia/co<TLOL<i 7r/309 rpta/coaLov^* ivi/ccov Be Aa/ce^ 
BaipLOVLOLi <TT parrjyovvTO^ 'OdpvdBa* elvai Be ^r]<Ti 
TO xwpLov TOVTO &ov/cvBLBr]<; iv rf) Kvvovpua ^ 
/card T7)v fiedopiav ^ ApyeLa^ /cal T 7/9 Aa/co)- 
vi/crj<;, eiarl Be /cal ^To-iac, T07ro9 yvooptpo^ rrff; 
^ApyoXi/ci]^, /cal K,€yxp^cih at Kelvrai e^rl rfj 6B& 
rfj i/c Teyea^ eh ^Apyo<^ Bid rov HapSeviov 6pov<; 
/cal rov KpeoTTcoXov,^ '^Oprjpo^ B' avrd^ ov/c olBeVt 
ovSe TO Avp/ceiov,^ ovB^ ^Opv6d<i' Kcoptat S’ eiarl 
t>}9 ^Apyeta^i fj pev opdvvpo^ rep opet rp irXrirrlov,^ 
ai Be rah ^Opveah rah pera^v T^opLvdov /cal 
%LKvS)vo^ iBpvpevaL<i,^ 

^ Bup4as, Xylander, for Bvpaias ; so the later editors, 

® Kvvovpiff {0 and the editors), for Kvi/oacvpit^. 

® Kp€eo7r6Kov B, KpeeToK ag^ Kp€€Tr6Kov 0, KpecrvdKov c, 
Bnt Memeke relegates Kal rod Kpeoircc\ov to the foot of the 
page Some (see Kramer, note ad loc.) think that Strabo 
refers to Kpeiov, the mountain near Argos mentioned by 
Callimachus. 

182 



GEOGRAPHY, 8, 6 17 


but at other times not in their actual order . Schoe- 
11 us and Scolus, Thespeia and Graea ^ and he 
mentions the places on the mainland at the same 
time with the islands . those who held Ithaca and 
dwelt m Crocyleia/’ ^ for Crocyleia is in the country 
of the Acainanians And so, also, he heie ® con- 
nects Mases with Aegina, although it is in Argolis 
on the mainland Homei does not name Thyreae, 
although the others often speak of it; and it was 
concerning Thyieae that a contest arose between the 
Ai gives and the Lacedaemonians, three hundred 
against thiee huiidied,^ but the Lacedaemonians 
under the generalship of Othryadas won the victory. 
Thucydides says that this place is m Cynuiia on the 
common border of Aigeia and Laconia. And there 
are also Hysiae, a well-known place in Aigolis, and 
Cenchreae, which lies on the road that leads from 
1 ‘egea to Aigos thiough Mt. Partheniiis ^ and Creo- 
polus,® but Homer does not know them Nor yet 
does he know Lyrceium'^ nor Oineae, which are 
villages in Argeia, the formei bearing the same 
name as the mountain near it and the latter the 
same as the Orneae %vhich is situated between 
Corinth and Sicyon. 

1 Ihad 2 497. 2 ji^^d 2 632 

3 Ihad 2. 562 * So Herodotus 1 82 

® So Pausanias 8 6, ® See critical note. 

’ See critical note 


* A6pK€iov (conj. of Casaubon) Jones, for AvKoifpyiov (see 
6 2 4). 

® Tr\7i(rioVf Jones inserts after filling the lacuna of about 
eight letters (Avpfcel, Groskurd) 

^ The words o{>Se . . iBpvpthmis suspected by Kramer, 
and ejected by Meineke 

183 



STRABO 


18. T&v fcara Jlekoirovvriaov iroXmv ipho- 

^orarai r^e^ovaaL teal (Ji^expi vvv da\v re 

%7rdpTrj T€, Sid Be to TroXvffpvXrjrop rj/cKrra Set 
fiafcpoXoyetp mpl avr&v* ret ydp vtto irdvraov 
eipTjfjtipa XiyeiP Bo^optep. to iraXatov pth oiv 
rjvBo/ctptei TO ''Apyo<^ ptdXXop, Harepop Se koX 
ptiXP^ TTai'To? vTrepejSdXovro Aa/ceBat ptopioi /cal 
BiereXecrap rrjv avrovoptLav ^vXdrropre^i rrXrjv et 
Tb rrov ptiKpop rrpoarrraietp avrovt^ avpi^aivep, 
^Apyetoi Be Uvppop pthf ovic eBe^avro, dXXd ml 
rrpo Tov retxov^ eirecre, ypaiBiov rivo^i eoixe, 

377 fcepaptbBa d(j>ivTO<i apceOep eTrt rrjp fce<^aK'qv, vir 
aXXot<i S’ iyipopTO ^aaiX€V(ri* p6Taax6pr€<i Be 
TOV T&p ^Axoit&v (TV(TTr\pLaTO^ (xvv liceivot^ €69 rrjv 
T&v ^FcoptaCcov i^ovaiav ^fxOov, ml pvp cruvicrrTjfcev 
f) 7roX49, Bevrepevovara rf} rd^et perh t^v %7rdprrjp, 

19. *£^979 Be Xeycoptep irepl r&v vrro MvK7]vat<; 
fcal Ttp ^ Ayapteptvovt Terayptevmv ronrayp ip 
KaraXoy^ t&p ve&v* e%€4 S’ ovtco ret eirri* 

ot Be Mv/cypa9 elxop, ivxrtptepop irroXieOpov, 
dipveiop re Kopivffop iiKTiptepa^ re KXeo>m9, 
^Opvetd^ T ipeptovro ^Apaidvperjv r ipaT€tP7]v 
ml Xifcv&p\ od^ ap *'ASp?7<rT09 irp&r^ ipt^aat- 
Xevep, 

0 % 0" ^TirepTfcrtijv re ml alTretvrjv Topoecfrav 
TLeXXrivrip r elxop, ^S’ Atyiov dp(pepiptovTO 
AlyictXov T dvd rrdpra ml dpt<f>^ ^EXlktjp evpetap* 

at ptev oBp MvKTjvai pvp ovKer ela-iv, etcrtcre S’ 
avrm Hepcrev^f BteBi^aro Se SOepeXof^^ elr Evpvo^ 
0€v^' ol S’ avTol ml rov"^ Apyov<; ?)p^av. Evpv(x6ev<; 

^ 5^ , Kramer, for 5c B (?), yovv no ; ^0 the later editors. 
184 



GEOGRAPHY, 8 6 18*19 

18 . So then, of the cities m the Peloponnesus, 
Argos and Sparta prove to have been, and still are, 
the most famous ; and, since they are much spoken 
of, there is all the less need for me to describe them 
at length, for if I did so I should seem to be repeat- 
ing what has been said by all writers. Now in early 
times Argos was the more famous, but later and 
ever afterwards the Lacedaemonians excelled, and 
persisted m preserving their autonomy, except per- 
haps when they chanced to make some slight 
blunder 1 Now the Argives did not, indeed, admit 
Pyirhus into their city (in fact, be fell befoie the 
walls, when a certain old woman, as it seems, diopped 
a tile upon his head), but they became subject to 
other kings ; and aftei they had joined the Achaean 
League they came, along with the Acliaeans, under 
the dominion of Rome; and their city persists to 
this day second in rank after Sparta. 

19 . But let me speak next of the places which 
are named m the Catalogue of Ships as subject to 
Mycenae and Menelaus. The words of the poet 
are as follows : And those who held Mycenae, 
well-built foi tress, and wealthy Corinth and well- 
built Cleonae, and dwelt in Orneiae and lovely 
Araethyre^ and Sicyon, wherein Adrastus was king 
at the first; and those who held Hyperesi^ and 
steep Gonoessa and Pellen^, and dwelt about Aegium 
and through all the Aegialus^ and about broad 
HelicA”® Now Mycenae is no longer in existence, 
but it was founded by Perseus, and Perseus was suc- 
ceeded by Sthenelus, and Sthenelus by Eurystheus , 
and the same men ruled over Argos also. Now 

1 For example, against the Roman praetors f see 8 5 5) 

2 ^‘Shore-land.” « Iliod 2 569 

18s 



STRABO 


jjLev ovv crrparevcra^ ei^ Mapad&va ewl tov^ 
^HpafcXiov^ TratSa? /cal ^loXaov, l3orjd7]crdvT(ov 
*A6rjvaLCdv, laropelrai Trecreiv ip rp P'd')(7j, /cal 
TO pb6P dXXo a&pia Vap>yr)TTol ra(l>y]vaL, rrjv he 
K€(paX7}v iv Tpi/copvv6<p,^ aTro/coylravro^ 

avrriv ^loXdov, irepl rrjv /cprjvrjv rrjv Ma/capiav^ 
VTTO dpba^iTov' /cal o totto? /caXetrac RipyaOecof; 
/c€<paX7]» at Se Xlv/crjvat ptereTrecrov eh tov? 
rieXoTTiSa?, oppLr}9ivra<; i/c rrj^ Uta-driSo^, elr 
€69 TOt »9 ^Hpa/cXeihaf;, /cal to ^'Apyo^ I%oz/t/X9. 
pterd Se rrjv iv %aXap!tvi vavpLa'Xjiav ^Apyeioi 
pterd ]LXeoivaLo>v /cal Teyear&p i7reXd6pr6<; ctpSrjv 
T ^9 MvK7]va<i dvetXov /cal rr]v SievetpbavTO, 

hid Se T7]v iyyvr7']Ta Ta? Suo ft )9 pttav ot 

Tpayt/col avvcovvptcof; Trpoa-ayopevovcnv, EiJpiTrtS-?;? 
hi, /cal iv T(p avTcp hpdpart, tot€ ptev Mv/criva^ 
KaXdw, TOT€ S’ ’'A/0709 T^v avTTjv TToXiv, /caddiTep 
iv ^lcj7ty€V€La /cal ^Qpiarrj, KA^ecomt 5’ elcrl 
TToXtcrpta iirl Trj 6S(p /ceiptevov rfj i^ "^Apyov^ eh 
Koptvffov iwl X6(pov TrepiotKovptivov TravraxoSev 
/cal Teretx^apivov /caXco^;, &crT oi/cetco^ elp^crOat 
ptoL Soa;€6 to iv/cTtpteva<; K.X6covd<;, ivravda Se 
KoX 7} Ne/xea ptera^v KXecovcov Kal ^Xtovvro^ /cal 
TO dXcro<i, iv S /cal rd 'Neptea awreXelv edo<i 
TO 69 ^ApyeioL^, /cal rd Trepl top l^iepeatov Xeovra 
ptvBevopteva, /cal r] ^ipt^tva /ccoptr}' hUxovat S’ 
ai KXe 0 val tov ptev "'Apyov^ arahiov^i e/carov 
et/cocTL, Kopivdov he oySoTj/covra, xal r)pteh diro 
TOV ^A/cpo/coptvdov /caTQ)7rT€vaapL€V to /cTtcrpta. 

^ TptKop6y9<^, Mezueke, for rj Koplvdcp (see notes on this 
word under 8. 7. 1 and 9. 1, 22) ‘ 

MaKapiav, Xy lander, for ’AKapio^y, so the later editors. 

1B6 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 6, 19 

Eurystheus made an expedition to Maiathoii against 
lolaus and the sons of Heracles, with the aid of the 
Athenians, as the stoiy goes, and fell in the battle, 
and his body was buried at Gargettus, except his 
head, which was cut off by lolaus, and was buried 
separately at Tricorynthus neai the spring Marcaria 
below the \vagon-road. And the place is called 
Eurystheus’ Head ” Then Mycenae fell to the 
Pelopidae who had set out fiom Pisatis, and then 
to the Heiacleidae, who also held Aigos But after 
the naval battle at Salamis the Ai gives, along with 
the Cleonaeans and Tegeatans, came over and 
utterly destroyed Mycenae, and divided the countiy 
among themselves Because of the nearness of the 
two cities to one another the writers of tragedy 
speak of them synonymously as though they w^eie 
one city ; and Euripides, even in the same drama, 
calls the same city, at one time Mycenae, at another 
Argos, as, foi example, in his Iphigeiieia ^ and his 
Otesfes^ Cleonae is a town situated by the road 
that leads fiom Argos to Corinth, on a hill which 
IS surrounded by dwellings on all sides and is well 
fortified, so that in my opinion Homer’s words^ 
w'ell-built Cleonae,” weie appropriate. And here 
too, between Cleonae and Phlius, are Nemea and 
the sacred precinct in which the Argives are wont 
to celebrate the Nemean Games, and the scene of 
the myth of the Nemean hon, and the village 
Bembina Cleonae is one hundred and twenty stadia 
distant from Argos, and eighty from Corinth. I 
myself have beheld the settlement from Acrocorinthus. 

^ IpMgeyma zn Tauris, 508 , 510 et seq, 

2 Orestes 98 , 101 , 1246 . 

187 



STRABO 


C S78 20. '0 Se 'Kopivdo^; d4>V€io^ fih Xeyerai hih 

TO ifM'TTOpiOV, iTTL T<r0yL6^ KeLp^VO^ KCtX Su€lV 
Xipevcov^ Kvpio %3 0 pev t ?}9 ^Aaia^, 6 Se 79)9 
’lTaXta 9 iyyv<$^ iari' ^ fcal paUa<; Trotel 709 
ktcaTepcoOev dpot^d^ r&v cfyopTLcov 7rpo9 aW?^Xov9 
70^9 TOCrOVTOV d(j)€(TT&(7lP, S’ ScTTCp 6 TTOpOpO^ 
ovK evirXov^ o Kara r^v XifceXiav to TtaXatov^ 
OVTCO teal Tk Trekdyrii koI pakterTa to virep MaXeSz/ 
hia 7^9 dvTnrvoia<;' d<j> oS /cal TrapoLpcd^ovTai* 

MaXea9 Se /edp'^a^ iiriXdBov t&v oc/caSe, 

dyaTrrjTov ovv iKaT€poi<; toI^ t6 i/c 7^9 T7aXta9 
Kal ifc 7^9 ’Acr6a9 epiropoc*; d^elcTL tov im ^ 
MaX€a9 ttXovv,^ KaTayeadat tov (l>6pT0v avTodf 
Kal Tre^fi Se ® t&v eKKopL^opevcov ek Trj^^ UeXoTrov- 
vrjerov Kal t&v elaayopiifcov eTTLiTTS to, TeXr) to ?9 
7 ^ KXeWpa exovcri, Scipetve Se tovto Kal eh 
vexTepov p^Xpe iravTo^y Toh S’ vaTepov Kal itXem 
TTpocreylveTo irXeoveKTTjpaTa* Kal yap 6 ^IcrdptKo^ 
dyobv eKel avvTeXovpevo^ oxXov^ eTTTjyeTO, ml ol 
BaKXcdSat Tvpavvjj(TavTe<?, ttXovo-ioc Kal iroXXol 
Kal y€VO<; XapirpoLy hiaKoata 6T7) erx^^ov ti Ka- 
Teaxov TTjv dpxw epiropiov ahem eKapird)- 

aavTo' TOVTov^i Se Kui^e\o9 KaTaXvaa<s avTo^ 
iTVpdvvTjae, Kal pixp^ Tpiyovta^ 0 o2ko9 avrov 
(TVvepeLve* tov Se irepl tov oIkov tovtov ttXovtov 
papTvpLov 70 ^OXvpTTLacrtv dvddTjpa KvyjriXov, 
<T<l>vp'^\aTO^ Xpvcrov<; dvBpias evpeyednjs* A 97 - 

1 after KL}i4v<avy Meineke inserts, 

* €v6i5y, Jones, from conj of Capps, for ^77i5s. 

Before koX Meineke indicates a lacuna. 

* M Meineke emends to wepl, following oonj. of Corais. 

188 



GEOGRAPHY, 8 6. 20 


20. Corinth is called wealthy” because of its 
commerce, since it is situated on the Isthmus and 
IS master of two harbours, of which the one leads 
straight to Asia, and the other to Italy; and it makes 
easy the exchange of merchandise from both countries 
that are so far distant from each othei. And just 
as m early times the Strait of Sicily was not easy to 
navigate, so also the high seas, and particularly the 
sea beyond Maleae, were not, on account of the 
contiary winds, and hence the proverb, ^^But when 
you double Maleae, forget your home.” At any rate, 
it was a welcome alternative, for the mei chants 
both from Italy and from Asia, to avoid the voyage 
to Maleae and to land their cargoes here. And 
also the duties on what by land was expoited from 
the Peloponnesus and what was imported to it fell 
to those who held the keys. And to later times 
this remained ever so But to the Corinthians of 
later times still gieatei advantages were added, for 
also the Isthmian Games, which were celebrated 
tlieie, were wont to draw crowds of people And 
the Bacchiadae, a rich and numerous and illustrious 
family, became tyrants of Corinth, and held their 
empire for nearly two hundred years, and without 
disturbance reaped the fruits of the commerce ; and 
when Cypselus overthrew these, he himself became 
tyrant, and his house endured for three generations ; 
and an evidence of the wealth of this house is the 
offering which Cypselus dedicated at Olympia, a 
huge statue of beaten gold^ Again, Demaratus, 
^ Also mentioned in 8 3 30. 

^ eh K6piu6oy, before icardyeardat, Meineke ejects, placing the 
colon after avr66t instead of after f6prov, 

® Se, after Meineke, for re. 


189 


STRABO 


fiaparo^ re, eh r&v iv Kopivdqy Bvvaarevcrdvrcav, 
(f)6vycop Ta9 ifcet crrcicret^y roaovrov rjviyfcaro 
ttXovtov OLKodev eh rrjv Tvpprjviav, &<tt6 avrh 
pep ^p^e rr}<; Be^apeurj^ avrop TroXeco?* o 8’ vlh 
avTOv fcal ^Pcopaicop tcarearry] ^acn\ev<i to Tfi 
T/;? ^A(j)poBLT7]<; iepov ovrco irXovatop ifTr^p^ev, 
&crT€ TrX€Lov<; r] x^Xta^ lepoBovXovf; i/ceKrrjTo 
eraipa*;, a? dperLOecrav de^ koX dvBpe^ koX 
yvpaltce^. koX Bid TavTa<; ovp TroXuco^XeiTO 7} 
7rc)Xi9 Kal eTrXovrL^eTo* oi yap vav/cXrjpoi paUm 
i^apr}Xi(TfcoPTQy /cal Bid rovro r) irapoipia <pT]crLv* 

ov 7raPT0<; dpBpo<^ h KopipOop eaO' 6 7rXov<^, 

/cal Brj Kal pprjpopeveTaL ti<; eraipa iTpo<^ rr)P 
oveiBL^ovaapi on ov (j>iXepyo<: eir} ouS’ ipicop 
diTTOiTO, ehreip* eyd pipTOi ^ roiavTTj TpehijBT} 
KaOelXov iarrov^ ip ^pa^ei toiJto).” 

21 . TrfP Be roTTodea-iav Trj<; 'iroXeco^, m 
379 ^Jepcopvp6<; re eiprjKe Kal Ei5So^09 /cal dXXoi, Kal 
avTol Be eiBopep, vecoaTl dpaXr}<^deL(Tri<i vivo r&v 
^PcopaicDp, roidpBe elvai avp^aipei, opo^ xjy^rjXov 
oaop Tpi&p Yjpiav (rraBicop e^ov r^v KaOerop, rrjv 
8 ’ dvd/SaaiP Kal rpiaKopra (rraBicop, eh o^eiav 
reXevra KOpv(f>7]p' KaXeirai Be ^AKpoKopivBo^;, oi 
TO pep irpo<; apKTOv pepo^ icrrl to pdXicrra opBiov, 
v4>^ (p Keirai rj TroXt? irrl rparre^coBov^i iiriireBov 

^ fieuroij Corals, for fxhv r6 , SO the later editors 


^ Tarquinii 

2 Tarqumius Priscus (see 5 2 2) 

® That IS, “finished three webs.” But there is a word- 
play in KaOsiKov icro^s which cannot be reproduced in 

190 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 6. 20-21 


one of the men who had been in power at Corinth, 
fleeing from the seditions there, earned with him so 
much wealth from his home to Tyrrhenia that not 
only he himself became the ruler of the city^ that 
admitted him, but his son was made king of the 
Romans.^ And the temple of Aphrodite was so 
rich that it owned more than a thousand temple- 
slaves, courtesans, whom both men and women had 
dedicated to the goddess And therefore it was 
also on account of these women that the city was 
crowded with people and grew iich , for instance, 
the ship-captains fieely squandered their money, 
and hence the pioverb, ^^Not for eveiy man is the 
voyage to Corinth Moreover, it is recorded that 
a certain courtesan said to the woman who reproached 
her with the charge that she did not like to work 
or touch wool . Y etj such as I am, in this short 
time I have taken down three webs ^ 

21. The situation of the city, as described by 
Hieronymus^ and Eudoxus^ and others, and from 
what 1 myself saw aftei the recent restoiation of 
the city by the Romans,® is about as follows* A 
lofty mountain with a perpendicular height of three 
stadia and one half, and an ascent of as much as 
thirty stadia, ends m a shaip peak , it is called 
Aciocoimthus, and its northern side is the steepest; 
and beneath it lies the city m a level, trapezium- 

English The "words may also mean “lowered three masts,” 
that IS, “ debauched three ship-captains ” 

* Apparently Hieronymus of Rhodes (see 14, 2 13), who 
lived about 290-230 b c, 

® Eudoxus of Cnidus, the famous mathematician and 
astronomer, who flourished about 365 B.c. 

® Cp 8 4 8. 



STRABO 


XfopLov Trpo^ avrfj rfj pi^rj rov ^A/cpoKopivdov. 
avTYj<i fiev ovv 7r6X€Ct)9 d tcvK\Q<^ ml reacra- 
pdfcovra cTrahicov vTrrjp^ev iTerei')(^LaTO S’ ocrov 
T^9 7rdXew9 yvfjLVOv rov opov<i' avfjLTrepieikqTTro 
Se r& 7r€/?i^dX« rov7(p Kal ro 0^009 avro 6 ^AfcpO'* 
mpivBo^f § ivvarov rjv rei'X^Lff pLov Si^acrOaii Kal 
Tj/jbLV dva^aLvovcnv BrjXa rd ipeiTna t ^9 
axoivia^' &aS* f) irdcra 7r€pLpBTpo<i iyivero irepl 
'rrivre Kal oyBoijKovTa crraBicov. diro Be r&v 
aXKcov /jL€p&v ?fTT 0 V opOiov icrrc to dpo% dvareTa- 
rai pkvTOi Kal evdevBe iKavmt Kal irepioTtrov 
icTTLif, r) pev oiv Kopv<f>r) valBtov ’A(f>poBLTr}^, 
VTTO Be rrj K0pv(f>7j rrjp ^ Ueip^vijv etvaL avpjSaLvei 
Kprjvr)Vi eKpvcriv pev ovk eyovaaVi pear^v S’ del 
Biavyov^: Kal iroripov voaTO^, ^aa\ Se Kal 
evOevBe Kal ef dXKcov virovopcov tlvcov <j)Xel3let>v 
avvOXi^eadai r^v 7rpo<^ p[^y rov opov<; Kpt^vTjVi 
eKpeovaav eh rfjv ttoXip, cocrO^ CKavco^ utt avT7}<i 
vBpevecrdac eart Be Kal (ppedroDv eviropia Kard 
Tr}v TToXiv, Xeyovai Be Kal Kard rov 'AKpoKopivBov' 
ov prjv r}peh ye ecBopev. rov S’ ovv "EtipLirlBov 
<j)7jo'avrof^ ofJTa)9* 

7]Kco 'jrepLKXvarov vpoXirrovcr ^AKpoKopivOov, 

iepov SxdoVi ttoXlv ’A^^oStT<z9, 

TO irepiKXvcrrov ^roi Kard jSdOovs BeKreov,^ irrel 
Kal (ppeara Kal irrovopoi Xi^dBe^ Bitjkovctl Bt 
avroVy ^ TO rraXaiov viroXr^rrreov rr}v Heiprjvrjv 
emirdXdl^eiv, Kal Karappyrov rroielv ro Spo^. 

^ T€s before Xleipivriy, E omits , so Kramer and the later 
editors, 

® SGKreov, Oasaubon, for \€«Teov, So the later editors. 

192 



GEOGRAPHY, 8 . 6,21 


shaped place ^ close to the very base of the 
Acrocorinthus, Now the ciicmt of the city itself 
used to be as much as forty stadia, and all of it 
that was unprotected by the mountain was enclosed 
by a wall , and even the mountain itself, the Acrocor- 
inthus, used to be comprehended within the circuit 
of this wall wherever wall-building was possible, and 
when I went up the mountain the rums of the en- 
circling wall were plainly visible And so the whole 
perimeter amounted to about eighty-five stadia On 
its other sides the mountain is less steep, though 
here too it rises to a considerable height and is 
conspicuous all round Now the summit has a small 
temple of Aphrodite ; and below the summit is the 
spring Peiren^, which, although it has no overflow, 
is always full of transparent, potable water And 
they say that the spring at the base of the mountain 
IS the joint result of pressure from this and other 
subterranean veins of water — a spring which flows 
out into the city in such quantity that it affoids a 
fairly large supply of water. And there is a good 
supply of wells throughout the city, as also, they 
say, on the Acrocorinthus ; but I myself did not see 
the latter wells At any rate, when Euripides says, 

I am come, having left Acrocorinthus that is ivashed 
on all sides, the sacred hill-city of Aphrodite,” ^ one 
should take washed on all sides” as meaning m 
the depths of the mountain, since wells and sub- 
terranean pools extend tliiough it, or else should 
assume that in early times Peiien^ was wont to rise 
over the surface and flow down the sides of the 

^ ‘*This level is 200 feet above the plain, ^’vhlch lies 
between it and the Corinthian Gulf ” (Tozer, SelectioTis, 
p 217). ^ Frag. 1084 (Nauck). 


VOL. IV 


O 


193 



STRABO 


ivrav6a he ^aart^ Trlvovra rov Jli^yaaov dX&vai 
VTTO BeWepocpoPTOVy Trrrjvov lttttov eK rov rpa- 
XV^ov rov MeSovvij^ dvartCLKevra fcard rrjv 
VopyoTopbiav* rov S’ avrov (pacri koX r}]v '^Irrirov 
tcp^vrjv dva/SaXeiv iv r^ ^EXiKtovLy rrXr\^avra rm 
ovvx^ virorrecrovcrav ^ rrerpav, vrro he ry 
Ueipyjvr) to %La-v(j>€c6v eariVy iepov rivo^ ^ ^aai- 
Xeiov XevKOv XiOov^ rreTTonjpLevov Siacra>^ov 
epelma ovtc oXLya. aTro he rrj<; /copv(j)rj<; tt / oo ? 
apfcrov pLev d<j)OpdraL o re Ilapvaa(ro<$ real o 
^EiXiK(li>Vy oprj v'yjrrjXd /cal vt<f>6^oXa, /cal 6 Kpicratos 
/coA.7ro9 irroTreTTrco/c^fs apu^orepoi^, wepeexopevo^ 
VTTO rv}^ ^>C!>/ctSo 9 /cal ri)? Bo^cot/So?^ Kal t^9 
'MLeyapLho<; /cal r^g avrnropBpov rfj ^(oklSl K.opLV' 
6La<s /cal 'Zi/cvo)via<:, 7r/309 ecrrrepav Se ® vrrep/cecrac 
380 Se rovrcov drrdvrcov rd /caXovpeva ^'Oveia oprjy 
htareivovra pixP^ Boicorla^; /cal Kcdaip&vo^ diro 
r&v ^/ceipcovihcov irerp&v, diro rrj^ rrapa ravra^ 
oSov 7rpo9 rr)v ^Arri/Cfjv. 

22, ^Apxv Se T?j9 rrapaXia^ e/carepa<;, t^9 p€v 

’ <l>r}(n B? 

® tTTOTreaovtravy Meineke and others emend to iTrov<rav, 
which would mean “beneath h%m^^ (Pegasus). But ^Trore- 
(Tovirav clearly implies “below the mountain^^ (cp i^roTre- 
vr(aHc »5 below, and in § 22, and similar uses of the verb 
passim in Strabo) 

® XEVKOV Xidov, Meineke {V%nd, Strab p 124), for Aeu/c<^ 
XiBc^y but m his text he reads Aeu/cwv XlBmv, 

* Boitarias, Meineke, for BoiuriBos* 

® Meineke and Muller-Dubner place a colon after :^iKV(opta5 
and indicate a lacuna after eairepav Z4, d4 is omitted by gh , 
and also by Groskiird, who reads after k<nr4pav : [vphs eV] 
ivepK^trai rol-rwp ktK, 

194 



GEOGRAPHY, 8 . 6 . 2T-22 


mountain.^ And here, they say, Pegasus, a winged 
horse which sprang from the neck of the Gorgon 
Medusa when her head w'as cut off*, was caught 
while drinking by Belleroplion. And the same 
horse, it is said, caused Hippu-crene ^ to spring up on 
Helicon when he struck with his hoof the lock that 
lay below that mountain And at the foot of Peirene 
is the Sisypheium, which preserves no inconsideiable 
ruins of a certain temple, or royal palace, made of 
white inai ble. And from the summit, looking towai ds 
the north, one can view Parnassus and Helicon — 
lofty, snow-clad mountains — and the Crisaean Gulf, 
w^hich lies at the foot of the two mountains and is 
sui rounded by Phocis, Boeotia, and Megans, and by 
the parts of Cormthia and Sicyonia which he across 
the gulf opposite to Phocis, that is, towards the 
west^ And above all these countries^ lie the 
Oneian Mountains,® as they are called, winch 
extend as far as Boeotia and Cithaeron from the 
Sceiionian Rocks,® that is, from the road that leads 
along these locks towaids Attica. 

22. The beginning of the seaboard on the two 

^ The Greek word ireplKXvffroy is translated above in its 
usual sense and as Strabo interpreted it, but Euripides 
obviously used ib m the sense of “washed on hath sides,” 
that is, by the Corinthian and Saronic Gulfs (cf, Horace’s 
“ bimaris Corinthi,” 1 7 2) 

® Also spelled “ Hippocren^,” t e “Horse’s Spring ” 

® From Acroconnthus 
* i e towai ds the east 

® “Ass Mountains,” but, as Tozer {SeIecho7iSi p 219) 
remarks, Strabo confuses these (they are south-east of 
Cormth) with Gerania, which lay on the conhnes of the 
tern tones of Coiinth and Megara 

® On the Sceironian road between Megaia and Corinth, 
see Pausanias, 1 44. 10. 


195 

o2 



STRABO 


TO Aex^^ov, Be fccofirj /cal Xl/jl'^v^ 

arrix^v TroXeca? oaov e/SBo/Juj/covra (rraBiovr 
Tovrt^ fxev ovv tt^oo? tou? e/c rrj^ ’Ao-Za?, 

TTpo^ Be TO 09 ix T^9 ^IroXia^ 

Aex<^f'OV viroireTTroDKe ry TroXet KajoLKiav exov ov 
TToXX^v^ afceXrf Be /cadeiXtcvarai crraBLcov irepl 
BwBefca ifcarepcodev t^9 oBov t^9 eVl ^ to Aexaiov, 
evrevQev Se nrapeKTeivovcra r) rjioov p^exp^ TLay&v 
T^9 MeyaptBo^i KXv^erai /lep vtto tov KopivOtaxov 
koXttov* fcoLXr) S’ earL, kol iroLel tov BloXkov tt^o? 
rr)v erepav r^ibva tt)v Kara Sxo^ooOz/TOt TrXrjaiov 
ovra T&v Keyxp^^i^* €P Be pera^ij tov Ae- 
XCbiov fcal Uay&v to t^9 ^Afcpaia<; pavTelov 
vrrrjpx^ to TraXacov, koX ai ^OXpiat, to 'troiovv 
afcpoyrrjpLOv tov /coXttov iv ^ rj Te Olvori icaX 
TLayaLy to pev t&v Msyapecov cbpovpLoVy r) Sk 
OlvoT) T&v Kopivdlcov, aTTo Be^ t&v Keyxpe&v 6 
2%oiz^o59) fcad^ bv TO aTevbv tov BioXfcov* eTreid^ rj 
'Kpoppvwvia* •jTpofceLTaL Be T7j<; rjlbvo^ TavT7]<; o 
TO Xap(ovi/co^ KoXTro^ koX 6 'EXeyama/co^i, Tpoirov 
Tiv^ 0 aoT09 &v, crvvexv^ ^Epptoviic&* eVl Se 
T^ '\adp& KoX TO TOV 'Iddpiov nocr6tS&)i^o9 iepov 
aXaei TriTVcoBei crvvr]p€^e<;, ottov tov ay&va t&v 
^ ladpicov KopivOcoc avveTeXovv* Be Kpoppv&v 
icTTL Kcop^] T>}9 J^opivdia^y TrpoTepov Se t% M 67 a- 
piBo^i iv y pvdevovcTL tA irepl t^v Kpoppvcoviav 
vv, y)v prjTepa tov ILaXvBcovLOv fcdnrpov (fyaai, koI 
T&v ©Tjariw adXcov eva tovtov TrapaBiBbaari t7}v 
T^9 009 TavTT]^ i^alpecrtv, /cal rf Tevia S’ earl 

1 iirli Kramer, for vepl {vapd acgh) ; so Memeke. 

® §€, after M, all editors insert 


196 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 6. 22 


sides IS, on the one side, Lechaeum, and, on the 
other, Cenchieae, a village and a harbour distant 
about seventy stadia from Coiinth Now this latter 
they use foi the trade fiom Asia, but Lechaeum 
foi that from Italy Lechaeum lies beneath the city, 
and does not contain many residences, but long 
walls about twelve stadia in length have been built 
on both sides of the load that leads to Lechaeum. 
The shore that extends from heie to Pagae in 
Megans is washed by the Coimtbian Gulf, it is 
concave, and with the shoie on the other side, at 
Schoenus, which is neai Cenchieae, it forms the 
^^Diolcus”^ In the inteival between Lechaeum 
and Pagae there used to be, in early tunes, the 
oracle of the Acraean Hera; and here, too, is 
Olmiae, the promontory that forms the gulf in 
which are situated Oenoe and Pagae, the latter a 
stronghold of the Megarians and Oenoe of the 
Corinthians F 1 oin Cenchreae one comes to Schoenus, 
where is the nanow^ part of the isthmus, I mean 
the Diolcus ” ; and then one comes to Crommyonia 
Off this shoie he the Saronic and Eleusinian Gulfs, 
which in a way are the same, and border on the 
Hermionic Gulf On the Isthmus is also the temple 
of the Isthmian Poseidon, in the shade of a grove 
of pine-trees, where the Corinthians used to celebrate 
the Isthmian Games, Crommyoii is a village in 
Cormthia, though in earlier times it was in Megans ; 
and in it is laid the scene of the myth of the 
Ciommyoniau sow, which, it is said, was the mother 
of the Caledonian boar, and, according to tradition, 
the destruction of this sow was one of the labours 
of Theseus Tenea, also, is in Cormthia, and in 

^ See 8. 2, 1 and foot-note, and op. 8. 6. 4 


197 



STRABO 


KciiiXT] T^9 K-Opivdia^y ev § tov Tevedrov ’AttoXXo)- 
1^09 tepov* Xeyerac 8e /cal ^Apx^^j t& orjeLkavii 
TTjv eh ^vpaKovcra^ aTTotfciav^ tov<; irXeto-rov^ r&v 
eTTOL/ccov ivrevdev avvenraicoXovdrjaaii /cal pberk 
ravra evdrivelv pLoXicrT a r^v aXXcovrrjv Karomav 
ravTTfj/, rdS* vcrTara /cal /ca6^ avroh^; iroXireveff- 
daLj TTpOddeadaL re roh 'Pa)/X(XtOi9, diroardvra^ 
K,opLv6Lcov /cal /caraa/cacj^eiaTj^; rr]<; 770 X 60)9 
fMecvai, (j^eperat Se /cal ^prj<Tjiib<; 6 Sodeh tlvl rm 
ifc T^9 ’A<rta9 ^ epoDT&vTLy el Xoolov eir) pberot/ceiv 
eh Koptvdov* 

evSat/jLcov 6 Koptvdo^;,^ iyd) S’ etijv TepedTrjt;* 

0776/3 /car ayvoidv ^ive<^ nraparpeirovaiv^ eym S’ 
etrjv Te76aT'779. Xeyerai S’ evravda efc0pey}rai 
HoXv^o^i TOP OlhLirovv, Bo/cei Be /cal avyyLveid 
Tt9 ^cvai TepeBLOi<i Trpb^ tovtov<; dirh Tevpov rod 
Kv/cpov, Kaddirep etprj/cep ^ApicrroreXTjf}* Kal r} 
TOV ’A7roXXa)Z'09 Be rLfM^ rrap dfji,j>orepot<; ofioia 
odaa BiScocrcv ov fxi/cpd <Tr}pbeLa. 

C3S1 23. KoplvOiot, S’ ^770 <I>tXt777r« oVt69 ifCbiv(p 
re crvve^LXoveLKrjaaVy Kal IBLa 77/309 ^Pcopaiov*; 
VTrepoTTTiKW elxop, Sxrre rivh Kal raw TTpecr^ecov 
TTapibvroiv rr)p olKiav avroov eddpprjorap Karav- 
rXrjcrai ^op^opov. dvrl rovrcov fiev ovv Kal 
dXXcjVy S)V e^df^aproPy ertcrap Biku^ avriKa* 
rrepij>9ei(Tr}<; yap d^toXoyov crrpaTid^y air'd re 
KarecTKarrro vtto AevKiov Mo/^/xtoi/, Kal rdXXa 

^ For ^A<ri'as Corais conjectures *A<r/as. 

* Kopiydos 'Bg^, and Eustathius on Ilmd 2 607. 

^ This might be the country of Asia or the city of Asea 
198 




GEOGRAPHY, 8.6. 22-23 

it IS a temple of the Teneatan Apollo; and it is 
said that most of the colonists who accompanied 
Archias, the leader of the colonists to Syracuse, set 
out from there, and that aftei wards Tenea prospered 
more than the other settlements, and finally even 
had a government of its ow'n, and, revolting from 
the Corinthians, joined the Romans, and endured 
after the destiuction of Coiinth. And mention is 
also made of an oracle that was given to a certain 
man from Asia,^ who enquired whether it was better 
to change his home to Coiinth: Blest is Coiinth, 
but Tenea for me * ” But m ignorance some perveit 
this as follows: ^^but Tegea for me'** And it is 
said that Poly bus reared Oedipus heie And it 
seems, also, that there is a kinship between the 
peoples of Tenedos and Tenea, through Tennes® 
the son of Cycnus, as Aristotle says,® and the 
similarity in the worship of Apollo among the two 
peoples affords strong indications of such kinship. 

23 The Coiinth ians, when they were subject to 
Philip, not only sided with him in his quarrel with 
the Romans, but indnidually behaved so contemp- 
tuously towards the Romans that certain persons 
ventuied to pour down filth upon the Rom‘in am- 
bassadors when passing by their house For this 
and other offences, however, they soon paid the 
penalty, for a considerable army was sent thither, 
and the city itself was rased to the giound by 
Leucius Mummius ; ^ and the other countries as far 

(in Arcadia), the name of which, according to Herodian 
(2 479), was also spelled “Asia.” 

® For the story of King Tennes of Tenedos, see Pansanias 
10 14. 1 and Diodorus Siculus 5 83 

* The quotation is a fiagment otherwise unknown, 

* Of. 8, 4. 8 and foot-note. 


199 



STRABO 


Ma/teSona? vtto ^VcofxaLoi^ iyhovro,^ iv 
aAXoi? aXkcov TrefjLTTOfievcov ar parity &v* t^v 
X<^P<^ v eaxov Xi/cvoovLOi rr^v TrKeiarrjv 7779 ILopiv- 
6ia<;, Ilo\v0io<: Se ra crvfijBdpra Trepl rrjv aXcoaiv 
iv OLKTOV fxipei \eycov irpoaridricri teal Tr]v arpa- 
TicorcKTjv okcycopLav rrjv Trepl rd t&v rexv&v epya 
/cal rd dvad'^para, <^7)al ydp tSeXv rrapdv ip- 
pippiivov^ TTiva/ca^i iTT iBd(j)OVfSy Trerrevovra^ Bh 
TOv<; aTparicoTa<; irrl rovroov, ovofid^ei S' avreov 
' ApiareiSov ypa^rjv rov Alovvctov^ o5 rive<i 
elprjorOai <j>ao-L to ovSev Trpo^ rov Aiovvcrov, 
/cal rov ^Hpa/cXia rov Kararrovovixevov t ^9 
Ar}Lav€Lpa<; rovrov pL€v oi/v ovx icopd- 

/capev fjjjLehi '^ov Si Aiovvaov dvaKeLpuevov iv 
At] pLTjr peLcp T(^ iv ^Vd^pbr) /cdXXicrrov epyov 
ktop&fxev ^ ifiTTprjcrdivTO^ Se rov veco^ dvvrjcpavLcrPr} 
/cal r) ypa<j)f] vecoarL cx^^ov Si ri /cal r&v 
dXXcov dvadTjpbdrcov r&v iv ^Vcofir) rd TrXeitrra 
/cal apKTra ivrevBev d(f)ix^^^* revd Si /cal al 
KV/cX(p T^9 ^Po6/ii79 TToXet? €(TXOV, peyaXQ<^pcdv 
ydp (bv pbdXXov ^ 0 Mo/x/>c^09, <59 

<j)acri, fiereSiSov paSiax; roh SeTjOeiai. A6v/coXXo<; 
Si /caracTKevdcra*; ro 7779 Evrvxtcc<f iepov /cal 

^ iyetfero /ibio, and B mmi sec , and the editors before 
Kramer. 

® iupaKctjuey no 


^ According to Pliny (iV’hi Hut 35 39), Ansteides of 
Thebes (fl, about 360 b c ) was by some believed to be the 
inventor of painting m wax and in encaustic See also ibid , 
35 98 f 

^ % e m speaking of the paintings of other artists But 
the more natural meaning of the saying is, ‘‘That has 


200 




GEOGRAPHY, 8 6. 23 

as Macedonia became subject to the Romans, different 
commanders being sent into different countries ; but 
the Sicyonians obtained most of the Coiinthian 
country. Polybius, who speaks in a tone of pity of 
the events connected with the capture of Corinth, 
goes on to speak of the disiegard shown by the 
army for the works of art and votive offerings, for 
he says that he was present and saw^ paintings that 
had been flung to the giound and saw the soldiers 
playing dice on these Among the paintings he 
names that of Dionysus by Aristeidcs,^ to -which, 
according to some wuters, the saying, “Nothing in 
comparison with the Dionysus,” refeired,^ and also 
the painting of Heiacles in toiture in the robe of 
Deianeira. Now I have not seen the latter, bat I 
saw the Dionysus, a most beautiful work, on the 
walls of the temple of Ceres m Rome, but when 
recently tlie temple w^as burned,® the painting 
pensbed with It And I may almost say that the 
most and best of the other dedicatory offerings at 
Rome came from there , and the cities in the neigh- 
bouihood of Rome also obtained some , for Mu mini us, 
being magnanimous rather than fond of art, as they 
say, readily shared with those who asked ^ And 
when Leucullus built the Temple of Good Fortune 

nothing to do with Dionysus”, and it appears, onginallv 
at least, to have been a piotest of spectators against the 
omission of Dionj^sus and his satyrs, or of merely the 
dithyrambs, from a dramatic perfoi raance (see Tozer, SeUdtons, 

p 221) 

3 SI BC 

* According to Velleius Paterculus (1 13. 4), Mummius 
told the men who were entrusted with taking these pictures 
and statues to Rome that, if they lost them, they would have 
to replace them with new ones ’ 


2or 



STRABO 


crrodv riva pr^jo-aro &v el^ez^ dvhpidvrojv 

6 MofjbfiLo^y ct )9 KO(TfJLria-(dv TO lepov fiixpi dva- 
Settee*)?, elr aTroScoacov* ov/c aTrehcoice Se, aXhJ 
dved7]/c6y /ceXeucra^ atpeev, el /SovXerai* irpacd^ 
S’ yveyxev e/ceZro?, ov ^povTL<Ta<? ovSiv, dar 
rjvhoKLpbec rod dvadhro<; fidXkov* tto\vv Bk 
Xpovov ipripyj peivacra ^ Kopivdo^y dp€X7](j>97} 
TrdXiv VITO Kaiaapo^ rov @eov Sid rrjv evj>vlaVy 
irroC/cov^ rripb-^avro^ rov arrekevOepi/cov yevov^ 
rfkei<Trov<i oi rd epeirrea /civovvrG^ fcal rov? 
rd<j)ov^ avvavaaicdTTrovrG^ evpiaKov oo’rpa/cLvwP 
ropevpidreov^ 7r\7]dr),^ rroXXd Se fcal 
davpLd^ovr€<: Be rrjp fcaraa/cevtjv, ovSepa rd<^ov 
daK€vcl>p7)rov eiacrav, axrre evTToptjaavre^ redv 
roiovrcov teal BiariOepievoi ttoXKov NefcpOKOpivOicov 
C 382 eTrXTjpcocrav rrjv *Vcli>pir]v* oUrco ydp gkoXovv rd 
ifc r&v raejidop Xr](j>9evTa, /cal puaXicrra rd oarpd- 
Kiva. /car dpxd<> pLev odv iripb7]$7j a/poopa 
opioioa^ roi 9 ^aX/cooyU-acr^ T 019 Kopivdiovpyeaip, 
elr eTraocrai^To t ^9 crrrovBri^y e/cXnrovrcop ro>v 
oarpd/C(oVy fcal ovBe KaropOovpevwv r&v TrXeiarcop, 
97 pi€P B^ ttoXl^ 7] r&v Kopivdicop pbeyd\7] re /cal 
rrXovcTia Bid iravro^ vTrrjp^ev, dvBp&v re 7]V7r6- 
prjcrev dyad&v eh re rd iroXiriKd KaX eh rd^ 
T€%i^a 9 Ta 9 Brjpaovpyi/cd^' pdXiara yap /cal 
ivravda /cal ev Xl/cv&pi rji^T^Or} ypacpi/cf] re 
KoX 7rXacrri/c7] /cal rrdaa 97 roiavTr) Brjpiiovpyia, 
X&pav S’ €<7X^^ ov/c evyecov crcj^oBpa, dXXd a/co- 

1 Tope^ffxara acgh; C. Muller conj. rpoxfl^drwy 

® 7rap,Tr\7i6^ 9 , 


202 


1 From 146 to 44 B.a 




GEOGRAPHY, 8. 6. 23 

and a portico, he asked Mummius for the use of 
the statues which he had, saying that he would 
adorn the temple with them until the dedication 
and then give them back However, he did not 
give them back, but dedicated them to the goddess, 
and then bade Mummms to take them away if he 
wished. But Mummius took it lightly, for he cared 
nothing about them, so that he gained more repute 
than the man who dedicated them Now after 
Corinth had lemained deseited foi a long time,^ it 
was restored again, because of its favourable position, 
by the deified Caesar, who colonised it with people 
that belonged for the most pait to the fieedmen 
class. And when these were removing the luins 
and at the same time digging open the graves, they 
found numbeis of teira-cotta reliefs, and also many 
bionze vessels And since they admired the work- 
manship they left no grave imransacked , so that, 
w^ell supplied with such things and disposing of 
them at a high puce, they filled Rome with Cor- 
inthian mortuaiies,” foi thus they called the things 
taken from the giaves, and m particular the earthen- 
ware. Now at the outset the earthenware was very 
highly prized, like the bionzes of Corinthian work- 
manship, but later they ceased to care much for 
them, since the supply of earthen vessels failed and 
most of them were not even well executed The 
city of the Corinthians, then, was always gieat and 
wealthy, and it was well equipped with men skilled 
both in the affaiis of state and in the craftsman's 
arts , for both here and m Sicyon the ai*ts of painting 
and modelling and all such arts of the craftsman 
flourished most. The city had territory, however, 
that was not very fertile, but rifted and lough ; and 

203 



STRABO 


Xidv re fcal rpax^tav, d<j)^ ov nvdvre^; ocj^pvoevTa 
KoptvBov elprjfcaaLi fcal Trapotficd^ovrar 

K.6pLvdo<; o^pva re fcal icoiKaiverai 

24. ^Opveal 8’ ela-lv iircowfiot r^ Trapappiovri 
7rorafx&, vvv puev eprjixoiy rrporepov S' olfcovpevai 
/caXo)^;, iepov exovcrai UpLairov rLpLcopLevov^ 

&v fcal 6 rd UpiaTreta iroLTjaa^ ^v(j)p6vio<;^ 
'Opvedrrjv KcCkel rov 6e6v' Kelvrai S’ vnrep rov 
nreSLov rov Xt/cucovicov, rrjv Be 6 <txov 

'Apyeioi, 'Apaidvpea S’ icrrlv rj vvv ^Xiaaia 
fcaXovpevrjy rroXiv S’ elx^v ofidvvpov rfj X^P^ 
7rpo9 Spec K7}X(io(X(Tr}' oi S’ varepov avacrrdvre^ 
eKcWev rrpo rpcdfcovra araSccov etcrccrav iroXcVy 
fjv eKoXeaav ^Xcovvra* Se 'K.rjX(lt>cTG'r}^ pcipo<i 
6 ^apvedrTjf^y o6ev Xapc^dvec r^v dpx^v ’Ao-wtto? 
0 rrapappicov rrjv XiKvoyviav ^ fcal iroi&v rr)v 
^AccoTTcav %ct)/c>az/, pcepo^ ovcrav t/J? 'ZcKvmca^^ 
ecrrc S’ ’A(ja)7ro9 fca\ 6 rrapd @7;/3a9 pecov real HXa^ 
racd^ fcal Tavdypavy aXXo^ S’ iarlv iv 'HpafcXeia 
rfj lipaxcvLa rrapd Kcopbrjv pecov, Ylapaacomov^; 
ovopLa^ovaCy rerapro^ S’ o ev Tldptp, Kelrac S’ 
0 ^Xiov<; ev pecep 'Zifcvcovia^y ^Apyeia^t ]^Xeoi)vm 
fcal ^rvp(j)dXoVy KVfcXto 7repc6xopevo<;' rcpdrac 
S’ ev ^Xcovvrt /cal Xt/cv&vc to t?;9 Aca^ iepov* 
/caXovcrc S’ oi/rco rrjv 

1 'Ev(l>p6vios, Meineke emends to Eif<l>opLQ}P , Forbiger, Tardieu 
following. Bat see Pauly- Wissowa s “Euphorion,” p 
1178, and *‘Euphronios/’ p 1220. 

204 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 6. 23-24 

from this fact all have called Corinth beetling/’ 
and use the proverb, Corinth is both beetle-browed 
and full of hollows ” 

24 Omeae is named aftei the river that flows 
past it It IS deserted now, although foimerly it 
was well peopled, and had a temple of Pnapus that 
was held in honour; and it was from Omeae that 
the Euphronius^ who composed the Pnapeta calls 
the god “Piiapus the Orneatan ” Oriieae is 
situated above the plain of the Sicyonians, but the 
couiitiy was possessed by the Argives. Araethyrea 
is the countiy which is now called Phliasia, and 
near the mountain Celossa ^ it had a city of the 
same name as the countiy, but the inhabitants later 
emigrated fiom here, and at a distance of thirty 
stadia founded a city which they called Phlius. A 
part of the mountain Celossa is Mt Carneates, 
whence the Asopus takes its beginning — the rivei 
that flows past Sicyonia, and forms the Asopian 
country, wdiich IS a pait of S1C3 0111a There is also 
an Asopus that flows past Thebes and Plataea and 
Taiiagra, and theie is anothei m the Trachiman 
Heracleia that flo^vs past a village wliicli they call 
Parasopii, and there is a fourth in Paros. Phlius is 
situated m the centre of a circle formed by Sicyonia, 
Argeia, Cleonae and Stymphalus. In Phlius and 
Sicyon the temple of Dia is held in honour ; and 
Dia is their name for Heb6 

^ The Alexandrian grammarian, who lived in the third 
century u c 

By Xenophon {ffellemca, 4 7 . 7 ) spelled “Oelusa.” 


2 :SiKva}piav, Meineke, from conj. of Coraxs, emends to 
^iKv&va, 


205 



STRABO 


25 Se XiKV&va irporepov Mr]ic(i>v')'}v efcd- 
\ovv, 6Ti Se Ttporepov AlyiaXov^*'^ dvtpfciae^ S’ 
avTrjv dirb OaXdrrT]^ Serov et/coert crraSioi^, ol Se 
SebheKa t^acTLVi etrl X6(j)ov epvpvov Arjpojrpio^;*^ 
TO Se TTokaiov KrLcrpa iirlveLov icrriv €')(ov Xtp^iva 
opi^ei Se Tfjv '^LKveovLav koX rrjv KopevOiav 
irorapo^ Ne/zea. irupaiv^dr] Be TrXetarov ^povov, 
a AX’ del roy? rvpdvvov^ eTTietfcel^i dvBpa<^ eax^v* 
"'Aparov S’ eTnipavearaTOV^ S? /cal ttjv iroXiv 
rfKevQcpaxre, /cal ^A'^aioov rjp^e, irap e/covTCov 
Xa/3d)v TTjv i^overiavy /cal to av<TTY\pa rjii^rjare, 
Trpocr6el<; avr^ t?]V re •jrarpLBa /cal rd^ dXXa^ 
C 383 TToXei^ rd^ eyyv^, ^l^^TreprjcrLriv Se Kal ra? 

rroXet^ a? b ttoitjt'^^ Xiyei, /cal rov AlytaXov r&v 
^A'xai&v ^Bt} avpl3e^7}/c€v elvai pixP^ koX 

T&v opcov T^9 ’HXaa?. 


VII 

1, Tavrr}^ Be rrj<i xdbpa<i to pev nraXaiov 'Twye? 
e/epdrovv, e^ ^AOr^vaieov to 76^09 0^769, eKaXelro 
Be TO pev TraXatov AtyiaXeca, /cal ol evoLfcovvre^ 
AlyLaXel<;, verrepov S’ dir* i/ceCvcov ’Icoycot, /caddr/rep 
Kal 'b ^Attiki], utto "'Icovo^ Tov BiOvdov, (j>aal Be 

^ klytako^s, Meineke emends to Alyia\e7s 

2 avt^KiaSf Meineke, from conj of Casaubon, for avcfKl<rdai , 
so the editors in general. 

® Aripijrpios, Meineke, from conj of Casaubon, for Avi/ii)- 
*rpos ; so the editors in general 


^ Spelled Aegialeia” by Pansanias (2 7) 

® The city built by Aegialeus on the plain was demolished 
by Demetrius the son of Aiitigonus (Poliorcetes), who founded 
206 




GEOGRAPHY, 8 6. 25-7. i 

25 . In earlier times Sicyon was called Mecone, 
and in still eailier times Aegiali/ bat Demetrius 
rebuilt it upon a hill strongly fortified by nature 
about twenty stadia (others say twelve) from the 
sea , 2 and tlie old settlement, which has a harbour, 
IS a naval station The River Nemea forms the 
boundary between Sicjonia and Cormthia. Sicyon 
was luled by tjiants most of the time, but its 
tyrants were always reasonable men, among whom 
the most illustrious was Aratus,® who not only set 
the city free,^ but also ruled over the Achaeans, 
who voluntarily gave him the authonty,® and he 
increased the league by adding to it both his native 
Sicyon and the other cities near it. But Hypeiesia 
and the cities that come in their order after it, 
which the poet mentions,® and the Aegialus as far 
as Dym6 and the boundaries of Eleia ah’eady 
belonged to the Achaeans.’ 

VII 

1 In antiquity this countiy was under the mastery 
of the lonians, who were spiungfrom the Athenians; 
and in antiquity it was called Aegialeia, and the 
inhabitants Aegialeians, but later it was called Ionia 
after the lonians, just as Attica also was called 
Ionia® after Ton the son of Xuthus. They say that 

the city of to-day near ^^hat was once the ancient acropolis” 
(Pausanias, 2 7) 

® Cf. Polybius, 4 8 ^ 251 b c, 

® Stiabo refers to the Achaean League (see 8 7. 3) 

® See 8 7 4 and the references 
’ Again the Achaean League 
® See 8 12, and 9 15 


207 



STRABO 


AevKaXicovo^ /jiev''EXXrjva eivai, tovtov Se irepl 
T7]V ^6 Lav rSiv^ (xera^v Ylr)veLOv /cal 'AacoTrov 
Svvaarevovra rw irpea^vrarcp tcov TraiScov irapa- 
hovvai TTjv apxv'^i tou9 S’ aXXov<; e^co SiaTri/xyjraL, 
^r}T7]crovTa^ iSpvcnv e/caarov avr^* wv A&po<i 
/jbh TOv<; Trepl Uapvaa-aov AcopUa^ (rvvoL/ci(ra<; 
/cariXcTrev i'jra)vvfiov<i avrov, SovOo^ Se ttjv 
^Epex^^co^ dvyaripafy^jfjbaf; S/ciae rr)V TerpaTroXiv 
T)}? ^Attl/ct]^, Oivorjv, Mapad&va, Upo/SdXivdov 
/cal TpL/copvvdov.^ tS>v Se rovrov TralScov ’A^aio? 
/i€V (povov d/covatov nvpd^a^ €(f>vy€V 6^9 Aa/ce- 
halfxova, /cal ’A%a£OV9 tou9 i/cet KX'rjdljvao nrape- 
(j/cevaaev, "'Icov Se tou9 jx6t Ev/xoXirov vLK7](Tas 
%pa(ca^ ovTco^i 7]vBo/cL/x7]a6V, &(tt i7rerpe\lrav 
avTcp T7]v TToXireiav ^ABrjvaloL. 6 Be Trp&rov /xev 
649 T 6 TTapa 9 (j)vXd<i SielXe to 7rX7]6o<^, elra eh 
Terrapa^ j3Lov<;* to3U9 yap yecopyoi/^ drreBec^e, 
TOU9 Be Brjfiovpyovc^i rov<s Be t€p07rocov9, rerdprov^ 
Be Toij<i <f>vXa/ca<;^ rotavra Be TrXecco Siard^a^ rr/v 
Xd>pav eirdvvpov eavTov KareXiirev. ootco Be 
iToXvavBprjcraL rrjv %c6pai^ Tore o-vveTrecre, &cTTe 
/cal dirot/cLav rcdv ^Icovcov eareiXav eh UeXo- 
TTQvvYjaov ^ AOrjvaloi, /cal ti}v X(L>pav, rjv KarecrxoVy 
iTTcovvpiOv eavTcov iTroiTjaav ^IcovLav uvtI AlyidXov ® 
/cXrjOeLcraVy oi re dvBpe<i dvrl AlyiaXecov 'lodve^i 
7 rpo<Tr}yopevdr](7aVi eh BcoBe/ca 7roXe49 pepicrdevre^;, 
perd Be rrjv ^Epa/cXetB&v /cddoBov vnr ^ Axamv 
e^eXadevre^ eTravrjXOov itdXiv eh ’A0);Va9' e/ceWev 
Be perd r&v EoBpiB&v eareCXav ^r)v ^IcdviKijv 

^ T^V %%0 

2 TpiK6pvvdoUy Meineke, for TptK6pv6ov, rpiK^pipBov, h See 
TpiKSpvvdos 9 1 . 22 

208 



GEOGRAPHY, 8 7 i 

Hellen was the son of Deucalion, and that he was 
lord of the people bet\\een the Peneius and the 
Asopus m the legionof Phthia and gave over his 
rule to the eldest of his sons, but that he sent the 
rest of them to difFeient places outside, each to seek 
a settlement for himself. One of these sons, Doius, 
united the Dorians about Parnassus into one state, 
and at his death left them named aftei himself; 
another, Xuthiis, who had married the daughter 
of Eiechtheus, founded the Tetiapolis of Attica, 
consisting of Oenoe, Maiathon, Piobalinthus, and 
Tncoiynthus One of the sons of Xiithus, Achaeus, 
who had committed involuntary manslaughtei, Hed 
to Lacedaemon and brought it about tliat the people 
there w^ere called Acliaeans ; and Ion conqueied the 
Thracians under Eumolpus, and thereby gained such 
high repute that the Athenians turned over their 
government to him At first Jon divided the people 
into four tribes, but later into four occupations : four 
be designated as fanners, others as aitisans, others 
as sacred officers, and a fourth group as the guards. 
And he made se\eial regulations of this kind, and 
at his death left Ins own name to the country But 
the country had then come to be so populous that 
the Athenians even sent forth a colony of lonians to 
the Peloponnesus, and caused the countiy which they 
occupied to be called Ionia after themselves instead 
of Aegialus ; and the men were divided into twelve 
cities and called lonians instead of Aegialeians. 
But after the return of the Heracleidae they were 
driven out by the Acliaeans and went back again to 
Athens ; and from there they sent forth with the 
Codridae the Ionian colony to Asia, and these 

^ AiyiaTieias 


VOL. IV 


P 


209 



STRABO 


aiTOLKiav eh rrjv 'Aaiav, e/cria-av Be BcoBeKa 
TToXet^ ip rjj irapaXia Ka/ota? fcaX rPj<; AvBia^^, 
eh rocravra fJLeprj SieXopre^ crcpa?, oaa /cal ip 
UeXoTTOPPijcrm /carelxop* oi S ’A%aiol ^OiOdTai 
piev ^aap to jepo<;, cp/cTjaap S’ ip Aa/ceBaipopt, t&p 
S’ 'Upa/cXeiSoop iTn/cparrjadpTCDP, dpaXr}(f>6ivT€fi 
VTTO Ticrapiepov, rov 'Opearov Tra^So?, ct)9 TTpoeipr}- 
Kap^epy roh "'Ioxtlp inedepro, Kal yevopepoL Kpeh- 
Tov^ TOL >9 pep i^e^aXop, avrol Be /careaxov rrjv 
jrjp, /cal BiecjyvXa^ap top avTOP ttj^ X^pa*^ pepLcr- 
C 384 pop, ovTTep /cal TrapeXa^op. ovtco S’ Laxvcrav, 
wcrre Tr)P dXXrjp Il6Xo7r6pp7)(TOP ixoprcop toup 
*}ipa/cXeLB&p, &p direaTria-ap, dPTelxop opco^ 7rpo9 
airaPTa^, ^Axcttap 6popd(xaPTe<; ttjp x^p^^* 
pep oip Ticrapepov pexp^ *£lyvyov ^acriXevopepot 
BisTeXovp* eiTa Syjpo/cpaTrjdePTe^ toctovtop tjvSo- 
KLprjcrap irepl t^9 TroXireia^, SaT€ tov<; ^lTaXio!>Ta<; 
peTCL T7JP (XTcitTip T7]p TTpo^ TOV 9 HvdayopeLov^ 
TrXelcxTa t&p vopipoop peTSpey/caadai irapd 
TOVTCOP (Tvpe^^y peTcu Be t^p ip Aev/CTpoi^ pdx^p 
iireTpe^^rap ^r^^aloi tovtol<; t^p BLaiTap irepl 
T&p dpTiXeyopepcop Tah 'iroXecxL 7rpo<; dXXijjXac}* 
vcTTepop S’ VTTO MaKeBopcop XvdeLcrr)^ t59 /coi-^ 
poi)pLa<;, dpeXa^op a<j>d^ ttciXip KaTa pi/cpov^ 
^p^ap Be TLvppov o-TpaTevaaPTO^ eh ^iToXiap 
TBTTape^ avpiovcraL ^ 7roXei9, &p Tjcrap TLaTpat /cal 
^ crvvLovcrai no, Corais, Meineke, for crvpovcrai 

1 8 6. 5. 2 The Greeks m Italy 

® The Pythagoreian Secret Order, which was composed 
of exclusive clubs at Crotona and other cities in Magna 
Graecia, was aristocratical m its tendencies, and in time 
seems to have become predominant in polities This aroused 
the resentment of the people and resulted in the forcible 
210 



GEOGRAPHY, 8, 7 i 

founded twelve cities on the seaboaid of Cana and 
Lydia, thus dividing themselves into the same 
number of pai ts as the cities they had occupied in the 
Peloponnesus Now the Achaeans were Phthiotae 
m race, but they lived in Lacedaemon ; and when 
the Heracleidae pie\ ailed, the Achaeans were won 
over by Tisamenus, the son of Orestes, as I have 
said before,^ attacked tlie lonians, and proving 
themselves moie powerful than the lomans drove 
them out and took possession of the land them- 
selves ; and they kept the division of the country 
the same as it was when they received it And 
they were so powerful that, although the Heia- 
cleidae, from whom they had levolted, held the lest 
of the Peloponnesus, still they held out against one 
and all, and named the country Achaea. Now fioni 
Tisamenus to Og\ges they continued under the rule 
of kings, then, under a democratic government, 
they became so famous foi their constitutions that 
the Italiotes,^ after tlie uprising against the 
Pythagoreians,® actually bon owed most of their 
usages from the AchaeansA And after the battle 
at Leuctra the Thebans turned over to them the 
arbitration of the disputes winch the cities had with 
one another; and later, when their league was dis- 
solved by the Macedonians, they gradually recovered 
themselves. When Pyrrhus made his expedition to 
Italy,® four cities came together and began a new 
league, among which were Patrae and Dyme ; ® and 

suppression of the Order, At Crotona, for example, the 
people lose up against the “ Three Hundred ” during one of 
then meetings and burnt up the building and manjr of the 
assembled members 

^ So Polvbius, 2 39, ® 280 B c. 

® The other tw o were Tritaea and Pharae (Polybius, 2. 41) 



STRABO 


AvfMY}* eira irpoaeXdfjb^avov r&v ScoBe/ca 

irXrjv ^flXevov Kal ^RXCkyj^, ov (rvveX- 

dovar}^,^ T% S* d<f>aviadeLa-7]<i vmrb fcvparo^^, 

2. ^"Ei^apBev ydp vtto aeicrfiov to 7r€Xayo<s 
fcareKXvae ical avrrjv ical to iepov rov VjXc/ccopiov 
II oo-€cSa>po^, OP ^ Kal vvp ert rip&cnv "'Icove^;, Kal 
dvovcLv iK€t rd Havidvta. pi€pvr)Tat B\ c !>9 
viTovoovai Tiv€<;t TavT7}<^ t^9 dvaiaf; ^^OpTjpo^, 
orav ^7j‘ 

avrdp 6 Bvpuov ataOe Kal Tjpvyev^ o)? ore ravpo^ 
vpvyev eXKOfjLevo^i ^EXiKdviov dpucpl dvaKra, 

reKpLatpovrai re vedrepov elvac ^lQ)PiK7j<s 

aTTOiKia^ TOP TTOLrjTiqp, pep^prjpLepop ye t^9 Uapio)- 
VLK7](; Ovaia^ii fjv ip rfj Uptrjvicop awre- 

XovaLV *Tg)?;€9 ^EXiKmvi^ UoaeiBodvc' irrel Kal 
avTol oi UpLrjve^fi ^EXvktji; elvai Xiyoprat, Kal 
Srf 7r/009 rrjp Ova Lap ravrrfp ^aaiXia ® KaOLaidatP 
dpSpa P 60 P Upiripia top t&p lepoop iiftpLeX^jaS- 
fievop. TeKp/qpiovvrai S’ ert pdXXov to nrpoKel- 
pevop eK tLop irepl tov ravpov irecppaapepcop' rore 
yap popbL^ovcTL KaXXiepeiP rrrepl tijv BvaLav ravT't^p 
’lcoz;€9, orap dvofievo^ 6 Tavpo<i pvK^crTjrat, oi S’ 
dvTcXeyopTe^ pLeTa<p€povo'LP €t9 Tr)v ^EXlk7)v rd 
XexBevra reKpirjpta Trepl rov ravpov Kal t% 
dvaia^i 0)9 e/sce? vepopua pievcov rovroiv Kal rov 
TTOiijTov rrapa^dXXovTO^ rd eKel crvvTeXovpeva, 

^ For (Tvye^doicrris Curtius {Peloponneios I 451) conjec- 
tures {rvueffreicrTjs (“was no longer in existence”), Tbut cp, 
Polybius 2 41. 

® ‘6v, Meineke inserts, from conjecture of Groskurd. 

® Patnkea is omitted by all MSS except BJcyt, 


212 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 7. 1-2 

then they began to add some of the twelve cities, 
except Olenus and Helic^, the former having refused 
to join and the latter having been wiped out by a 
wave from the seaA 

2 . For the sea was raised by an earthquake and 
it submerged Helic6, and also the temple of the 
Heliconian Poseidon, whom the lonians® worship 
even to this day, offeimg there ^ the Pan-Ionian 
sacrifices And, as some suppose, Homer recalls 
this sacrifice when he says but he breathed out 
his spirit and bellowed, as when a dragged bull 
bellows round the altar of the Heliconian loid”*^ 
And they infer that the poet lived aftei the Ionian 
colonisation, since he mentions the Pan-Ionian 
sacrifice, which the lonians peiform m honour of 
the Heliconian Poseidon in the country of the 
Prienians ; for the Prienians themselves are also 
said to be from Helice , and indeed as king for this 
sacrifice they appoint a Prienian j^oung man to 
supei intend the sacred rites But still moxe they 
base the supposition m question on what the poet 
says about the bull ; for the lonians believe that 
they obtain omens in connection with this sacrifice 
only when the bull bellows while being sacrificed. 
But the opponents of the supposition apply the 
above-mentioned inferences concerning the bull 
and the sacrifice to Helice, on the ground that these 
were customary there and that the poet was merely 
comparing the rites that were celebrated there. 

^ So 1 3 18 ^ In Asia Minor. 

® At Paniomum, on the promontory called Mycal^, accord- 
ing to Herodotus {1. 148) ; “ in a desert place in the neigh- 
bourhood of what IS called MyealS,” according to Diodorus 
Siculus, 15 49 

* mad 20. 403. 


213 



STRABO 


KareKXvcrdr) S’ fj ^^IKitcr) hvcnv erecn irpo rm 
AevKTpCK&v* ^EpaToardivr](i Be /cal avro^ IBelv 

^7]al TOV TOTTOV, KoX TOU9 TTOpd/Jbia^ (09 ev 

rm iropcp 6pdo<; ecmfiKei ^ TLocreLB&v %aXytf€ 09 , 
€%a)z/ LTnTOKafiTTOv iv rfj yetpii kLvBvvou (j>€povTa 
roi<i BLKTvevcTLV* ^Hyoa/cXeiS??? Se /car avrov 
^eveardai to rrddo<i vv/crcop, SooSe/ca a-raScov^ 
C 385 Bie^ovcrrjf; t^ 9 TroXeco? ^tto OaXacrarj^, /cal rovrov 
rov %o)/)/oi/ 7Tavro<s ci/v r^ rroXei /caXv<pff^PTo^i 
Btcrx^Xiovs Be rrapcL r&v ^Axai&v 7reii(j>6evTa^ 
dveXeadac jxev tov<; ve/cpov^: /ii7j Bvvaadac, roig S’ 
ofjLOpot^ velp^ai rrjv x^opCLv* avfx^rjvac Be to 7ra^09 
/card jMrjViv HocreLB&vo^' roif^ yap e/c 7779 ^EXtA;779 
i/crrecrovra^ 'loova^ alrelv Trifi'yfravra^ rrapd r&v 
'EXc/cewp p^aXtcrra fiev to jSpera^ rod IIo(7€lB&po9, 
el Be pLTj, TOV ye lepov rrjv d^iBpvcriv* ov Bovroxv 
Be, rrep^jrai rrpo^ to koivov t&v ^Axccc&v* r&v Bk 
yjrrjcjiKrapLevcov, ovS^ ^9 VTra/covaai* r^ S’ 6 ^ 7)9 
X€ip>&vL <rvp/3rjvai rd wdOo^, 701)9 S’ ^A'^aiov^; 
iarepov Bovvai rijv d^LBpvaiv rol^"'l(oaiv* 'Hcrto- 
S 09 Se /cal dXXrjf; ^EXC/crjt; p,ipv7]rat %erraXt>/crj^, 

3 Eikoctl pev Br) err] BcereXecrav ypapparea 
Koivov exovre^ /cal (irparrjyov^ Svo /car' ivtavrov 
ol 'Axcicoi, /cal /coivo/SovXiov eh h/a rorrov 
avvrjyero avroh, e/caXeiro Be ^Apdpiov,^ iv ^ rd 

^ For eariiicei Meineke conjectures ecrr^Ke or ^(tt^kol 

2 ^A/idpioP, Jones, for *Apvdptoy (see Foucart, E$i\ Arch 
32 96 and Pauly-Wissowa, sv “Amarios”) , likewise for 
Alvdpiov in 8 7. 5. Meineke, following the conjecture of 
Ki ainer, emends to 'Afidptov in both places. Corais, following 
Schweighauser’s conjecture (note on Polybius 5 93), emends 
to *Op.dptovi see also Polybius 2 39 (Zeifj 'Ofi6pm, or 
*Ofidpios). 

214 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 7. 2-3 

Helice was submerged by the sea two 3"ears before 
the battle at Leuctia. And Eratosthenes says that 
he himself saw the place, and that the feir3anen 
say that there was a bronze Poseidon m the strait^ 
standing elect, holding a hippo-campus 111 his hand, 
which was perilous for those wdio fished with nets 
And Heracleides^ says that the submersion took 
place by night in his time, and, although the city 
was twelve stadia distant fiom the sea, this whole 
district together with the city w^as hidden from 
sight, and t’wo thousand men who had been sent 
by the Achaeans weie unable to lecover the dead 
bodies , and they divided the teiiitoi}’^ of Hehce 
among the neighbours; and the submersion 11 as the 
result of the angei of Poseidon, for the lonians who 
had been driven out of HelicS sent men to ask the 
inhabitants of Helic^ particularly for the statue of 
Poseidon, or, if not that, for the model of the 
temple ; and when the inhabitants refused to give 
either, the lonians sent word to the general council 
of the Achaeans ; but although the assembly voted 
favourably, yet even so the inhabitants of Helice 
refused to obey ; and the submersion resulted the 
following winter; but the Achaeans later gave 
the model of the temple to the lonians. Hesiod® 
mentions still another Helic^, m Thessaly. 

3 . Now for twenty ® years the Achaeans continued 
to have a general secretary and two generals, elected 
annually ; and with them a common council was 
convened at one place (it was called Amarium),^ 

^ Heracleides of Pontus (see Dictionary ^ Vol. 1). 

2 Shield of fferacl€i>, 381 

® Polybius (2. 43) says twenty-five 

* Amarium was the name of the sacred pi eoinct of Zeus 
Amarius near Aegium, again mentioned in 8. 7 5. 

215 



STRABO 


xoiva i'X^priixdrii^ov koX oijtoi /cal ^Icove^ Trpo- 
repov* elra eSo^ev eva x^^poTOveladac arparriyov, 
''ApaT09 Be arpaT7jy^aa<; dcpeiXero ^Avriyovov 
rov ^A/cpoKopLvOoVi /cal ttjv itoXlv rol^ ’A^atoZ? 
TTpoaidij/ce, /caOdirep Kal rrjp Tra'rpLBa* TTpoae- 
\d06ro Be /cal yieyapea^;* Kal Trap* eKaaToi^ 
rvpavviBa^ Ka7a\v(£>v *Ayaiov^ eTToiei rov? i\ev- 
6ep(d9evra?'^ . . . rr]v oe TI^ottovvtjctov rjkev- 
depcocre r&v rypavvcBoov, Scrre Kal *Apyo? Kal 
^Eppacbv Kal <i>Xiov? Kal MeyaXoTToXc?,^ rj pLeyicrrT} 
T&v iv *ApKaBLai TTpoaeredr) tol? *Axcitol ?3 ore B^ 
Kal TrXelarov rjv^rjvro, fjv B* 6 Kaipo?, '^vtKa 
*V(opbaioi Kapxv^oviov? €k tt}? XcKeXia? CK/SaXop- 
re? icrrpdrevaav irrl rov? irepl top TldBov Ta- 
Xdra?. P'^XP^ ^iXoTTolpevo? arpaTTjyia? 

(TV/jLpeLvnvTe? Uavco? oi BieXvOTjaap Kar 

oXcyop, rjBr} ^PcopLalcov ixovroov ri]p ^EkXdBa 
avprraaav Kal ov rov avrov rpoTTov eKaaroi? 
Xpo>p€VCi>v, dXXd roif? pbev a-vvex^^iV) rov? Be 
KaraXveiv ^ovXo/JLeimv elra Xeyet air Lav rov 
eprrXarvveadai rol? irepl *Axamv Xoyoi? ro eVl 
roaovrov av^rjdivra?, cE>9 Kal AaKeBaipoviov? 
VTrep^aXecrSat, d^Lco? yvcopL^eaOat? 

^ After eKevBepaQevTas, ocghikn add /cal /cter* oXl'ya or hKiyov* 
Kramer, Memeke and others indicate a lacuna 

* D/l€ya\6iro\iSi Bl (cp. 8 3 1) , Me-yc^AT? v6\is^ other MSS 

® elra , . . yvonpliecrBaL^ omitted in but later added 

m the margin, Memeke ejects, indicating lacuna after 
^ovKofi^vtov. It seems clear (1) that the words are the work 
of an abbreviator and that %rpdpa>v should be supplied as 
subject of \4y?if or else (2) that a lacuna after povKop,iv(av 
should be assumed and that no\iJj8f os, whom Strabo seems now 
to be following rather closely, should be supplied (so think 
Casaubon and Groskurd). The former is more probable, for 
the extant text of Polybius (2 37 ff.) contains no such state- 
216 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 7. 3 

in which these, as did the lonians before them, 
dealt with affaiis of common interest; then they 
decided to elect only one general. And when 
Aratus was general he took the Acroconnthus away 
from Antigonus ^ and added the city of Corinth to 
the Achaean League, just as he had added his 
native city ; and he also took over the Megarians ; 
and breaking up the tyrannies in the seveial cities 
he made the peoples who were thus set free 
members of the Achaean League And he set the 
Peloponnesus free from its tyrannies, so that Aigos, 
Hermion, Phlius, and Megalopolis, the largest city 
in Arcadia, were added to the League ; and it was 
at this time that the League reached the height of 
its power It was the time when the Romans, after 
their expulsion of the Carthaginians fiom Sicily, ^ 
made their expedition against the Galatae® who 
lived in the region of the Padus River. But although 
the Achaean League persisted rather firmly until 
the time of the generalship of Philopoemeii, yet it 
was gradually dissolved, since by this time the 
Romans were in possession of the whole of Greece, 
and they did not deal with the several states in the 
same way, but wished to pieserve some and to 
destroy others. Then he^ tells the cause of his 
enlarging upon the subj'ect of the Achaeans, saying 
that, although they increased in power to the point 
of surpassing even the Lacedaemonians, they are 
not as well known as they deserve to be 

^ Antigonus Gonatas 2 241 b c. 

^ 224 B c * See critical note. 


ment, although m view of his lengthy and favourable dis- 
oussion of the Achaeans one might % implication ascribe the 
thought to him. 


217 




STRABO 


4. Be Tafi9 r&v roirmv, ou 9 Karfo/covv eh 
BcoBefca fiepT] BirfprjfievoL, TOiayrr] rh icrrr fierh 
^ifcv&va TleXkiqvri Kelrai* elra Atyecpa Bevrepa* 
rpiTT] AlyaLy TLo(reLB5ivo<; iepov e'xpvcra* rerdprrj 
^ovpa* pLET ax)rr]v^¥XLKrjy eh KaTeTre^evyeiaav 
''lcov€<f, P'd')(rf KparrjOevre^ vtt ^A^aiSiVy /cal to 
Te\evralov i^eTreaov ivOevBe* perd Be 'EXUtjv 
386 Aiyiov kuI rvTre^ /cal Tlarpei^ /cal ^apeZ*?* elr 
*'{l\€Po^y Tvap^ ov IleZyoo?^ TTorapo^ peya^.^ eha 
Avpr] /cal T!ptTai€2<i, ol pev ovv /ccoprjBov 

(p/covvy oi B' ^A)(atol iroXei^ e/criaavy S)v eh TLva<; 
vcxrepov cvvcpKiaav /cal i/c r&v dWcov peptBcov 
ivLa<;, /cadarrep rd^ Alyd<^ eh Ai'yeipav {Alyalot 
S’ eXeyovTO oi evoL/covvresi), "'HXevov Be eh Avprjv, 
Bei/cwrai S’ tx^V pera^i/ TLarpcdv /cal Avpri<; jov 
TToXaLOv T&v ^DiXevvcov KTiaparo^' avrov Be /cal 
TO rov 'Acr/c\i]7r&ov iepov iTri(T7)poVy t ® Avpr)<; pev 
direx^^ ^ Teacrapd/covra crTaSiov^, Uarp&v Bk 
byBo7j/covra, dpmvvpoi S’ elcrl toX^ p\v Aiyah 
ravrai^ ai ev Ev^oia, rp Be 'DXevco to iv 
AItcoXlcc KTiG-pa, /cal avTo IxyT] aooi^ov povov, 
6 Be 7roir)Tr]($ tov pev iv ’A%a/a 'D^Xevov ov pi- 
pv7)Taiy &(T7Tep ovS* aXKmv TcXeiovcov t&v Kepi tov 
AlyiaXov olKovvTcav, aXkd KOLvoTepov Xeyei' 

AlytaXov t ’ dvd irdvTa /cal dp<j> ^EXi/crjv 
ei/peiav, 

1 neipos, Corais, from conj. of Causaubon, inserts , so the 
editors in general See Herodotus 1 145. 

2 M4\asy after fi4yas, Corais deletes. So the editors m 
general 

® 0, Kramer inserts ; so the later editors 

* c^Tr4xop B (’) and editors before Kramer. 

2i8 



GEOGRAPHY, 8 . 7 . 4 

4. The order of the places m which the Achaean s 
settled, after dividing the country into twelve paits, 
IS as follows . ^ First after Sicyon lies Pellene ; then, 
second, Aegeira , third, Aegae, winch has a temple 
of Poseidon ; fourth, Bui a , after Bura, Helice, 
whither the lonians fled for refuge after they were 
conquered in battle by the Achaeans, and whence 
at last they were expelled; and, after Helic^, 
Aegium and Rhypes and Patiae ^ and Pliarae ; ^ then 
Olenus, past which flows the Peirus, a large river ; 
then Dyme and Tritaea ^ Now the lonians lived in 
villages, but the Achaeans founded cities , and to 
certain of these they later united others, tiansferring 
them fiom the other divisions, as, for example, 
Aegae to Aegeira (the inhabitants, however, wei e 
called Aegaeans), and Olenus to Dym^ Traces 
of the old settlement of the Olenians are shown 
between Patrae and Dym 6 ; and here, too, is the 
notable temple of Asclepius, which is forty stadia 
distant from Dym^ and eighty from Patrae Of the 
same name as this Aegae is the Aegae in Euboea ; 
and of the same name as Olenus is the settlement 
in Aetolia, this too preserving only traces of its 
former self. Now the poet does not mention the 
Olenus in Achaea, just as he does not mention 
several other inhabited places in the region of the 
Aegialus, although he speaks of them in a rather 
general way . And through all the Aegialus and 
about broad Hehc^.” ® But he mentions the 

1 Cp the names and their order m Herodotus (1 145), 
Polybius (2 41) and Paiisanias (7. 6). 

2 The Greek has Patreis ” (‘‘the Patraeans ’’) 

3 The Greek has “Phareis ” (“the Pharaeans ”) 

* The Greek has “ Tntaeeis” (“ the Tritaeans 

® Iltad 2. 575. 



STRABO 


Tov S’ AItcoXlkov fjbifJLvrfrai, orav 

ot ^ HXeiipcov ivifJLOvro fcal '’QXevov, 

Ta? S’ Aija<; afjLj>OT€pa<i Xiyet, rrjv puev 

oi u roc 6t9 ^EikcKrjv re fcal Alja^ S&p' 
avdyovcrc' 

orav Se 

Alyd<;, evda re^ oi fckvra hdi>pLara 0iv0ecrc 
XLpbvr)^' 

evd^ L7r7rov<: ean^ae IloareiSdcov* 

0ekrcov hixeadcffi ra<s iv Ev/Sota, a<j£>’ &v elico^ 
fcal TO 7reXafyo<; Alyatov \ex6i)voci' eKel Be /cal 
IloaecB&vc fj irpayfmreia TreiToiyjrai rj irepl 
T’ov Tpcoi/cbv TToXepbOv, tt/oo? Be rah ^A^cccKah 
Aiyah 0 K/?a049 pel ^‘orapbo^, bk Bvelv worapc&v 
ayfo/i6z^o9, aTTO rov icipvaadac rrjv ovofiacriav 
o)(cov' d(f)* o5 /cal 6 iv ^IraXici K.pddc^, 

o. ^E/cdarrj Be r&v Bt&Be/ca pcepiBcov i/c Bi^pbcov 
O'vveKTrrjKec eirra /cal o/crcb* roaovrov evavBpelv 
rrjv (Tvvi^aivev. earc S* ?; TLeXX^jvri 

o'rdBca i^7]/covra t^9 daXdrrvi^ vTrep/cecpivrj, 
4>povpcov ipvpvQV, ecrrc Be /cal fcd>prj tleXXrjvr), 
bdev /cal ai HeXXrjvc/cal ^Xalvac, a9 /cal dOXa 
irLOeaav iv roh dyAai' /celrac Be pcera^ij AiyLov^ 
fcal HeXX^VT)^* rd Bb JJeXXava erepa rovroov 
icrrly Aa/c( 0 VLKov rrpb^ rrjv MeyaXo- 

rroXlriv vevov, Atyecpa Be iirl ^ovvov /celrac, 
BoOpa 8’ vTvep/cecrac t^9 daXdrri]^ iv rerrapd- 
/covrd 7ro)9 araBLoc^f ijv vtto crecapcov Karar'odijvai 
1 0 % omitted by Baghihu 


220 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 7. 4-5 

Aetohan Olenus, ■u'hen he says . those who dwelt 
m Pleuroii and Olenus.” ^ And he speaks of both 
places called Aegae : the Achaean Aegae, when he 
says, yet they bring up gifts for thee into both 
Helice and Aegae but when he says, Aegae, 
wheie IS his famous palace in the deeps of the 
mere,*’® wheie Poseidon halted his horses/’^ it is 
better to take him as meaning the Aegae in Euboea, 
from which it is piobable that also the Aegean Sea 
got its name ; and here too the poet has placed the 
activities of Poseidon in connection with the Trojan 
War Close to the Achaean Aegae flows the Crathis 
River, which is inci eased by the wateis of two othei 
livers, and it gets its name fiom the fact that it is 
a mixture,® as does also the Crathis m Italy. 

5 . Each of the twelve divisions consisted of seven 
or eight communities, so populous was the country. 
Pellen^ is situated sixty stadia above the sea, and 
it IS a strong fortress But there is also a village 
Pellen^, fiom which come the Pellemc cloaks, which 
they were also wont to set up as prizes at the 
games; it lies between Aegium and Pellen^. But 
Pellana is diflerent from these two ; it is a Laconian 
place, and its teriitory inclines, approximately, to- 
wards the teriitory of Megalopolis. Aegeira is situ- 
ated on a hill, Bura, which was swallowed up in an 
earthquake, is situated above the sea at a distance 
of about forty stadia; and they say that it was 

1 Ihad 2 639 2 ji^ad 8 203 

3 n%ad 13 21 * Thad 13. 34 

3 Cp KpaBis and KpuBrivai 

2 T€, Kramer, for Bs; so the later editors. 

2 Alyaiov cglii^ Alyav m and Corals, Aiyii».v (correction in 
B). 


22 I 



STRABO 


avvk^r). utto Se ivravBa fcprjvrj^ ^v^dpiho^ 
Tov Kara ttjv ^iToXtav Trorajjiov ovojjLaadyjvaL 
0 387 (pacTiv* 7] 3’ Alya (/cal yap ovrco Xeyovat rd<; 
Aiyd<;) vvv pbev ov/c oi/ceirat, Tr}V Se irokiv^ 
e'Xpvaiv Aiyi€c<; Atyiov Sk l/cap&g ol/celrar icrro- 
povorv S’ ivravda top Ala vtt aiyo<i dvarpa^^vatt 
/caddirep <f)r)(rl /cal '^Ayoaro?* 

al^ leprj, rrjv piiv re X0709 AtX pua^ov i'jricr'xdv* 
iirtXiyeL Be /cal on 

^QXevlrjv Be pnv aXya Aio<; /caXiovcr^ viroc^^Tar 

BrjXcov TOV roTTOv, Bcon TrX7]crLov ^D,Xevrj avrov 
Be /cal f) YLepavviat^ eTrl r/rirpa^ v'\p'Y)Xrj<; IBpvpievr}. 
Aiyieoov 8’ iarl /cal ravra /cal ^EiXl/cr) /cal to tov 
Ai09 dXao^ TO ^ Apudptov,^ ottov avvpeaav oi 
^A'^aiol /SovXevao/xevoc Ttepl t&v koiv&v, pet Be 
Bca TYjf} Alytecov 6 XeXtvov^ iTOTapc6<^, 6pbd>vvpbo^ 
Tw Te iv ^F,(j)i<Tq) irapd to ApTepitacov peovTt, 
/cal TW ev T^ vvv ^HXeia rS TrapappeovTc to 
^( copLov, 6 cf^Tjaiv d)v7]craardaL Tjj ApTepiBc ’Sevocftoov 
/caTa '^prjapiov aXXo9 Be ^eXivov^s 6 irapa Toh 
^T^XaLoi^ yieyapevcnv, 0&9 dveaT^qaav TLap')(^- 
Bovloc, twv Be XoL7rS)v iroXecov tS>v A’Xcuk&v 

^ Pletho emends to so most of the editors, 

including Meineke. 

* K^pa^vta, Penzonius (note on Aelian Phr Ifcst 13. 6) is 
almost certainly right in emending to Kepiveia (Ceryneia), 
the city mentioned by Polybius (2. 41), Pausanias (7, 6) and 
others , and so read most of the editors (but cp Groskuid’s 
note). 

® *Aju,(ipioVi J ones, for Alvdpiov (see note on ^Apdpioy 8. 7 3). 


222 



GEOGRAPHY, 8 7. 5 


from the spring Sjbaris in Bura that the iiver^ 
m Italy got its name Aega (for Aegae is also 
called thus) is now uninhabited, and the city^ is 
in the possession of the people of Aegiuin. But 
Aegium has a considerable population. The story 
IS told that Zeus was nursed by a goat there, just 
as Aiatus says Sacred goat, which, in stoiy, didst 
hold thy bieast o*er Zeus*’,® and he goes on to 
say that ^^the mterpreteis call her the Olenian goat 
of ZeuSj” ^ thus clearly indicating that the place is 
near Olene. Here too is Ceraunia,® which is situated 
on a high lock. These places belong to the people 
of Aegium, and so does Helice, and the Amaiium, 
where the Achaeans met to deliberate on affairs of 
common interest And the Sehnus River flows 
through the territory of Aegium ; it bears the same 
name as the iiver that flows in Ephesus past the 
Arteniisium, and also the river in the Eleia of 
to-day® that flows past the plot of land which 
Xenophon says he bought for Artemis in accordance 
with an oiacle ^ And there is another Sehnus ; it 
flows past the teiritory of the Hyblaean Megarians,® 
whom the Carthaginians forced to migrate As for 
the remaining cities, or divisions, of the Achaeans, 

1 See 6 1. 12-13. 

2 Others emend “city” to “country,” but Strabo often 
speaks of cities thus, whether inhabited or not ; and m 
giving the name of a city he often means to include all the 
surrounding territory which it possesses 

* Phaejwmenai 163 * Ibid.y 164. 

® Ceraunia is almost certainly an error for “Cer^meia,” 
the city mentioned by Polybius (2. 41), Pausamas (7 6), and 
others. 

® See 8 3 1. Anabasis, 5 3 8 

® Megara Hyblaea was on the eastern coast of Sicily, to the 
north of Syracuse. 


223 



STRABO 


elVe jmepiScov 'PuTre? jmev ovk ol/covvrac, ir]v Se 
X(i>pav ^VvirLha /caXovfJuevrjv ea^ov Alyieh teal 
KoX AlcxvXo<; Be Xeyet ttov* 

ISovpdv 6* iepdv /cal KepavvLa<; 

etc Be T&p ^Pv7rd>v rjv o MvcTAreXXo?, o Kporcavo? 
olfccari]*;* Be ^PuTriSo? teal to Aev/erpov r^Vj 
Bi^fiofi T&v ^PvTT&v, fierci Be tovtou? tldrpat, 
TToXi? d^LoXoyof;' [xera^v Be to 'Piov teal to 
^Avrippeov^ iuTvexov Uarp&v ardBia Tecraapd- 
KQVTa. ^Pcop^aloi Be vecocrrl p^erd rrji/ ^Atcrca/cijv 
vCtcifjp XBpvaav avroQi Ti]<; aTparid^ pepo<; d^to- 
Xoyov, teal Bta<j>ep6vr(Of; evavBpel vvv^ ditOLtcia 
^PeopaLcov oiaa' e^^t Be vtfioppLOP pbirpiov, eepe^rj^ 
8’ ecnlv T} Avfii], TToXi? dXi/x€PO<ii iraa&v Bvape^ 
tccordrTjj dj> o5 icaX rovvopa" Trporepov S’ itcaXelro 
2TpaT09* Biaipet S’ avrrjv diro ri)? ’HXeta9 tcard 
PoviTpdcriov 0 AdpLcro^ irorapo^;, picov e^ 6pov^* 
TOVTO S’ oi pev XtcoXXiv KaXovcriv, ^'Opr)po<^ Be 
irirprjv ^HXevorjv, tov S’ ' Avripd^ov K.avKoi>viBa 
Tr)v AvpTjv €67roz^T09i oi pev eBe^avro diro tcov 
K.av/ccovQ)v eTTvdeTO)^ elpricrOai avro pexpt* Bevpo 
KadrjfcovTcoVi tcaOdwep iirdvco TrpoetTTopev* oi S’ 
uTTo K.av/ccovo<; Trorapov rivo^i w ai &r]^ac 
Aiptcalai teal ’Acrci)7rtS€9, ''Apyo<i S’ ^Ivax^cov, 
Tpota Be %opovvTLf;» BeBe/crac 8’ oitcrjTopa<; teal 
tj Avpr) pifcpov Trpo rjp&v, dvdpd>7rov^ ptydSa^i, 
388 ov<^ awo rod rrecpart/cov rrXrjOov^^ rrepiXiTrel^ eo'Xe 

1 ^ape7s, Pletho, for ^apieis, so Gorais, Memeke and others 

2 Koi AtiTx^^os , . *Pi5ir«y, Meineke lelegates to foot of 
page , but see J, Partsch m BerL Bhxl. Woclh 1902, 1411, 

® *Avr(ppiov, Meineke ejects ; Oorais emends the kaI 

to Kurd C* opposite”), 

224 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 7. 5 

one of them, Rhypes, is uninhabited, and the terri- 
tory called Rhypis was held by the people of 
Aegium and the people of Phaiae Aeschylus, 
too, says somewhere* ^^Sacied Bui a and thunder- 
smitten Rhypes.’ * ^ Myscelius, the founder of Croton, 
was from Rhypes And Leuctrum too, a deme of 
Rhypes, belonged to the district of Rhypis. After 
Rhypes comes Patrae, a noteworthy city; between 
the two, however, is Rhium (also Aiitiirhium),^ which 
IS forty stadia distant from Patrae. And recently the 
Romans, after their victory at Actiura, settled a 
considerable part of the army at Patiae , and it is ex- 
ceptionally populous at present, since it is a Roman 
colony; and it has a fairly good anchoring-pkce. 
Next comes Dym6, a city without a harbour, the 
farthest of all towards the west, a fact from which it 
takes its name ^ But in earlier times it was called 
Stratos The boundary between it and the Eleian 
country, Buprasium, is foimed by the Larisus River, 
which flows from a mountain Some waiters call this 
mountain Scollis, but Homer calls it the Oleman 
Rock. When Antimachus calls Dyme Cauconian,” 
some interpret Cauconian” as an epithet derived 
from the Cauconians, since the Cauconians extended 
as far as Dym^, as 1 have already said above,^ but 
others as derived from a River Caucon, just as Thebes 
IS called " Dircaean” and ^^Asopian,” Argos Inachei- 
an,” and Troy ^^Simuntian.” But shortly before my 
time Dym^ received as colonists a mixed group of 
people whom Pompey still had left over from the 

1 Flag 403 (Nauck). * See critical note 

® Ueip “to set,” HTfiri “setting,” “west” 

4 8. 3. 13, 17 . 

225 

VOL. IV Q 



STRABO 


JlofMTrriiQ<i, KaTaXv(Ta<i ra \r)(TTijpta koX lSpvara<; 
Tou? pL€P iv X6\oc<^ Tol<; K.t\tfcioi^y Tov<i S’ dWodc 
/cal Brj /cal ivravda. ^ he ^dpa cvvopel [lev 
rj} Avp^aia, /caXovvrai. he oi puev e/c ravTr}<i Tr)<? 
^dpa^ ^apeh^ oi S’ i/c M6crar)VLa/c'^<i 

^apaiarai*^ eari S’ iv rfj ^apai/cfj Aup/cTj Kp7jvr}, 
ojLLcovvpLO^ r‘p iv @J7/3a^9. ^ S* iari pLev 

€pT}pLo^t /ceLTab he puera^v TLarp&v koX Av^o;?* 
e'xpvai he Avpbaloi rrjv %ct>/>az/. elr ''Apa^o<?, 
TO d/cpcoT'qpiov ’HWa?, aTra ^laQpov ardhioi 
xCX.t>oi Tpbd/covTa.^ 


VIII 

1. ^Ap/cahta S’ icrrlv iv pL€cr<p pbev IleXo- 
TTOVvrjcrov, 7fk€L(rTrjv he ')(d)pav opeivrjv aTTore- 
pverai, peytcrrov S’ opo^ iv avrjj K.vXki]vr]' rrfv 
yovv /cdderov oi pikv et/coai, arrahvcov (paaiv, oi S’ 
0(Tov rrevre/caihe/ca, ho/cei he TraXacorara edvrj 
rS>v 'EXXriv(Ov elvai rd ^ApKahc/cd, ’Afai'e? re 
/cal Happdaioi /cal SXXol toiovtoi. hid he r^v 
rrj^ %c6/3a9 Travr^rj /cd/CG>ariv ov/c &v TrpotTrjKOt 
pLa/cpoXoyeiv irepl avT5>v at re yap iroXeif; viro 
T&v avveySav irokeptuyv 7}ij>avl(rdrjaav, evho^oi 
yevopevai Trporepov, Trjv re 'xpopav oi yecopyij- 
aavre^ i/cXeXoiTraaiv i^ i/ceivojv eri t&v 
ef &v e /9 Trjv iTpocrayopevO elarav yieydXrjv ttoXiv ^ 

^ ^apeis, Memeke, for <^o(pteis, 

* ^apaiarat, Meineke, for ^aparai. 


226 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 7. 5-8. r 

crowd of pirates, after he broke up all piracy and 
settled some of the pirates at Soli in Cilicia and others 
in other places — and m particular at Dym^. Phara 
borders on the territory of Dyme The people of this 
Phara are called Phareis, but those of the Messenian 
city Pharaeatae; and in the territory of Phara is a 
spring Dirce which bears the same name as the 
spring at Thebes But Olenus is deserted ; it lies 
between Patrae and Dyni6 ; and its territory is held 
by the people of Dyme Then comes Araxiis, 
the promontory of the Eleian country, one thousand 
and thirty stadia from the isthmus 


vm 

1. Arcadia lies in the middle of the Peloponnesus ; 
and most of the country which it includes is moun- 
tainous The gieatest mountain in it is Cyllene; 
at any rate some say that its perpendicular height 
IS twenty stadia, though others say about htteen. 
The Arcadian tribes — the Azanes, the Parrhasiaiis, 
and other such peoples — are reputed to be the most 
ancient tribes of the Greeks. But on account of 
the complete devastation of the country it would 
be inappropriate to speak at length about these 
tribes, for the cities, which in earlier times had 
become famous, were wiped out by the continuous 
wars, and the tillers of the soil have been disappear- 
ing even since the times when most of the cities 


® TpidKoyra {k'), Memeke inserts, following ooiij. of 
CasauboQ 
* BZ. 


227 



STRABO 


at irXetarat, avvcpfcicrO'qaav. vvvl Se fcal avTrj 
T} yieyakr} to tov fCco/JLi/cov TreTTOvOe, Kal 

iprjfjLLa /jLeydXf] ^crrlv ^7 MeydXr] 7roXt9' 

^ocTK'^fiaac S’ etcrl vofial SayjrcXeL^, fcal fidXccrra 
iTTTTOi? /cal ovoL<s Tol^ liTTro^aToi^ ecrrc Se Kal to 
yevo 9 T&v Linrcov dpiarov to ^ KpKahiKOv, KaOdnep 
Kal TO 'ApyoXcKOP Kal to ^EiirtSavpiov, Kal 
r&v AircoX&v Sk Kal ^AKapvdvmv iprjpia 77/309 
l7nrorpo<^iav €V(j>vt}<; yeyovev, ovx ^ttov t? 59 
@€TT0tXia9. 

2. Mavriveiav puev ovv iTroirjaev evho^ov ’E7ra- 

pLecpd>vSa<;, rf} Bevrepa viK'^aa^ /^d^jj AaKeBat^ 
povLov^j iv ^ Kal avTO^ ireXevra* Kal avrrf Be 
Kal ^Opxopevo^ Kal 'H/3ata koX KXelrcop Kal 
^eveo^ Kal 'liTvp<f>aXQ<; Kal Matz^aXo9 teal Me- 
dvBpiop Kal Kaef^veh Kal Kvpaida^ ^ ovKeT 
eiaip, rj p6Xi<5 avr&v ^aiverat Kal cnjpeia, 

'Veyea 8* ere perpico^ crvppevet, Kal to lepop 
T?79 ’AX€a9® ^Adr)vd^'' riparac S’ irrl piKpov Kal 
TO TOV AvKaiov Alo^ iepov Kara to AvKaiov 
KeLpevop^ opo^, tcop S’ vtto tov ttoitjtov Xeyo- 
pepcop 

^PiTTyjp re 'ZrparLTjp re Kal fjpepoeaaap 
^PipLcTT'ilP 

evpetp T6 ;)^aX€7roi', Kal evpovcnp ovBev 0 (j>eXo^ 
Bid T7}p epTjpiav* 

3. ^'Opt) S’ iTTKpavT] 7rpo9 t^ KvXXTjprj ^oXorj 

^ Meya\6icoKiVf MSS., but \7i above Ko added by first hand 
m A, 

® K^P1^Jea AcMtio. 

228 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 8. 1-3 

were united into what was called the^^ Great City.” ^ 
But now the Great City itself has suffered the fate 
described by the comic poet The Great City is 
a great desert.” 2 there are ample pastures for 
cattle, particularly for horses and asses that are used 
as stallions And the Arcadian breed of horses, 
like the Argohc and the Epidauuan, is most excel- 
lent And the deserted lands of the Aetolians and 
Acarnanians are also well adapted to horse-raising 
— no less so than Thessaly 

2 . Now Mantmeia was made famous by Epamei- 
nondas, who conquered the Lacedaemonians in the 
second battle, in which he himself lost his life. 
But Mantmeia itself, as also Orchomenus, Heraea, 
Cleitor, Pheneus, Stymphalus, Maenalus, Methy- 
drium, Caphyeis, and Cynaetha, no longer exist ; 
or else traces or signs of them are scarcely to be 
seen. But Tegea still endures fairly well, and so 
does the temple of the Alean Athen6; and the 
temple of Zeus Lycaeus situated near Mt. Lycaeum 
is also honoured to a slight extent. But three of the 
cities mentioned by the poet, Rhipe and Strati^, 
and windy Enisp6,” ® are not only hard to find, but 
are of no use to any who find them, because they 
are deserted. 

3 . Famous mountains, m addition to Cyllen6, are 

^ Megalopohs 

® The authorship of these words is unknown, 

3 Iliad 2 606. 

® *AAcas, Gorais, for *AAaias ; so the later editors 

* Kelficpov IS inserted by second hand in lacuna of about 
ten letters in A; and so read no; Memeke, following 
Kramer’s conjecture, inserts fi4yi(rrov; 0 Meltzer {N'eue 
IdhThiicher 111, 193), iSp^jaevav, 


229 



STRABO 


C 389 T€ KoX KvKaiQv ical Ma/mXo? /cal ro TlapOevLov 
KaXovfievov^ fradij/cov 67rl rrjv ^Apyelav arro t?)? 
TeyedriSo^;, 

4. Xlepl Be rov ^AX(j)eiov koX tov ^vpcora to 
crvfx06^r}Ko<^ TrapaZo^ov eiprjrau fcal to irepl 
^Eipaalvov tov evBiBovTa etc tt]^ %Tvp>(f>a\iBo^ 
XLp^v'i'}^ eh T7)v ^ApyeLav vvvi, irpoTepov S* ovk 
e)(pVTa eKpvaiv, r&v /Sepidpcov, a /caXovaiv oi 
ApKaBe^: ^epeOpa, TV(j>Xo!)v ovtodv /cal pjq Be^o- 
pevwv cLTrepaaiv^ &arTe ttjv t 5 >v XTvp<paXLcov 
TToXiv vvv pev Kal irevT'qicovTa ^ Btexeiv craSiov? 
diro Trj<i Xipvrj<i^ Tore S’ €7r’ avT7}^ Kelcdau 
TavavTLa S’ o AdBeov eirade, tov pevpaTO^ iirt- 
(T')(edevTo<i rrrOTe Bed Ttjv epfppa^tv t&v rrrjy&v* 
orvpireaovTa yap Ta irepl ^Peveov ^epedpa vtto 
creiapov, Be S)v 97 ^opd, povrjv eTrobrjae tov 
pevpaTO^ pexpf' t&v KaTa ^d6ov<; <^Xe^&v rij? 
TTrjyijf^, Kal ol pev ovto) Xiyovatv ^EpaTO(T$ivr)<i 
Be <f>7]<Ti Trepl ^eveov pev tov ^Aviav ® KaXovpevov 
TTOTapbv Xipvd^etv Ta Trpo tt}^ TroXeo)?, /raraSve- 
aduL S’ eh Tiva^ ridpov<i,^ ov<i KaXelo-dac ^epedpa' 
TOVTCOV S’ €p(f>pa)(0€VTQ)v, eaO' OTe virepx^ta-Oac 

^ MKpvffiv kno, man sec B, Aid. 

® For TvevT^KOPTa (v') Tozer, following oonj of Leake and 
C 0. Mtiller, reads irevre {e') But Jones conj retreapa (S'), 

® For ^Aviap, Penzel and Groskurd conj 'Apodpiov , T Birt 
(Kritik U7td BermeneuUk^ m Muller’s Jlandb, 1913, I, 3, 
p 134), following E, Hiller {Bratostlienes Carm, Rell p. 16), 
would emend to *Ap6ap. 

* *l(rOfio^s AcgM. Tzschucke conj. elff0fio{>s (see Hesychius 

8 9 ?.). 


1 6. 2 9. 

® “through a subterranean channel.” 

230 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 8. 3-4 

Pholo^, Lycaeum, Maenalus, and the Parthemum^ as 
it IS called, which extends from the teriitory of Tegea 
down to the Argive country 

4 I have aheady mentioned the marvellous 
circumstances pertaining to the Alpheius and the 
Eurotas,^ and also to the Eiasmus, which now flows 
underground from the Stymphalian Lake,^ and issues 
forth into the Argive country, although in earlier 
times it had no outlet, since the ‘^berethra,’’^ which 
the Arcadians call ‘^zerethra,” were stopped up and 
did not admit of the waters being carried off, so that 
the city of the Stymphalians ^ is now fifty stadia ^ 
distant from the lake, although then it was situated 
on the lake But the contiary was the case with the 
Ladon, since its stream was once checked because of 
the blocking up of its sources , for the berethra " 
near Pheneus, through which it flowed, fell in as the 
result of an earthquake and checked the stream as 
far down into the depths of the earth as the veins 
which supplied its source. Thus some writers tell it. 
But Eratosthenes says that near Pheneus the river 
Anias,® as it is called, makes a lake of the region m 
front of the city and flows down into sink-holes, 
which are called ^'^zerethra** ; and when these are 
stopped up the water sometimes overflows into the 

® * StymphaliTs 

® It IS incredible that Strabo wrote “ fifty ” here. Leake 
[Morea^ III 146), quoted approvingly by Tozer {8e7ecfio7ts^ 
234), says thett “five” must be right, w’-hich is “about the 
number of stades between the site of Stymphalus and the 
margin of the lake, on the average of the seasons.” Palaeo- 
graphically, however, it is far more likely that Strabo wrote 
“four ” (see critical note). 

‘The river formed by the confluence of the Aroanius and 
the Olbxus, accordmg to Frazer (note on Pausanias, 8. 4 13). 

23* 



STRABO 


TO vhcop eU Ta TreSta, ttoXlv S’ avatTTOfJLOVfJLevcov 
adpovv etc r&v 'ireBlcov eKrreaov el<; top AdBcova 
KoX Tov ^AX(p6LOv ipLjSdXXetVj &a‘T€ /cal 
^OXvpuTria^ /cXvadPjvaL Trore rrjv mpl to iepbv 
yrjv, T^v Se XtpbVTjv avcrTaXrjvat' top 'Epaacvov 
Be irapd^ 'ZTvpbc^aXov peovra, vrroBvvTa viro to 
opoSi iv rfj ^ApyeCq irdXiv dvacfyavijvaL' Scb Br] 
/cal ^Icpi/cpdrij, iroXtop/covvra tov %TVfjb^aXov /cal 
fjbrjBev irepaLvovTa, eTn')(eiprj<Tai t^v KaTaBvaiV 
dirocf/pd^aL, anroyyov^ Troptadpievov ttoXXoi;?, jrav- 
aaadai Be BLoar] pLia<i y6VOpLev7)<s. irepl ^evebv 
S’ iaTi /cal TO /caXovfievov Stw^o? iiBcop, Xi/SdBuov 
oXeOpLov uSaTo? vopci^opevov iepov, TocravTa /cal 
Trepl ^Ap/caBLa^ elprfcOco. 

5 UoXvjSlov S’ eiprj/coTO^i to aTro MaXewz^ iirl 
Ta9 ap/cTOVf; pi^XP^ ’To-t/oov BidaT'qpba Trepl 

pLVpLov<; <TTaBCov<;, evdvvei tovto 6 ^ApTepiBcopo^ 
ov/c aTOTTo)?,^ eivl pev Aiyiov ;^iXtoi;9 /cal [ts- 
Tpa/co(T\iov^ elvai Xeycov i/c MaXe&v 6B6v, ev6evBe 
€t9 \K.ippav ttXoOv] Bia/coalcoVj ivdivBe Bed 
/eXeia^ [et9 ®avpa/cov<s] irevTa/coaicov oBov, ecTa et9 
Adpiaav [/cal Tbv TLrjveibvl Tpia/coaLcov T€TTapd‘ 
/coVTa, ecTa Bid [r&v HepTTcbv eTrl Ta9 Tlrj]veiov 
i/cj3oXd<; Bia/coamv T€TTapd/cov[Ta, eiTa eh Tr)v 
®ecT(ra'\Kovi/cetav e^a/coaicov i^ij/covTa, ivTevldev 
eTr’ '^laTpov Si ElSopi]€V7]<; /cal XTojSeav /cal AapBa- 
vLa)v TpL(TXf\Xiov^ /cal Bta/coaLo]v<;^ /caT i/ceivov Brj 
crvp^aivei Tb i/c [toS ''larTpov iTrl Ta9 MaX]€a9 

^ vapd A , trepi other MSS 

® The nine lacunae (indicated by brackets) in this 
passage are supplied in the editions of Muller-Dubner and 
Memeke. 

232 



GEOGRAPHY, 8. 8. 4-5 

plains, and when they are again opened up it rushes 
out of the plains all at once and empties into the 
Ladon and the Alpheius, so that even at Olympia 
the land around the temple was once inundated, 
while the lake was reduced , and the Erasmus, which 
flows past Stymphalus, sinks and flows beneath the 
mountain ^ and reappears in the Argive land , and it 
was on this account, also, that Iphicrates, when he 
was besieging Stymphalus and accomplishing nothing, 
tried to block up the sink with a laige quantity of 
sponges with which he had supplied himself, but 
desisted when Zeus sent an omen fiom the sky And 
near Pheneus is also the water of the Styx, as it is 
called — a small stream of deadly water which is 
held to be sacred So much may be said concerning 
Arcadia. 

5 . Polybius^ states that the distance from Maleae 
towaids the north as fai as the Ister is about ten 
thousand stadia, but Artemidorus corrects the state- 
ment in an appropriate manner by saying that from 
Maleae to Aegium is a journey of fourteen hundred 
stadia, and thence to Cyrrha a voyage of two 
hundred, and thence through Hei*acleia to Thaumaci 
a journey of five hundred, and then to Larisa and 
the Peneius three hundred and forty, and then 
through Tempe to the outlets of the Peneius two 
hundred and forty, and then to Thessaloniceia six 
hundred and sixty, and thence through Eidomene 
and Stobi and Dardami to the Ister three thousand 
two hundred. According to Artemidorus, therefore, 
the distance from the Ister to Maleae amounts to 

1 Apparently Mt. Chaon {see Pausamas, 2. 24) 

2 xxxiv. Fraff. 12 

233 



STRABO 


k^aKLCT'X^iXLddv irevraKoaLCiov recaapdfcovra?- ainov 
Be TOVTOV^ TO pi] Ti]v avvTopov tcaraperpelv, dXkd 
TTjv TVXovcav, f]v eTTopevOr] r&v arparrjy&v ti^, 
ovfc droTTOV S’ ?cra)9 fcal rov^ olfCLard^ irpoardelvai 
rG)v Trjv Tie\o7r6vvY]cov oIkovptcov, ofi? elirev 
’'E<^o/oo 9 , tov<; perd ty]v ^]ipaK\eLB5>v KaSohov 
l^opLvdov pev ^AXrj'Tr]Vi 'S^ncv&vo^; Be ^dXK7]v, 
’A%a/a9 Se Tiaapepov, *'iiXiBo<^ S’ "'O^vXov, Mecr- 
a‘r]V7}<; Be Kpea^ovTTjVy AafceBaipovo^ S’ ^vpvadevT] 
Ka\ UpoKkr], *'Ap70U9 Be Tijpevov K\al Kiaaov, 
r&v Be TTepl rijv ^AKrijv ^Ayaiov ® Kal Ar]i(p6vrr]v^ 

^ rea-crapaKOpra (/*'), Jones inserts, thus making the total 
correct. 

2 This tenth lacuna is supplied by Kramer, who finds 
Kiffffov m the Epit 

® For ‘Ayatop Meineke, following conj of Oorais and 
Kramer, reads ^Aypatovx but see Muller’s Ind* Far, LecU 
p 998. 


234 



GEOGRAPHY, 8 8. 5 

six thousand five hundred and forty stadia. The 
cause of this excess^ is that he does not give the 
measurement of the shortest route, but of the 
chance route which one of the generals took. And 
it IS not out of place, perhaps, to add also the 
colonisers, mentioned by Ephorus, of the peoples 
who settled in the Peloponnesus after the leturn of 
the Heraeleidae: Aletes, the coloniser of Corinth, 
Phalces of Sicyon, Tisamenus of Achaea, Oxylus of 
Elis, Cresphontes of Messen^, Eurystheiies and 
Procles ot Lacedaemon, Temenus and Cissus of 
Argos, and Agaeus and Deiphontes of the region 
about Acte.2 

^ 1 e irx the estimate of Polybius, apparently, rather than 
in that of Arteniidorus 

^ The eastern coast of Argolis was called ‘*Act^*’ 
(** Coast 


^35 




BOOK IX 



I 

C 390 1. Uepmhevtcoai Se r^v UeXoTrovun^crov, fjv 

Trp(OT7)v €<pa/JL€v /cal iXaxl'(^T7]v r&v cvvTt6ei(j&y 
Tr}v ^EXXaSa %ep/?oz/?;«rci)i;, i(j>€^rj<; av eti] ra? 
avvex^h iireXOeiv. ffv Sk Sevripa fiev 97 TTpocTL- 
6el<xa rf} JlGXoTTOVV'qcr^ ttjv MeyaplSa, &crre rov 
KpofjLfjLv&v[a Meyapiccv eivaij /cal pbr) ’K.opuvdLcov'^ 
TpLTrj Se rj 7rpo<s ravTf) irpoaXapi^dvovaa ryv 
^Arrc/crjv /cal rrjp Bot&rlav /cal Trj<; 0(»/c/So9 ri 
fjLepo<: /cal r&v 'Eiirt/cvTjfiiSicov Ao/cp&v Trepl 
rovTcov [o5i/ Xe/crdop],^ ^rjal 6 ’ Ei;3o^o9, ei 
vo7]<T€i€P diro T&v KepavpLcop op&v iirl ^ovpiop, to 
T ^9 ’ArriA:^? a/cpop, iirl rd Trpbg eco piipr} rera- 
pev7)v evSeiaVf ip Se^ia pev aTroXet'yJreiv Tr)p IleXo- 
TTOvvrjaop oXtjp 7 r /?09 potov, ip dpLcrrepa Se /cal 
TTpo^ rfjp ap/crop ttjp dwo tcop TLepaupLcop 6pS>p 
avp€X^ 'irapaXtap p^XP^ Kpicraiov /coXirov /cal 
T7]<s MeyapiSo^t /cal <Tvpirdarj<; ^Attikti^* 

popi^ei S’ ovS* dp {^KOiXalpetrOai ovtcd^ rrjp fitopa 

^ The lacuna of about nine letters in A is thus supplied by 
Kramer and Memeke. On this and the following lacunae 
see Kramer s notes and text, and Meineke’s text. 

® The words Sxrre , . . KopivBiwv appear in the MSS. 
after Ao/c/)«?/ (followmg sentence). Memeke and others, follow- 
ing Du Theil, rightly transfer them as above. 

® After heKreop cbhhrLO add pvv, but the lacuna in A does 
not warrant so many letters. 

238 



BOOK IX 

I 


1 Now that I have completed my circuit of the 
Peloponnesus, which, as I have said,^ was the first 
and the smallest of the peninsulas of which Greece 
consists, it will be next in order to traverse those 
that are continuous with it The second peninsula 
is the one that adds Megans to the Peloponnesus,^ 
so that Crommyon belongs to the Megarians and not 
to the Connthians ; the third is the one which, in 
addition to the second, comprises Attica and Boeotia 
and a part of Phoeis and of the Epicneniidian Locrians. 
I must therefoie describe these two Eudoxus ® says 
that if one should imagine a straight line drawn in 
an easterly direction from the Ceraunian Mountains 
to Sumum, the promontory of Attica, it would leave 
on the right, towards the south, the whole of the 
Peloponnesus, and on the left, towards the north, the 
continuous coast-hne from the Ceraunian Mountains 
to the Ciisaean Gulf and Megans, and the coast-line 
of all Attica And he believes that the shore which 

1 8 . 1 . 3 . 

® And therefore comprises both The first peninsula in 
eludes the Isthmus, Crommyon being the first place bej^ond 
it, in Megans 

® Eudoxus of Cnidus (fl 350 b c. ). 

* Thus Meineke supplies the lacuna of about sixteen letters 
Kramer and Muller-Dubner, following Groskurd, insert <rtp68pa 
instead of 

2 39 




STRABO 


rr}V airo 'ZovvLov [toO ^laOfiov, wcrre /jieyd- 

'krjv] ex^iv iTTtcTTpOijirjv, el p^rj irpocr^v rrj [i^iovl 
ravTY) KaX\ rh avvexrj 

[iTOLOVVTa TOV KoXlTOV Tw] ^ ^EppiOVlKOV KoX TTJV 

^KicTrjV ft )9 S’ a{)[T6)9 ovS’ av ttjv cltto t&v Kepav- 
v]lCOV^ 67rl TOP KopLvff LUKOV KoXtTOV BX^t^V TLVCL 
Toaavlrrjv i7ricrrpo](f>^p^^ &(tt€ KOiXaLveuOai koX- 
TToeiBm KuO' av[T7]v, el prj to ^Viov koX to 'Avrip- 
pcov avvayopeva eh a-revov [irapelx^. ep^acTLv 
TUVTTjv 6poL(o<; Sk Kul rd 7r€/)i[e%oz^ra ®] top pvxov, 
eh a KaraXrjyetv avp^aLvec rrjv tuvt'q ^ OaXarrav* 

2, OvTOi S’ elpTjKOTo^ EvSo^ou, puOrjpaTiKOv 
391 dpBpb^ Kul <T^7?//.aT6t)z^ ipTrelpov kuI KXLpdrcov kuI 
T009 T07r0U9 TOUTOV9 €tSoT09, Set POGLP t/]pB 6 TrjV 
TrXevpdp 7979 ’Att4/c9)9 g'vv Tfj yieyaplBi ty)v ^tto 
Xovviov pexpi> ^l<Tdpov KoLXrjV pev, aXh! ein 
piKpov* evravda S’ earl Kara pe<T7)p ttov Tr)p 
Xe^Oeiaap ypapprjv 6 lleLpaiev<^, to t&p ^Ad7)pS>v 
eTriveLOv, S^6%6t yap tov pep XxolpoOpto^^ tov 
KUTCL TOP 'lad pop Tvepl TpiaKocriov^ irePTrjKovTa 

^ Thus Meineke supplies the lacuim of about twenty letters ; 
Kramer and Muller-Dubner, r€ij/6ju€va ini rby nSKnov. 

® Thus Meineke supplies the lacuna of about twenty-four 
letters ; Groskurd and Muller-Dubner, [rtoy r^v i}i6va anh Toiv 
Kepavv] 

® Thus Groskurd and the later editors supply the lacuna of 
about nine letters. 

^ Thus Memeke supplies the lacuna of about eight letters , 
but hm have Sttoi/tcJ, and so Kiamer and Muller-Dubner 

® Thus Jones supplies the lacuna of about ten letters , hno 
have Scrre nomv Muller-Dubner, iroieirat r4\v; Meineke, 
inoUt r^v, 

240 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. i. 1-2 

extends from Sunium to the Isthmus would not be 
so concave as to have a gieat bend, if to this shore 
were not added the distiicts continuous with the 
Isthmus which form the Hermionic Gulf and Acte; 
and, in the same way, he believes that the shore 
which extends from the Ceiaunian Mountains to the 
Coimthian Gulf would not, viewed by itself alone, 
have so great a bend as to be concave like a gulf if 
Rhium and Antinhium did not draw closely together 
and afford this appearance , and the same is true of 
the shores^ that smiound the recess of the gulf, 
where the sea in this region^ conies to an end. 

2 Since this is the description given by Eudoxus, 
a mathematician and an expert both in geometrical 
figures and in ^^climata,*’ ® and acquainted with 
these places, one must conceive of this side of 
Attica together with Megans — the side extending 
from Sunium to the Isthmus— as concave, though 
only slightly so. Now here, at about the centre of 
the aforesaid line, is the Peiraeus, the sea-port of 
Athens It is distant from Schoenus, atthe Isthmus, 
about three hundred and fifty stadia, and from 

^ Including the shore of the Isthmus 
^ That IS, the Corinthian Gulf, which Eudoxus and Strabo 
consider a part of the sea that extends eastward from the 
Sicilian Sea (cf 8. 1 3) Others, however, understand that 
Strabo refers to the recess of the Crisaean Gulf in the 
restricted sense, that is, the Gulf of Salona 
® For the meaning of “climata” see vol. 1, p. 22, foot- 
note 2. 


® Thus Memeke supphes the lacuna of about six letters ; 
Groskurd, Kplffcav Kal, and so Muller-Dubner , Kramer con]. 
avrdv 

^ Thus Memeke supplies the lacuna of about six letters ; 
Groskurd, Muller-Dubner and others, Kpia-ffalav 

241 

VOL. IV R 




STRABO 


crrahiov^i rov Se %ovvlov rptaKovra fcal rpia/co- 
aiov<i* [t6(t\ov eart htdaTqfia teal ro eirl 
diTO Tov IleL\^pai&<;\ oaovirep teal iirl 'Z'xpvvovvra' 
Se/ca S'o/ico 9 (TTa\hLoL(f[ 'trXeovd^eiv (pao-i, Kdfju>^avTi 
Se TO ItOvvLov 7r/309 apfCTov fiev 6 ttXoO?, eKteXivtov 
[Se] TTpo? Zv<nv. 

3. ’Aa;t^ S’ earlv dfi(f)i0d\aTTo<s, arev?) to 
TT p&ToVy elr eh rrjv fieaoyaiav TrXaTvveraif p/rj- 
voethrj S ’ ovhev ^ttov i7naTpocl>r}v Xap^dvei Trpo<; 
^fipcoTTov T ^9 Hoccoria^, to tevprov €)(ov(xap irpo^ 
daXaTTr}' rovro S ’ icrrl to Bevrepov nXevpov 
e^ov T^<? ^KTTticrj<i, to Be Xoiirov tjBt} to irpo* 
adpKTLOV icTTi TrXevpoVy diro "^UpcoTria^; 

eirl hvatv 'irapaTelvov pexpi M€yapcSo<?, fj 

^ k,TTLK^ opeivrj, TToXvwvvpo^ Ti9, Bceipyovaa Trjv 
HottoTiav aTTO Trj<i ’ATTi/ci}?’ &a0\ oirep elirov ev 
roh irpoa-ffev, lerdpov yCveaffai Ttjp TAotcoTiav, dp^i- 
ffdXaTTOv oZerav, t ^9 TpLT7j<; ')(€ppovt](TOV tt)^ 
Xe'xdeicy}^^ diroXap^dvovTa evTo<i Td Trpo^ Tp 
TLeXoTTOPPT^a-tp, Trjp t6 MeyapiBa fcalTr}pW.TTtKT]P, 
Bid Be TOVTO teal ^Akt^p (}>ao'L Xe^d^vai to Tra* 
Xaiop teal ^Aktlktjp ttjp vvp ^ATTircrjp Trapopopa^ 
crdelaap, otc Toh opeatp itTroTreirTcotce to irXelarTov 
pipo<; avrrj^ dXiTevh teal aTepoP, p'qKei S ’ a^ioXoyep 
fcexPVH'^^op, TrpoTreTTTwtco^ H'^XP^ 'Zovviov TavTa^ 
ot)p Bie^ipev dvaXd^^QpTe^ iraXip etc t^ 9 7r]a/)a- 
XLa^^ a(jf>’ fjcT'rrep direXiTropep, 

^ Thus Meineke supplies the lacuna of about nineteen 
letters in A. A man. sec, and hcghikno read hvaXa^6vr^s ras 
wape^xLs 
242 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. i. 2-3 

Sunium three hundred and thirty. The distance 
from the Peiraeus to Pagae also is nearly the same as 
to SchoenuSj though thefoimer is said to exceed the 
latter by ten stadia After doubling Sunium one’s 
voyage is towards the north, but with an inclination 
towards the west 

3. Act6 ^ is washed by two seas ; it is nan ow at 
first, and then it widens out into the interior/ 
though none the less it takes a crescent-like bend 
towards Oropus in Boeotia, with the convex side 
towards the sea ; and this is the second, the eastern 
side of Attica. Then comes the remaining side, 
which faces the noith and extends from the Oropian 
countiy towards the west as fai as Megans — I mean 
the mountainous part of Attica, which has many 
names and separates Boeotia from Attica , so that, 
as I have said before,^ Boeotia, since it has a sea 
on either side, becomes an isthmus of the third 
peninsula above-mentioned, an isthmus comprising 
within it the parts that lie towards the Peloponnesus, 
that is, Megans and Attica. And it is on this 
account, they say, that the country which is now, 
by a slight change of letteis, called Attica, was in 
ancient times called Act6 and Actic^,^ because the 
greatest pait of it lies below the mountains, 
stretches fiat along the sea, is narrow, and has 
considerable length, projecting as far as Sunium. 
I shall therefore describe these sides, resuming 
again at that point of the seaboard where I 
left off. 

^ That IS, Attica , not to be confused with the Acte in 
Argohs, mentioned in 9. 1 1 

* the interior plain of Attica. 

® 9. 1. 1, 8. 1. 3. * i,e. Shore-land. 


243 



STRABO 


4 . Mer^ Br} Kpo/uL/JLV&va viripKeiVTai ri}? ’Arn- 
Krjfi ^ ai X/ceipcovlBe^; Trirpat, irdpoBov ovk a 7 ro- 
XeiTTOVcraL 7rpo<s daXdrrr}' virep avT&v S* i^rlv rj 
6So9 97 Mejdpcdv Kal 'ArTLKrjf; diro tot) 
^laO/jbov' ovrco Be a<^6Bpa TrXrjcnd^eL Tah 7riTpai<; 
97 6 S 69 , &<rr€ '7roXXa‘)(Ov xal TTapdfcprj/nvo^ eari, 
Bid TO vTtepKeLpievov opo^ Bvo'^ajov re kcu vyjrijXov' 
ivravda Be pbvdeverai rd nrepl rov '^fcetpcovo^ /cal 
Tov UiTvoKd/jiTTTOVy T&v Xi]i^op€va)v TTfV Xe^deicrav 
opeiVTjv, OIJ 9 /caQeiXe ®7](Tev^. diro Be r&v d/cpcov 
T0VTO3V fcaraiyL^ovra CKaiov tov ^Apyicrrrjv 
^/ceipcova Trpoo-rjyopev/caaiv ^Adijvaioc, jjberd Be 
rdf} ^KeipooviBa^ irerpa^ die pa irpo/ceiTai Mivda, 
TTOiovora tov ev Trj 'iHtcaLa Xipieva. rj Be NicTala 
eTTLveiov icTTiv T&v Meydpeov, Se/cao/cTob crTaBiov<^ 

392 T?;? TToXew Bii)(pv, cr/ceXeaiv i/caTepcodev (Tvvair- 
Topievov TTyOO? avTTjv' ifcaXeiTo Be /cal tovto 
M ivda* 

5. To TTaXaiov pev ovv ^loove^ ei'xpv Trjv '^copav 
TavTYjv, Oiirep /cal ttjv ^Attiktiv, ovttw t&v Xleydpcov 
i/CTi<rpevG)v* Biorrep ovB' 6 Troi'tjTrjf; pipvrjTai T&v 

TOTTCOV TOVTCOV IBlO}<;, dXV ^ Ad 7]ValoV<^ KcCK&V TOV'i 
ev Tjj ATTt/cfj TrdvTa^y (Tvp7repieiX'i'}(^e /cal tovtov^ 
T^ KOIV& ovopaTiy ^ Adrjvaiov^ vopu^cov* <09 OTav 
<j)7} iv K.aTaX6y(p* 

ot S’ dyo’ ’A67]va<$ el')(pVy evicTipevov moXLeOpoVy 
Be')(e(T6aL Bel koX to 1)9 vxw Me7ay0€a9, <»9 ical 

^ For *ATTi/c?)s Tozer, following the con 3 . of Meineke, reads 
a/cT^5 (‘'edge of the coast”). 

^ “ Pme-bender ” His name wa Sims. For the story, 
see Pausanias, 2. 1. 3. 

244 




GEOGRAPHY, 9 . i. 4-5 

4 After Crommyon, and situated above Attica, 
are the Sceironian Rocks. They leave no room for 
a road along the sea, but the road from the Isthmus 
to Megara and Attica passes above them However, 
the road approaches so close to the rocks that m 
many places it passes along the edge of precipices, 
because the mountain situated above them is both 
lofty and impracticable for roads. Here is the 
setting of the myth about Sceiron and the Pityo- 
camptes,^ the robbeis who infested the above- 
mentioned mountainous country and were killed by 
Theseus And the Athenians have given the name 
Sceiron to the Argestes, the violent wind that blows 
down on the traveller’s left^ from the heights of 
this mountainous country. After the Sceironian 
Rocks one comes to Cape Minoa, which projects into 
the sea and forms the harbour at Nisaea Nisaea is 
the naval station of the Megarians ; it is eighteen 
stadia distant from the city and is joined to it on 
both sides by walls. The naval station, too, used 
to be called Minoa 

5. In early times this country was held by the 
same lonians who held Attica. Megara, however, 
had not yet been founded ; and therefore the poet 
does not specifically mention this region, but when 
he calls all the people of Attica Athenians he includes 
these too under the general name, considering them 
Athenians. Thus, when he says in the Catalogti€i 
And those who held Athens, well-built city,” ^ we 
must interpret him as meaning the people now 
called Megarians as well, and assume that these also 

2 That IS, to one travelling from the Isthmus to Megans 
and Attica 
s lUad 2 546. 


24s 



STRABO 


TovTOv<;^ fieracrxovra^; tTTparela^, trrjfietov 
Se* 7} yap ^Arri/cy to iraXaiov ^Icovia kuX ’la? 
iKoXeiTO, Kal 6 iroL'qrr)^ orav 

evOa Se Botwrol koX ’laom,^ 

Toi»9 ^Kdrjvaiov^ Xiyet* ravrrj^i S* rjv /ubepU ml 7] 
yieyapL^s 

6. Kal Br} /cal^ t&v opi'cov ajj.^ial37jTovvre<; 
TToXKdfct^; OL re UeXoTrovPTja-coc ml '"Icoz/e?, iv oh 
Kal Kpopb/ivcdviay avve^rjcrav Kal crrrjXTjv 
eoTTijcrav iirl tov G‘VVOfJLo\oyr)devTO<i tottov irepl 
avTOV TOV ^IcrBfxoVy i7nypa<j>rjv e^ovaav irrl fxev 
TOV TTpo^ Trjv UeXoTrovprjcTov fiipovf^y 

TaS’ earl UeXoTTovvrjao^;, ovk ^Icovia* 

i^rl Be TOV 7rpo<; MiyapUy 

raS’ ov)(l IleXo7r6pv7}cro<^y aXX^ ’Icar/a. 

ot T6 B^ T7)v ’Ar^lSa avyypd’y^avTe^y iroXXd 
Bia^(ovovvTe^, tovto ye opLoXoyovatVy oi ye Xoyov 
d^LOLy BioTi^ Tcav UapBiopiBa>p TeaadpoDv ovtcov, 
Klyeco^ re Kal Avkov Kal IldXXapTO<; Kal TeTapTov 
'NtaoVj Kal Tr]<; ^Attcktj^ eh rerrapa fJiepr) Btaipe- 
6eL(rr}^y o NtVo? ttjp MeyaplBa Xd^oc Kal KrLaat 
TTjp Niaatap. $AX6%opo9 pev ovp diro ^l<r0pov 
pexp^ TOV UvOlov Bc7]Kecp avTov (prjcrl t^v dpX7]P, 
^AvBpcop Be p€Xpt> ^^Xevalpos Kal tov ©piacrLov 
TreBLov, Tr}p S’ eh reTTapa pepr] Biapopr^v dXXmv 
aXXm elprjKOTm^y dpKel TavTa irapd %o(f>oKXeov^ 

^ avrovs ^klno, 

® ^idoyes^ Xviander, for *^l<av€s ; so the later editors, 

® After Kai Bo^ have wept, ^ on Bkno, 

246 



GEOGRAPHY, 9 i, 5-6 

had a part in the expedition. And the following is 
proof : In early times Attica was called Ionia and 
las; and when the poet says, There the Boeotians 
and the laonians/*^ he means the Athenians; and 
Megans was a part of this Ionia, 

6. Furthermore, since the Peloponnesians and 
lomans were having frequent disputes about their 
boundaries, on which, among other places, Crommy- 
onia was situated, they made an agreement and 
erected a pillar in the place agreed upon, near the 
Isthmus itself, with an inscription on the side facing 
the Peloponnesus reading • This is Peloponnesus, 
not Ionia,” and on the side facing Megara, “ This is 
not Peloponnesus, but Ionia ” And though the 
writers of the histories of The hand of Atihis^ are at 
variance on many things, they all agree on this (at 
least all writers who are worth mentioning), that 
Pandion had four sons, Aegeus, Lycus, Pallas, and 
the fourth, Nisus, and that when Attica was divided 
into four parts, Nisus obtained Megaiis as his portion 
and founded Nisaea. Now, according to Philochorus,® 
Ins rule extended from the Isthmus to the P)thium,^ 
hut according to Andron,® only as far as Eleusis and 
the Thriasian Plain. Although different writers have 
stated the division into four parts in different ways, 
it suffices to take the following from Sophocles: 

^ Ihad 13. 685. ® See Vol. II, p. 346, notes 1 and 2, 

® Philochorus the Athenian (fl. about 300 b o.) wrote a 
work entitled Atthw^ in seventeen books Only fragments 
remain 

* To what Pythium Philochorus refers is uncertain, hut he 
seems to mean the temple of Pythian Apollo in the deme of 
Oenol, about twelve miles north-west of Eleusis ; or possibly 
the temple of Apollo which was situated between Eleusis and 
Athens on the site of the present monastery of DaphnI. 

® See foot-note on 10. 4. 6, 


247 



STRABO 


\a/3eiv* (prjal S' 6 Atyev^ij orc^ 6 irarTjp &pL<jev 
ipLol pev airekOelv eh dfcrd^^y rijaBe 7^9 TTpecr/Sela 
veLpia^* T(p S’ ai ^ Av/ctp 

Tov dvTLirXevpop k^ttov ^v^oia<i vepbel^ 

Nicrq) Se rrjv opavkov^ i^aipei ^Oova 
'StKeLpcovo<i aKTYj^Sy rrjf: Be 77}^ to 7r^o9 votov 
6 crfcX7jp6<; o5to9 kuI yLyavra^ ifcrpe(j>a)v 
etXrj^e IlaXXa?. 

ore pev oiv rj Meyaph rfj^ ^Arn/CT)^ pepo^ ?iv, 

TOVTOL^ ')^p6L)vrai reKprjpioi^, 

7. MfirA Se rrjv t&v ^Hpa/cXeth&v icddoBov fcaX 
TOV T^9 %C!>/3a9 pepiapov, utt’ avT&v teal t&v 
C 393 (XvyfcaTeXOovTmv avToh Acopcecov ifCTrecretv 

olfcelaf^ avve^Tj ttoXKov^ eh ttjv ^ATTHcrjVy &v Tfv 
real 6 T7]<; Meaa’rjvT]^; jSaacXev^ MeXavOo^^ o5ro9 
Se fcal T&v ^A6r)vaLcov i/SacriXeverev eKOVTcoVy 
vifiri<xaf; eV povopaj(Lm tov t&v ^oia>T&v ^aatXea 
Sdvdov, €vavSpov<T7)<; Be t^9 ^Attikyj^} Sid tov<; 
(f)vydBa^y ^ojSrjdevTe^ oi ^Hpa/cXeiBai, irapo^v- 
vovTcov ^ avTOU9 paXidTa t&v ev ^opLv6(p kul t&v 
iv Meo’a'ijvrjy t&v pev Bid t7)v yeirviaaiv, t&v Be, 
oTi K(5Spo9 T'f)<} ^Atti/ct]^ e^aaLXeve tots 6 tov 
M eXdvdov Trahy ia-TpdTeuaav iirl ttjv ^Attiki^v 

^ In the unmetncal 6 irar^p Av/cy Strabo interweaves 
his own words with those of the poet Jones conjectures 
that the poet wrote as follows • 

i}iol fi€j/ &pt(r€v TTarijp aKrks fjt,oKeTvy 

TTpecr^sia veipkas r^erde yrjs 5* AvKtp 
ktX. 

For Meineke’s conj (followed by Nauck, Frag. 872) see 
Vtnd, Strah p, 129. 



GEOGRAPHY, 9, r. 6-7 

Aegeus says that his father ordered him to depart to 
the shore-lands, assigning to him as the eldest the 
best portion of this land ; then to Lycus ^^he assigns 
Euboea's gaiden that lies side by side theiewith; 
and for Nisus he selects the neighbouring land of 
Sceiron's shore ; and the southerly part of the land 
fell to this rugged Pallas, breedei of giants ” ^ These, 
then, are the proofs which writers use to show that 
Megaris was a part of Attica 

7 . But after the return of the Heracleidae and the 
partitioning of the country, it came to pass that many 
of the former inhabitants were driven out of then 
home-lands into Attica by the Heracleidae and the 
Dorians who came back with them Among these 
was Melanthus, the king of Messen6 And he 
reigned also over the Athenians, by their consent, 
after his victory in single combat over Xanthus, the 
king of the Boeotians. But since Attica was now 
populous on account of the exiles, the Heracleidae 
became frightened, and at the instigation chiefly of 
the people of Corinth and the people of Messene — 
of the former because of their proximity and of the 
latter because Codrus, the son of Melanthus, was at 
that time king of Attica — they made an expedition 

^ Frag, 872 (Nauck), 


2 5’ o5, Jones inserts There is a lacuna in A with only 

the letter a before acghino have ry di Meineke 

reads [efrja 

® ye/ig?, Corais, for the letters /xcov being supplied by 

second hand in A So Memeke 

* *6fjLav\ov E, '6/iavdov A with hov -written above in second 
hand For other variants see C Muller’s Ind Var, Led. 
p 999. 

^ irapo^vv6vrm g, for vapo^vpayrup , so Corais and Meineke 

249 




STRABO 


fiTrii}0ivTe<; Se fidxv aXkr)<: i^iaTtjaav 

7^9, rrjv MeyapLKTjv Se Karkaxov /cal ttjv re iroXiv 
e/criaav ra M-k^apa /cal rov^ dvO pcorrovf; Aw/jiea? 
dvrl ^Icovcov iiroiTjcrav* i^^dvtaav Sk koX rtjv 
(TTijXrfv T7)v opL^ovcrav rov^ re ’Tot)m9 kuI rov^ 
TleXorrowrjcrLQv^, 

8. HoXXah Se /ckxpV'^cL^ pera/SoXat^ rj r&v 
Is/leyapkcdv rroXi^y avpLpbkpei S’ opco^ MXP^ 

€cr%e Se rrore /cal (j)iXo(T6(l>coi/ Biarpt/3d<; rSav 
7rpoa-ayop€V0kprci)v Meyapc/c&v, ^v/cXetSrjp ScaSe- 
^apkpcov, dpSpa ^(a/cparc/cov, Meyapka to ykvo^* 
/caOdirep /cal ^acBcova pep rov ’HX.eioz' oi ’HXed a/cot 
SceBi^apro, /cal rovrop ^co/cpariKov^ &p /cal 
Tlvppoyp, MepkBrjpop Be rov ^Eiperpika oi ' Eiperpi/coL, 
earc S’ rj %a)/>a rcop Meyapecop rrapdXviTpo^^^ 
Kaddrrep /cal rj ’Arr^/cif, Kal ro rrXkop avrri<i 
€7r6%€t ra KcCXovp£va ^'Oveia opr), pdx^^ *^^9 
pr}KPPopkv7} pep dirb r&p X/cecpcopiBcop nrerp&p 
irrl r^p ^occoriap /cal rop Kidatpoova, Bteipyovaa 
Se r^p Karh ^La-aiap OdXarrap aTTO rrj^ Kar[a rd^ 
na7a9],^ ^ AXkvoplBo^ rrpocrayopevopkpri^. 

9. Tipo/cei^rai S’ aTro Nteraw rrXeovrL eh rrjp 
^Arri/c^p rrepre p'>](Tla. elra %aXaph e^Boprj/covrd 
rrov craBicop oicra ro prj/cof;, oi S’ oyBoij/covrd 
<j>a<TLp' e')(ei S’ opdopvpop ttoXlp^ rrjp pep dpxcLVdP 
epYjpop iTpo<; Alyipap rerpappkprjp /cal tt/jo? porov 
[Kaddrrep Kal Ala^vXo<; etprjKep, 

Atytpa S’ avrr} rrpb^ porov Kelrai rrvod^), 
rrjp Be pvp iv KoXircp KeLpkprjp errl ^^eppoprjcroeiBov^; 

1 Karl^t, rhs na 7 cCs], laoima of about ten letters supplied by 
Kramer ; Memeke and others following A late hand in A 
writes /ccfT& Kpl(raVf and so kno and, by correction, B, 

250 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. i 7-9 

against Attica. But being defeated in battle they 
retired from the whole of the land except the 
Megarian territory ; this they occupied and not only 
founded the city Megara ^ but also made its popula- 
tion Dorians instead of lomans. And they also 
destroyed the pillar which was the boundary between 
the lonians and the Peloponnesians. 

8. The city of the Megarians has experienced 
many changes, but nevertheless it has endured until 
the present time. It once even had schools of 
philosophers who were called the Megarian sect, 
these being the successors of Eucleides, the Socratic 
philosopher, a Megarian by birth, just as the Eleian 
sect, to which Pyrrhon belonged, were the successors 
of Phaedon the Eleian, who was also a Socratic 
philosopher, and just as the Eretnan sect were the 
successois of Menedemus the Eretnan. The country 
of the Megarians, like Attica, has rather poor soil, 
and the greater part of it is occupied by the 
Oneian Mountains, as they are called — a kind of 
ridge, which extends from the Sceironian Rocks to 
Boeotia and Cithaeron, and separates the sea at 
Nisaea from the Alcyonian Sea, as it is called, at 
Pagae 

9 On the voyage from Nisaea to Attica one 
comes to five small islands Then to Salamis, which 
is about seventy stadia in length, though |pnie say 
eighty. It contains a city of the same name , the 
ancient city, now deserted, faces towards Aegina 
and the south wind (just as Aeschylus has said, 
And Aegina here lies towards the blasts of the 
south wind’'),2 but the city of to-day is situated on a 

1 Cf 8. 1. 2 
® Frag, 404 (Nauck). 

251 



STRABO 


Toirov (jvvdiTTOVTO<; Trpo? r7)v ^KrTLKrjv, ifcaXelro 
S’ iripoL^ ovofiaat to TraXaiov* fcal yap XKtpd<s 
Kal Kvp^joeta diro Ttvcov ^pdxov, d<p^ o5 p,ev 'A07}va 
T6 Xiyerai Xfcipd<? teal T07ro9 X/cipa iv rfj ^ArTtfcrj 
Kal iirl XKLpcp ^ iepOTToda Ti9 Kal 6 pLrjv 6 XKipo^ 
^opicov' d(j}^ ov Se^ Kal Kvxpdhrjf; 0(/)i9, ov (fujcriv 
"Ho'toSo 9 rpatpevra vTro Kv^pem e^eXaOrjvai vtto 
E vpvXoxoVj^ Xvfxaivopevov rr^v v^aovy virohe^acrdai 
Be avrov ttjv Ai^pbrjrpav €t 9 ^EXavalva Kal yevkaSai 
TavTT)^ djJL(f>L7roXov, aiVopdaBrj Se Kal Uirvovacra 
diro Tov (pvTOV* i7n<j)avr)<i Be ^ V7}(ro<; virrjp^e Bid 
re Toiff; AlaKLBa^ eirdp^avra^ ^ avr?)^, Kal pbdXiara 
Bi AXavra rov TeXapbooviov^ teal Bid to Trepl r^v 
vrjtTov ravTTjv Karavav/jbaxv^V^ai "Sep^riv vrro r&v 
^EXXrjVcov Kal (^vyelv eU ttjv olxeiav, (Twairi- 
Xavaav Be koX Alyivijrai t% Trepl rov dy&va 
toStov 80 ^ 979 , yeLrove<i re opre^ Kal vavrtKov 
d^toXoyov rrapaaxop^vcL, EdKapo^ 8 ’ ecrrlv iv 
XaXajuvi ^ 7roTa/i09, 0 vvv EioKaXia KaXovpievo^. 

10. Kal vvv pev exovaiv 'Adrjvatoc rrjv vrja-ov, 
TO Be TtaXaiov Trpo^ Meyapea^ vTrrfp^ev avrol^ 
€pi<s Trepl aoT^ 9 ' Kav (pacriv ol pev Ueiaiarparov, 

^ iirl %Klpepf Kramer and later editors, follo^^ing gl and 
man sec in A {iTri<rKipq))f for 47nirKelp(p A, imcrKipwcriy no, 
eiriffKlpaffts 0 man, sec, , %ti 'Znlpa. Oorais. 

® 8e, Corais, for 5^ , so the later editors. 

® Evpv\dxov, Tzschucke, for EvpdKXov 

* iirdp^avras, Meineke, from conj of Corais and Kramer, for 
^Trdp^avras, 

® 'Za\apujfi, the editors (from Eustathius, note on Iliad 
2 637), for ^EK^va-lyi, 

252 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. i. 9-10 

gulf, on a penmsula-like place which bordeis on 
Attica. In early times it was called by different 
names, for example, " Sciras ” and Cychreia,” after 
certain heioes. It is from one^ of these heroes that 
Athena is called Sciras/’ and that a place in Attica 
is called Scira/’ and that a certain sacred rite^ is 
performed in honour of “ Scirus,” ^ and that one of 
the months is called Scirophorion ” And it is 
from the othei heio that the serpent Cychreides ” 
took its name — the serpent which, according to 
Hesiod, was fostered by Cychreus and driven out by 
Euiylochus because it was damaging the island, and 
was welcomed to Eleusis by Demeter and made her 
attendant And the island was also called Pityussa, 
from the tree ® But the fame of the island is due to 
the Aiacidae, who ruled over it, and particularly to 
Alas, the son of Telamon, and also to the fact that 
near this island Xerxes was defeated by the Greeks 
in a naval battle and fled to his home-land. And 
the Aegmetans also shared in the glory of this 
struggle, since they were neighbours and furnished 
a considerable fleet And there is in Salamis a river 
Bocarus, which is now called Bocalia 

10 , At the present time the island is held by the 
Athenians, although in eaily times there was stnfe 
between them and the Meganans for its pos- 
session Some say that it was Peisistratus, others 

^ Scirus 

® Scirus founded the ancient sanctuary of Athena Sciras at 
Phalerum After his death the Eleusinians buried him 
between Athens and Eleusis at a place which in hxs honour 
they called Scira,” or, according to Pausanias (1. 36. 4 ^ 
and others, Scirum ’* 

® “Pitys,” ** pine-tree/’ 


253 



STRABO 


oi Se X6\(*)va 7rapeyypd\(ravTa iv Newv 

K.ara\6y(p fjLerd to Itto? toSto, 

Al'a? S’ ifc ^aXajMlvo^ ayev BvofcabBe/ca V7]a<;, 

toOto, 

(TTYjore S’ dycdVi iv 'AOrjvaicov laravro ^oKayye^, 

fjbdpTVpL 'X^p^jGraaBai ’Troi'qry rov rijv vrjorov 
dpx^l^ ^AdrjvaLcov virdp^au ov •7rapaBe‘)(pvTai Be 
TOV&* oi KpiTtfCol Bid TO TTOXXd T&V STr&V aVTl” 
paprvpelv avroi^. Bid ri ydp vavXo'x&v 6 cr%«T 09 
(paiverai 6 A?a9, ov per ^Adrjvaicopy dXXd perd 
TO)v V7TO UpcoreaiXdq) ®eTTaXS>p ; 

evd* eaav Atavro^ re vee<; teal Tlp(Y>recnXdov' 
fcai iv rfj ^^rmrooiXricFei 6 ^ Ayapepvcov 

evp* viov nerewo VLeveaQ^a tiXtiI^itcttov 
k(rra]6r^ dp<f)l S’ ^ AOrjvaloi, pTjarcope^ dvrrj<^, 
avrdp 6 7rXrj(riov icrrijKei ^oXvpr)ri<i ’OSi/crcrei;?, 
Trap Be K6(paXX7]vcov dp<^l arix^^* 

irrl Be rov Atavra koX rov<i '^aXapiviov^ iraXiv, 
^X$e S’ eV’ Aldvreaui' 
teal irap avrov^ 

^lBopevev<; S’ erepcodev, 

ov Meveerdev^i, oi pev Bf] ^Adrjvaioi roiavrrjv rivd 
(TKi^'^Jraadai ^ paprvpiav Trap ^Op'^pov Bokovctlv, 
oi Be M-eyapeh dvr lira p^Brjcrai ovra)<:* 

Ala^ S’ e/c ^aXapivo 9 dyev vea^, e/c re HoXixvoj^ 
e/c r Aiyeipovcrcr7]<; 'Nio'air]^ re TpiirdBcov re* 

254 



GEOGRAPHY, 9 i. lo 

Solon, who inserted m the Catalogue of Ships imme- 
diately after the verse, and Aias brought twelve 
ships fiom Salamis,*' ^ the verse, ‘^^and, bringing 

them, halted them where the battalions of the 
Athenians were stationed,’* and then used the 
poet as a witness that the island had belonged to 
the Athenians from the beginning But the ciitics 
do not accept this intei pi*etation, because many of 
the verses bear witness to the contrary For why 
IS Aias found in the last place m the ship-camp, not 
with the Athenians, but with the Thessalians under 
Protesilaus ^ where were the ships of Aias and 
Protesilaus.” ^ And m the FzsdahoJi of the troops, 
Agamemnon found Menestheus the charioteer, son 
of Peteos, standing still; and about him were the 
Athenians, masters of the battle-cry And near by 
stood Odysseus of many wiles, and about him, at his 
side, the lanks of the Cephallemans.” ^ And back 
again to Aias and the Salaminians, he came to 
the Aiantes,” ^ and near them, Idomeneus on the 
other side,” ® not Menestheus. The Athenians, 

then, are reputed to have cited alleged testimony 
of this kind from Homer, and the Meganans to have 
replied with the following parody : Aias brought 
ships from Salamis, from Polichne, from Aegeirussa, 
from Nisaea, and from Tripodes *’ ; these four are 

1 Iliad 2. 557 2 Ihad 13. 681. 

® mad 4. 327 * Iliad 4. 273. 

s Il%ad 3. 230. 


^ Thus Ih supplies the lacuna 111 A. 

® Xp^aaffdai no. 


255 



STRABO 


a icTTi XCi>pici yieyapLfcd, S>v ot TpiTroSe^ Tpiwo- 
hLdiciov XiyovraL, icaff o ^ vvv dyopa t&p Me- 
ydpcov fcelraL* 

C 395 11 Ttvh S’ diro rov r^v lepeiav IloXiaSo? 

^AQrjvd^ XKoipov Tupov, rov puev iirtxcopLov 
dirrecrdai,, ^evitcov Be povov TTpoa-cpipeaffai, 
XP^crOai Be /cal ^aXapivitp, ^evTjv ^aal 
ATrLKrj^ rrjv XaXapXva* ov/c eS* /cal yap top diro 
T&p dWcop PTjcrwp T&p opoXoyovpevco^ tt) 'Attl/ctj 
TTpoax^/pcop TTpocT/pipeTac, ^spl/cop irdpTa top 
BiaTTOPTLov poTjcrdpTcop T&p dp^dpTcop Tov edoyf; 
TovTov. eol/ce Be to TrdXaiov rj pvv 'S^aXapU fcaO* 
avTrjp TdTT€(T0ai, Ta Be Miyapa ^Atti/ct]^ 
vTrdp^ai pepo<;. ip Be Tjj TrapaXia ty) /caTa 
XaXaptpa /celadat avfjb^alpeL Td opia re 

yieyapL/cYi<i /cal tj}? ^AtOLBo^^ opr) Bvo, a /caXovai 
Kepara. 

12. EZr’ ’EX€t/<rt9 ^ iv j} to Arjprj- 

T/)£?9 lepop T^9 ^EXev€nvLa<ii Kal 6 pv(TTiKo<; 
o-7}/c6^3 op /caTecr/cevaaev ^1 /ctIpo<;, o^Xop dedTpov 
Be^aaOai Bvpdpepop, 09 /cal top TLapOep&pa 
eTTOiTjo-e TOP ip dKpoiroXei Ty *Adypa, ILepL/cXiov<; 
iiriTTaTodpTO^ t&p epycop* ip Be Tocf; Bypoi^s 
KaTapcd peiTac y 7r6Xi<;, 

13. Elra TO ©pidaiop ireBLov /cal op&pvpo^ 
alytaXo^ /cal Bypo^;* el0* y aKpa y Ap(pidXy Kal 
TO vTTepKeLpepop XaTopioP, Kal 6 eh %aXaplpa 
7rop0po<: ocTOP BLCTTdBiQf;, Bp Bia^opp iireipaTO 

^ ’EXeuoris gh, Corais, and Meineke, for ^ZXevalv 


256 


^ Attica. 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. r. 10-13 

Megaiidn places, and, of these, Tiipodes is called 
Tripodiscium, near which the piesent market-place 
of the Megarians is situated 

11 Some say that Salamis is foreign to Attica, 
citing the fact that the priestess of Athena Pohas 
does not touch the fresh cheese made in Attica, but 
eats only that which is brought from a foreign 
country, yet uses, among others, that from Salamis 
Wrongly, for she eats cheese bi ought from the other 
islands that are admittedly attached to Attica, 
since those who began this custom consideied as 

foreign ” any cheese that was imported by sea. 
But it seems that m eaily times the piesent Salamis 
was a separate state, and that Megara was a part of 
Attica And it is on the seaboard opposite Salamis 
that the boundaries between the Megarian country 
and Atthis ^ are situated — two mountains which are 
called Ceiata^ 

12 Then one comes to the city Eleusis, in which 
is the temple of the Eleusmian Denieter, and the 
mystic chapel which was built by Ictinus, a chapel 
which is large enough to admit a crowd of spectators. 
This Ictinus also built the Parthenon on the Acro- 
polis in honour of Athena, Pericles superintending 
the work Eleusis is numbered among the demes. 

13 . Then one comes to the Thnasian Plain, and 
the shore and deme bearing the same name Then 
to Cape Amphial^ and the quarry that lies above it, 
and to the passage to Salamis, about two stadia 
wide, across which Xerxes attempted to build a 

* “Homs ” Two horn-shaped peaks of a south-western 
spur of Cithaeron, and still called Kerata-Pyrgos or Kerato- 
piko (Forbiger, Handbuch d&r alien Geographies 111 . 63 
not© 97). 


vou IV 


s 


257 



STRABO 


36 / 3 ^^ 79 , e^iOr} Be ^ vav/juax^cc yevofjLevrj kuI <f>vyr} 
rS>v ILepa&v. evravOa Be fca\ ai ^apfJbaKov(T<Taii 
Bvo vrjcTLa, Siv ev t& pei^ovt K[pKi]<; rdcpo^ 
BeL/cpvrai. 

14. 'TTrep Be t^ 9 a/crij? ravrrj^; opo<i eariv, o 
fcaXeirat }LopvBaW6<;, fcal 6 Bt^julo^ oi Kopt/SaX- 
Xet9* eW^ 6 4>copft)z/ Xip^^v xal r) ’^VTraXLa, vrjaiov 
epripov irerpSyBe^, o Tive<; etnov XTjfirjv ^ rov 
Il€ipai&<;* TfKrjaLov Be /cal fj ^ArakdvTYj, 6pcovvpLo<} 
rfj Trepl Eij^OLav teal Ao/epom, teal aWo vtjctlov, 
op^otov T ?7 “^yrraXLe^ teal rovro* el0* 6 Hetpatev^i, 
teal avTOf$ ev T 0 Z 9 Bripoi<; rar^opevo^;, teal r} 
yiovvv'xjia. 

15. Ao(^09 S’ icrrlv 7] M,ovvvx^ct 'xeppovr^aLa^cov 
teal /C 0 ZX 09 teal vTTovopo^ ttoXv pipo<i (pvaec re kuI 
eTrirTjBe^, Aar oiKifjcrei^ Be'xeardai, erropiep Be 
ptfcp^ T7}v etaoBov e%o)z^* itTroTTLirr overt 8* avr^ 
Xtpevee; rpeh, to pev odv iraXaiov eTeTeL')(t(rTO 
teal crwcptcicrro ^ yiovvv'xta TTapa7rXr)<ria)<i, wcrirep 
7] T&v ^VoBLcov TToXt^f 7rpoaeiXr)(f>vta tm Tvepi^oXto 
Tov re TLetpatd teal Toi /9 Xipeva^ TrXrjpei^ vecopLcov, 
ev oh teal 77 orrXodtjter), <^lXwvo(; epyov' d^tov re 

* \flfi7iv, Corais, for KifL^va (but letters eVa wntten in man, 
sec in A) ; so the later editors 


^ So Ctesias, Persica^ 26, but in the account of Herodotus 
(8. 97) it was after the naval battle that *‘he attempted to 
build a mole ” In either case it is very improbable that he 
made a serious attempt to do so See Smith and Laird, Kero- 
dottiSf Books vii and viii, p 381 (American Book Co ), note on 

X^iia, 

® Now called Lipsokutdli (see Frazer, note on Pausanias 
1. 36. 2) 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. i. 13-15 

mole,^ but was forestalled by the naval battle and 
the flight of the Persians. Here, too, are the 
Pharmacussae, two small islands, on the laiger of 
which is to be seen the tomb of Circ^. 

14 Above this shore is the mountain called 
Corydallus, and also the deme Corydalleis Then 
one comes to the harbour Phoron, and to Psyttalia,^ 
a small, deserted, rocky island, which some have 
called the eye-sore of the Peiraeus. And near by, 
too, is Atalanta, which bears the same name as the 
island near Euboea and the Locnans, and another 
island similar to Psyttalia. Then one comes to the 
Peiraeus, which also is classed among the d ernes, 
and to Munychia. 

15. Munychia is a hill which foims a peninsula; 
and it is hollowed out and undei mined® m many 
places, partly by nature and partly by the purpose 
of man, so that it admits of dwellings, and the 
entrance to it is by means of a nai row opening ^ 
And beneath the hill lie three harbours. Now in 
early times Munychia was walled, and covered with 
habitations in a manner similar to the city of the 
Rhodians,® including within the circuit of its walls 
both the Peiiaeus and the harbours, which weie 
full of ship-houses, among which was the arsenal, 
the work of Pinion And the naval station was 

® Probably in part the result of quarrying, for numeious 
traces of quarries are visible on these hills at the present 
day ” (Tozer, Selections, p 228) 

% e the entrance by way of the narrow isthmus. 

® ‘ With broad straight streets, the houses of which rose 
one above another like the seats of a theatre Under the 
auspices of Pericles, Peiraeus was laid out by the famous 
architect, Hippodamus of Miletus who afterwards built the 
city of Rhodes’* (Tozer, lx ). 


s 2 


259 



STRABO 


vavcrraOfjLOV ral^ rerpaKoaLai^ vavaiv, &v 
ovK i\dTTOV<i e<Tr€Wov 'AdrjpaLoi Be T€t%6t 
TovTfp crvvt^TTTe rd KadetXKVcriikva ifc rod d<T7eo<; 
(TfciXi]* ravra S’ fjv (jua/cpa reLxv» Terrapdfcopra 
araBicov to fjbrjKOfSt avvdirrovra to darv tw 
Heipaieu oi Be TroXkol iroXepbOL to Tet;)^09 fcaWj- 
396 pei-^av fcal to Trj<; Movvvx^ia^ epy/nUi tov re JJeipaid 
auviaretXav €69 oXLyrjv fcarotKiav, Tr)v trepl rov^ 
XcpLepa<i ical to lepbv rov Aib^ rov Scorijpo^ tov 
Be lepov Th puev <7TolBta €^€1 Trivatca^ davpLacTTOv^i 
epya t&v eirttpavoov Te)(virQ)V, to S’ vitaidpov 
dvBpidvTaf;, KaTeaTraaTai Be ical to, piaKpd 
TeL'Xpf}, KatceBatpLOvicov pev /cadeXovTcov TrpoTepov, 
^Pcopaicov S’ HcTTepov, r^vlKa XvXXa^ ix TToXiopKia^ 
elXe fcal top Ueipaia /cal to d<TTv. 

16. To S’ CLdTV avTo ireTpa iaTcv ip TreSi^ 
TrepiOLKOVfxevr) /cvKXtp* eirl Be t§ TreTpa to t^9 
'^Ady}va<i iepSv, 0 re dpX(tio<s peco^ 6 t^ 9 IIoX£aSo9, 
ep & 0 dcr/3€o-T0<i Xv^vo^s, /cal 6 UapOevcov, ov 
iTroir)<T€v ^l/cTtpo<;, ip S to tov ^€lBlov epyov 
iXecpdvTiPOP, rj ^A07]pd, dXXd yap €t9 7rX^0O9 

ipLTTLTTTCOP TWV TTCpl TYjS TTOXeCO^ TaVT7)<S VfJLVOV- 

pbipcop T€ /cal Bia^ocopievcop 6 kv& mrXeovd^eiv, prj 
avp^fj Trj<i irpoOeaew i/cireaelv t^v ypa(j>'^v, 
eireicri yap 0 cfirjcrip ^KyTjarCa^;* ** 6p& ttjp aKpoTroXiv 
/cal TO 7rep4TT^9 Tpiaivri^ iKeWi^ a-rjpLelov* 6pS> 
T^v ^PlXevcTLva^ /cal t&v lep&v yeyova \JLVCTr\v 

^ iKu$i, Meineke, for Ixet rt, C Muller approving 


^ 86 B c. 

® The Ereohthemm (see D’Ooge, Acropolis of Athens, 
Appendix lii), 

260 




GEOGRAPHY, 9 i. 15-16 

sufficient for the four hundred ships, for no fewer 
than this the Athenians were wont to despatch 
on expeditions With this wall were connected 
the legs ” that stretched down from the city ; 
these were the long walls, forty stadia in lengthy 
which connected the city wutli the Peiraeus. But 
the numerous wars caused the ruin of the wall and 
of the fortress of Munychia, and reduced the 
Peiraeus to a small settlement, round the harbours 
and the temple of Zeus Soter. The small roofed 
colonnades of the temple have admirable paintings, 
the works of famous artists , and its open court has 
statues The long walls, also, are torn down, having 
been destroyed at first by the Lacedaemonians, and 
later by the Romans, when Sulla took both the 
Peiraeus and the city by siege ^ 

16, The city itself is a rock situated in a plain and 
surrounded by dwellings. On the rock is the sacied 
precinct of Athena, comprising both the old temple 
of Athena Polias,^ in which is the lamp that is never 
quenched,® and the Parthenon built by Ictinus, in 
wffiicli is the work in ivory by Pheidias, the Athena, 
However, if I once began to describe the multitude 
of things in this city that are lauded and proclaimed 
far and wide, 1 fear that I should go too far, and 
that my wmrk would depart from the purpose I have 
in view For the words of Hegesias^ occur to me: 

1 see the acropolis, and the mark of the huge 
trident ^ there. I see Eleusis, and I have become 
an initiate into its sacred mysteries , yonder is the 

® Cp Pausanias 1 26 7, 

^ Hegesias of Magnesia (fl about 250 B c ) wrote a History 
of A lexaMer the Great. Only fragments remain, 

® In the rook of the well in the Erechtheium. 


261 



STRABO 


ifcelvo AecoKopLOV, tovto ©rjcreiov' ov hvvafxai 
SrjX&crai KaO^ eKacrrov* rj yap ^Attikt) Oe&v 
avToU ^ [repLevo^ KaraXa^ovrcov Kal t&v nrpo- 
yovcov rjpcocop iari oSto? piev ovv ivb<; 

ipbV 7 ]crdr) r&v iv a/cpoTToXec (Tr]pL€LQ}p* UoXipLcov S* 
6 7r€pc7]y7]T7j<i rerrapa fSt^XLa a-vveypa'^e mpl 
avadrjpidTcov r&v iv dfcpoTToXei* to S’ avd- 
Xoyov crvpL^aivet /cal iwl r&v aXXcov rij? rroXem 
pL€p&v /cal ')(^copa<;' *EX€v<rtvd re gIttoov eva 
r&v e/carov e^hopLi^/covra ZrjpLcoVy 7rpo<? Be /cal 
rerrdpeov, &<; (fiacriv, ovBeva r&v dXXcov &v6pba/c6v, 

17. ''E^oi^o-^ Be, /cdv et pur} irdvre^, ol ye rroXXol 
pbvOoiToda^ /cal i<rropLa<;‘ /caSdirep 'A(j>LBva 

fiev r7)v T ?)9 'E\€J/^9 dpirayrjv viro @i;a'€C09 /cal 
r^v vTTo r&v ALO/covpoav i/CTropdTjacv avrfjf; /cal 
dva/copiiSr)v t^9 dB6X<j>^<;, MapaO&v Be rov 
Kov ay&va* ^Vapvov<i Be to t^9 Nepiecreco^ ^oavov, 
0 rive<; pev AioBorov (jyaalv epyov, rtv€<i Be 'Ayopa- 
/cpLrov rov TlapLov, /cal peyWei /cal /cdXXet 
a(f)6Bpa /carcdpdcopivov Kal ivdpiXXov toc9 ^eiBiov 
ep70i9. ovro) Be Kal AexeXeca piv, ro opprjr'i^piov 
r&v UeXoTTovvrjaCwv Kara rov AeKeXeiKov TroXe- 
pov, ^vX^ Se, 00 ev iinjyaye rov Brjpov ®pacTV- 
^ovXo<; eh TleLpaid, KcuKeWev eh darv, ovrco Be 
Kal ctt’ aXXcov TrXecovcov iarlv icrropelv rroXXd, 

^ avrciis, Jones, for abrois, from conj of Memeke. 

* [reVevoj], Jones, from conj of Professor Capps, inserts in 
lacuna of about eight letters in A , r6irov g man sec , Mo ; 
tV oonj Kramer ; Y5/?ufta conj Memeke, 

262 



GEOGRAPHY, 9 i. 16-17 


Leoconum, here is the Theseium ; I am unable to 
point them all out one by one ; for Attica is the 
possession of the gods, who seized it as a sanctuary 
for themselves, and of the ancestral heioes '' So this 
writer mentioned only one of the significant things 
on the acropolis ; but Polemon the Periegete ^ wrote 
four books on the dedicatory offenngs on the 
acropolis alone Hegesias is proportionately brief in 
referring to the other parts of the city and to the 
country , and though he mentions Eleusis, one of 
the one hundred and seventy demes (or one hundred 
and seventy-four, as the number is given), he names 
none of the others. 

17. Most of the demes, if not all, have numerous 
stories of a character both mythical and historical 
connected with them; Aphidna, foi example, has 
the rape of Helen by Theseus, the sacking of 
the place by the Dioscuri and their recovery 
of then sister; Maiathon has the Persian battle; 
Rhainnus has the statue of Nemesis, which by 
some IS called the work of Diodotus and by others 
of Agoracntus the Parian, a work which both in 
grandeur and in beauty is a great success and rivals 
the woiks of Pheidias ; and so with Deceleia, the 
base of operations of the Peloponnesians in the 
Deceleian War, and Phyl6, whence Thrasybulus 
brought the popular party back to the Peiraeus and 
then to the city And so, also, in the case of several 
other demes there are many historical incidents to 

* A Periegete” was a “Beacnber” of geographical and 
topographical details 


® iffrl Krrifia B , lacuna of about eleven letteis m A ; 
Memeke conj iffrlv i€p6v, 

263 



STRABO 


fcaX STL ^ TO Aecofcopiov /cal to &7](T6lov jj/udov^ ^ 
€^€1 /cal TO Av/cetoVj /cal to 'OXvfMTrc/cov ([ecrr^ Se 
TavT^o^ TO ^OXvfMTnov), oirep rjfjLiTeXh KaTekiTce 
TeX^vT&v 6 avadel^ jSacTLkev^;* 6fMoi(o<; 8e /cal ^ 
^A/caSrjfiba, /cal ol /crjiTOb t&v (^/Xoao/pcoVi /cal to 
^S lSecov, /cal ^ Hol/clXt) cTTod, /cal tcl iepa t^ h 
Trj Tr6\\eb davpacTTa^] e^ovTa T€xvbT&v epya* 
0397 18. no\i» S’ av ttXucov etr) X0709, el tov^ 

dp')(7]yiTa<s tov /CTicrpaTO^ i^eTci^ob Ti9, ap^dp6V0<; 
diro Ke/c/)07ro9* ovhe yap opoLco^ Xiyovatv airaPT€<;, 
TOVTO Be /cal aTro t&v ovopaTOov BrjXov^ ^A/cti/c^v 
pev yap diro ^ AKTaLcovo^ cfyaa-bv, ^ATdLBa Be /cal 
^ATTb/cr)V aTTO ’At0/So9 t^9 TS^pavaov, dcf> ou Kal 
Kpavaol ol evoi/coi, Mo^jroTrbav Be diro Mo'i^ottou, 
^loaviav Be diro ''loavo^ tov Sovdov, UoaebBoiviav 
Be /cal ^Adrjva<^ diro t&v iTrcovvpcov de&v, etprjTab 
S’ OTb KavTavda (paiveTab to t&v ILeXaay&v eOvo^ 
eTTiByjpricxav, /cal oioTb vtto t&v ^Attc/c&v tleXapyol 
TTpocTTjyopevOrjcrav Bbd Tr)v nrXdv'qv* 

19 . ^*0(Tcp Be TrXeov etrrl to (fxXeiBi') pov ® irepl 
Th evBo^a /cal 7rXetov9 oi XaXrjo-avTe^i Tb nrepl 
avT&v, Toa&Be pei^cov 6 eXe7;^09, idv pt) KpaTfj Tb^ 
T^9 icTTopLa^* olov ev Tjj 'Evvaycoyy t&v iroTap&v 
6 ^aXXipca’XP^ yeXdv (f)r}<Tbv, el ti^ dappel ypd<p€iv 
Ta9 T&v ^Adrjvaicov nrapdevov^; 

^ I’r/, Memeke, for ets. 

® ©jjfcreioy /i{fQo]vs, lacuna of about nine letters in A supplied 
by Groskurd 

5 [lo-Tt §€ Tax>r]6, lacuna of about ten letters supplied by 
Groskurd. So Muller-Dubner 
* dav/iaard], lacuna in A of about ten letters supplied 

by hi , so Muller-Dubnei awavra no , irAeio-ra Memeke. 

® <p.XGLd7ifio^f Jones, following Xylander, for (I>i\6B7}}J‘Ov (cp. 
<tnK€l^7}}jLov in 1 1 23 and 1 2 28) , others read <^i\6ri{j.ov, 
264 



GEOGRAPHY, 9 i. 17-19 


tell , and, further, the Leoconum and the Theseium 
have myths connected with them, and so has the 
Lycemm, and the Olympicum (the Olympmm is the 
same thing), which the lang^ who dedicated it left 
half finished at his death And in like manner also 
the Academia, and the gardens of the philosopheis, 
and the Odeium, and the colonnade called Poecile,” ^ 
and the temples in the city containing veiy many 
marvellous works of different artists. 

18 The account would be much longer if one 
should pass m review the early founders of the settle- 
ment, beginning with Cecrops ; for all writeis do not 
agree about them, as is shown even by the names 
For instance, Actic6, they say, was derived from 
Actaeon; and Atthis and Attica from Atthis, the 
son of Cranaus, after wliom the inhabitants were also 
called Cranai ; and Mopsopia from Mopsopus , and 
Ionia fiom Ion, the son of Xuthus; and Poseidoma and 
Athens fiom the gods after whom they were named. 
And, as has already been said,® the race of the 
Pelasgi clearly sojourned here too, and on account 
of their wanderings were called Pelargi.” ^ 

1 9. The gi’eater men's fondness for learning about 
things that are famous and the gi’eater the number 
of men who have talked about them, the greater the 
censure, if one is not master of the historical facts 
For example, in his Collection of the Biveis, Calli- 
machus says that it makes him laugh if anyone 
makes bold to write that the Athenian virgins 

^ Antiochus Epiphanes, of the Seleucid Dynasty (reigned 
175-164 B c ). See Frazer, note on Pansanias 1, 18 6. 

2 “Van-coloured.” The painting was done by Polygnotus, 
about the middle of the fifth century b c. 

® 5. 2. 4 * IX, “Storks” (see 5 2 4). 


265 



STRABO 


a<j>v(Tcre(T0at fcaOapov ydvo<i ^HpiSavolo, 

ou KoX ra ^oor/c^pbara cbTroaxoiT av, elcrl pev vvv 
ai TTTjyal fcaOapov koX Troripov vBaro^, w? (j^aacv, 
e/cT 09 T&v Abox^pov^ xaXovpipcov TrvXa>v, TrXrjaiov 
Tov Avfceiov irporepov Be /cal /cpTjvr) /career /cevacrjo 
Tt<; rrXrjcrLov rroXXov /cal /caXov vBaro<i' el Be pi) 
vvvy TL &v eir) davpaarov, el rrdXai ttoXv /cal 
Kadapov TjVy &<Tre /cal rroripov^ ehai, pere^aXe 
Be vorrepov ; ev pev odp toc 9 /ca0^ e/caara, roaov- 
TOi 9 ovaiVy ov/c evBex^rai BiarpllSeiv, ov prjv ovBe 
(TLyfj rrapeXdelv, &are yW^S’ ip /C€cf>aXaL(p pprjadrjpaL 

Tipmp. 

20 . HocravT ovp clttoxPV rrpoad'qcreLpy^ on ^Y)al 
^tX6xopo<; rropdovpeprj^; X^P^^ 9aXdrry)<; 
pep vrro ILapSiPy etc yr)<i Be viro l^oicorcoPy 0&9 
i/cdXovp ''Aopa<;, KeKpowa rrp&Tov eh ScoSe/ca 
7r6X€i<f avpoi/cLcrac to rrXrjdo^y &v ovopara Ke/c/oo- 
rria, T€T/)a7roX49, ^Kira/cptay Ae/ceXeca, ’EXet'o't?, 
''A^iBpa (Xeyovarc Be /cal rrXrjdvvnKS)^ ^A(j>LSva^)t 
®6pt/co<;, Bpavpdop, Ko^r^/jo?, K€(]f>io-£a® 

rrdXip K verrepop eh pLap itoXlp crvvayayelv Xeye- 
rai r7)v pvv ra^ BwBeKa @?7creu9. e^aaiXevovro 
pep OVP ^ *A97)valoi rrporepov, elr eh Bqpo/cpartav 

^ TrSrifioVf Xy lander, for ir6rafiotf , so the later editors. 

® TTpocrd'nff^tPy Corais and Meineke emend to irpoffBuciv 

® After Ke((>t(rtd 3Jcno add ^a\7ip6s , Pletho, 'Adijvau There 
IS no sign of a lacuna in any MS. 

* After oZv Memeke inserts ot 

1 Authorship unknown (see Schneider, CalhTmcheay Fmg 
100 e), 

2 On the different views as to the position and course of the 
Eridanus at Athens, see Frazer, note on Pausanias 1 19. 5. 

266 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. i. 19-20 


draw pure liquid from the Eridanus,” ^ fiom which 
even cattle would hold aloof Its sources are indeed 
existent now, with pure and potable water^ as they 
say, outside the Gates of Diochares, as they are 
called, near the Lyceium ; ^ but in earlier times 
there was also a fountain near by which was con- 
structed by man, with abundant and excellent 
water , and even if the water is not so now, why 
should it be a thing to wonder at, if in early times 
the water was abundant and pure, and therefore 
also potable, but in later times underwent a change ? 
However, it is not permitted me to linger over 
details, since they are so numerous, nor yet, on the 
other hand, to pass by them all m silence without 
even mentioning one or another of them in a 
summary way. 

20. It suffices, then, to add thus much : According 
to Philochorus, when the country was being devas- 
tated, both fioin the sea by the Carians, and from 
the land by the Boeotians, who were called Aomans, 
Cecrops first settled the multitude in twelve cities, 
the names of which were Cecropia, Tetrapolis, 
Epaciia, Deceleia, Eleusis, Aphidna (also called 
Aphidnae, m the plural), Thoncus, Brauron, Cy- 
therus, Sphettus, Cephisia.^ And at a later time 
Theseus is said to have united the twelve into one 
city, that of to-day Now in earlier times the 
Athenians were ruled by kings , and then they 

® Thus only eleven names are given in the most important 
MSS., though Phalerus” appears after ** Cephisia” in some 
(see critical note on opposite page). But it seems best to 
assume that Strabo either actually included Athens 111 his 
list or left us to infer that he meant Athens as one of the 
twelve. 


267 



STRABO 


IMeretTTrjcrav* rvpdvvcov S* i'jrcdefjLivcov avroi^^ 
HeiCLCTTpdrov KoX t&v jratScov, vcrrepov re oXtyap- 
%ta9 y€Vop.€V7]<;i T^9 T€ T&p Terpa/cocTLCdv Kal tqJ? 
r&v rped/covra rvpdvvcov, 01)9 irricrrrjaav AaiceSai- 
fiovLOt, TOVTOU 9 fiev hieKpovcravro paSt 609 , i(f>v\a^av 

Se rr}v hr^fioKpariav piixP^ ^Vcopiaicov eiritcpa’ 
C 398 Te/a9. fcal yap el ri pucfcpov vtto r&v MafcehovtK&v 
jSacnXicov TrapeXvTrTjdrjcrav, &<j 0 ' viraKoveiv avr&v 
dvayfcacrdrjvai, rov ye oXocrx^pi) rvirov rfj<; rroXc- 
reLa<; rov avrov Sieryjpovv. evioi Se <f)a(Tt,, fcal 
^iXrtara Tore avrov<? iroXtrevcracrSai SetcaerYj 
Xpovov, hv XlatceSovcov K,d<TCTavSpo<;?’ ovro<; 
yap 6 dvrjp rrpog pL€V rd dXXa So/cei rvpavviK&re- 
po9 yevea-Oat, 7 rpo<} ^Adrjvaiov^ Se evyvcofiovTjae, 
Xa^Q)V vrrrjKOOv rr)v rroXiv* irrecrr^jcre yap r&v 
TToXcr&v ArjpLT^rpcov rov ^aXrjpia, r&v ®eo 4 >pd'- 
cTTov rov (f>tXo(r 6 <j)ov yvcopipLcov, 09 ov povov ov 
KareXvae rrjv SfjpoKpariav, dXXd real err'qvcopdcocre^ 
SrjXot Se rd VTropvtjpara, d crvveypa'y^e Trepl rrj^ 
rroXcreLa<; ra 1/7979 efcecvo^;, dXX ovreo^ 0 (^dQvo<^ 
Xeryvee icaX ^ 7 rpo 9 0X1701/9 direxS^^cc, &( 7 re perd 
r^v KacrcrdvSpov reXevrrjv '^vayicdadr) c^vyelv 
et9 Aiyvirrov* rd^ S’ eiKova^ avrov rrXeiov^; rj 
rptaKOCTiat; Karearracrav oi erravaerrdvre^ Kal 
Ararep^coz/ei/craj/, evioi Se /cal rrpocrrideacriv, ort Kal 
€69 dpiSaf;, ^Pcopaloi S’ oZv rrapaXa^ovre^ avrov<; 
Sr}pofcparovpevov<^, ej>vXa^av rrjv avrov opiav 
avroL<5 Kal rr^v iXevOepCav. imrrecr&v S’ 6 Mid pi- 
SariKOf; rroXepo^ rvpdvvov^ avroi<s Kariarrja-ev, 
0S9 0 0acriX6V9 e^ovXero* rov S* Icrxvcravra 
pdXicrrai rov ^Apicrricova, Kal ravrrfv ^lacrdpevov 
^ KdcrffavBpos, JoneB, for Kd/rctvZpos ; and so elsewhere. 

26^ 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. i. 20 

changed to a democracy ; but tyrants assailed them, 
Peisistratus and his sons, and later an oligarchy 
arose, not only that of the four bundled, but also that 
of the thirty tyrants, who were set over them by the 
Lacedaemonians , of these they easily rid themselves, 
and preserved the demociacy until the Roman con- 
quest. For even though the^^^ were molested for a 
short time by the Macedonian kings, and were even 
, forced to obey them, they at least kept the geneial 
type of their government the same And some say 
that they were actually best governed at that time, 
during the ten years when Cassander reigned over 
the Macedonians. For although this man is reputed 
to have been rather tyrannical m Ins dealings with 
all others, yet he was kindly disposed towards the 
Athenians, once he had reduced the city to sub- 
jection, for he placed over the citizens Demetrius 
of Phaleium, one of the disciples of Theophrastus 
the philosophei, who not only did not destioy the 
democracy hut even improved it, as is made clear 
in the Memoits which Demetrius wTote concerning 
this government. But the envy and hatred felt for 
oligarchy w^as so strong that, after the death of 
Cassander, Demetrius was foi ced to flee to Egypt , 
and the statues of him, more than three hundred, 
were pulled down by the insurgents and melted, 
and some writers go on to say that they were made 
into chamber-pots. Be that as it may, the Romans, 
seeing that the Athenians had a democratic govern- 
ment when they took them over, preserved their 
autonomy and liberty. But when the Mithridatic 
War came on, tyrants were placed over them, whom- 
ever the king wished. The most powerful of these, 
Aristion, who violently oppressed the city, was 

269 



STRABO 


rr)V TToXiv, i/c 7ro\iopfcia<; eXct)v 'ZvXXa^, 6 r&v 
'VcDfiaicov '>]y€ficov, ifcoXao-e, rff fie iroXeL a-vy- 
yvtitfxr^v eveLfie* /cal l^expc vvv iv iXevdepia re 
icTTL /cal ripbfj irapa to?9 ^VcopaLOi^i. 

21. Mera fie toi* Ileipaia ^aXr}p€t<i Brjpo^i iv 
TT) i<j>€^r]^ irapaXia' el0* ^AXipovatoi^ Ai^covel^t 
^AXaieh ^ oi Al^covi/col, 'Avayvpdaior elra 
&opaL€L^ ^ AapTTTpel^y^ AlyiXtet^i,^ ’AvacpXvcrriOLy 
*A^r]VLeh* ovToi pkv oi p6Xpi> T7;9 d/cpa^ rov Xov~ 
viov, pLera^v fie r&v Xe'xuivrcov S'/jfMCOv pa/cpd^ 
d/cpay Trp&T/if] perd roi? Al^covea<;, Zcoarrip* elr 
oXXt} perd ©opea?, * AcrTViraXaca, &v rij^ pev 
rrpo/ceirat vrj<TO<; ^d^pa, ri]<; fi’ ’EXeovcrera’ /cal 
/card rov<; Ai^a)via<; S* icrrlv ^TSpovo-aa* ire pi fie 
^ AvdcpXvarov iari /cal ro Tlavelov, Kal to t/}? 
KftjXiafio? ^ Ac^pohbTT}^ Upov, eh ov ronrov i/c/cv- 
pavdrjvab rd reXevraia rd eK rfj^ rrepl XaXaptva 
vavpa')(ia^ rrj^ Tlepai/cri<; vavdycd (f>acriy irepl &v 
Kal rov ’AttoXXo) TrpoecTvetv* 

KcoXtaSe? fie yvval/ce^ iperpobai <f>pv^ovai*^ 

TtpoKeLrai fie Kal rovrcov r&v roTrcov l^eX/Sbva 
VTjao^ ov rroXi) drrcodev Kal 6 HarpoKXov 
eprjpoc 8 ’ ai TrXeiarat rovrov, 

22. Kdp'yfravri fie rr}v Kara ro Xovviov aKpav 
d^LoXoyo^ Srjpo^ 'Xovviov, elra ©opiKo^;^ elra 

C 399 TLorapo^ hrjpo^ ovrco KoXovpevo^, oi/ oi 
avBpe^ Ilordpbotf elra Upaaia, Xreiptd, Bpao- 

^ ‘AXatets, Tzschucke, for ' AAeets , so the later editors. 

® elB* 'Ope^is A , el0’ 'Hpeets A man sec , , BE^Mo ; elra Qopeis 
Tzschuoke, Corais, Kramer , elra ©opaieis Meinelce 

AafxTtrpeis Kramer, for Aapcirpieis A (Aap^rrvpets 9nan. sec,), 
BEgJi!l7io ; so later editors. 

270 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. i. 20-22 

punished by Sulla the Roman commander when he 
took this city by siege, though he pardoned the city 
itself ; and to this day it is free and held in hoiioui 
among the Romans, 

21 After the Peiraeus comes the deme Phalereis, 
on the seaboard next to it; then Halimusii, Aex- 
oneis, Alaeeis, Aexonici, and Anagyrasii. Then 
Thoraeeis, Lamptreis, Aegilieis, Anaphlystii, Azenieis 
These are the demes as far as the cape of Sunium. 
Between the aforesaid demes is a long cape, the 
first cape after Aexoneis, Zoster ; then another after 
Thoreis, I mean Astypalaea , off the foimer of these 
lies the island Phabra and oflP the latter the island 
Eleussa ; and also opposite Aexonieis is Hydrussa 
And in the neighbourhood of Anaphlystus is also 
the shrine of Pan, and the temple of Aphrodite 
Colias, at which place, they say, were cast forth by 
the waves the last wreckage of the ships after the 
Pei Sian naval battle near Salamis, the wieckage 
concerning ivhich Apollo piedicted the women of 
Colias will cook food with the oars Off these 
places, too, is the island Belbma, at no great dis- 
tance, and also the palisade of Patroclus. But most 
of these islands are uninhabited 

22 . On doubling the cape of Sunium one comes 
to Sunium, a noteworthy deme ; then to Thoricus ; 
then to a deme called Potamus, whose inhabitants 
are called Potamii, then to Prasia, to Steina, to 


* AlyiKieh Tzschucke, for Alyipels ; so the later editors. 

^ jjaKpd, omitted by ^Inog and Pletho ; m A about twelv e 
letters have disappeared between pa and tj fierd, 

® (ppv^ovai, conj. of Kuhn, for <(>pi^ov<ri (op Herod. 8. 96) ; 
so Meineke. 



STRABO 


pcoVy oiTOV TO )ipavpcovLa<; ^Kprepuho^^ 

lepoVy [^A\al ^ Apa(j>rf\uLBef; ottov to t^<; Tavpo- 
TToXoVy MvppLvov<;y Ilpo^dXLv6o<;, MapaSdov, ottov 
M dkTidS7]<; tA? pLerd Adrio^ tov TLepaov hvvdp>H<; 
dpSrjv Scicpdeipepy ov 'TrepLpL€Lva<i varepL^ovTa^ 
AaK€BacfiovLov<; Bed rijv TtavcreXrjvov' ivravda 
fiefivdevfcacTL fcal top Mapaffcopiop TavpoPy ov 
dimXe @r}crev<^. /LteTa Be yiapado^va lipucopvvdo^? 
eiTa ^Papbvov<;,^ to Tij^l^epueaew lepop, elTa T''a(jE>l9 
rj T&p ^SlpcoTTLoov* ivTavda Be ttov /cal to ^Ap^t^ia- 
pdeiov icTTL TeTLpLijfiipov TTore pbavTetop, ottov 
< pvy6pTa TOP ^ApL^cdpecopy <5)9 (j>y}a‘o '^o(j)o/c\7]<;, 

iBe^aTO payelcra ®r}^aLa zcopl^;, 
avTolcrtp ottXol^ /cal TeTpcopLcrTcp ^ BL(j>p(p, 

^flpcoTTO^ S’ iv dpcpicr/STjTrjcripbfp yeyeprjTai ttoX- 
XdKL^' iBpvTat ydp ip fiedopio) Trjf; re ^ATTtfcrj^; 
/cal 7^9 BoicoTLa^, Trpo/cecTai Si 7)79 ^apaX'w 
TavTT}(Sy TTpo peep TOV ®opi/cov ^ /cal tov Xovplov, 
vrjcTO^ ^EXevrfy T/)a%e?a /caX epjjpco^;, TrapapLTj/crjf; 
oaop e^rjKOVTa crTaBLcov to prjico^* ^9 c^acrl pe~ 
pvrjcrOaL top TrotrjTi^p, ip ol<s 'AXe^apBpo^ Xeyei 7r/)09 

TrjP ^EiX6V7]P* 

ovB* OT€ ere Trp&TOv Aa/ceBai/MOPo^ epaTeivrjf; 
\eirXeov ®] dpTtd^a^ iv TroPTOTTopoiai veeo-ci, 
VYj(j<p S’ iv ^pavdr) ifiiyriv <j>iX6T7}TC /cal evvrjJ 

1 [*AA.al ^Apa<l>Tj']v(S€s, lacuna supplied by Xylander , so the 
later editors. 

® TpiK6pvvBos A , TpLK6pvdos A ma?i. sec,, and other MSS. 

® After 'Vafivovs Pletho and the later editors insert ovov, 

^ T^Tpoapiirr^ "BcgllcnOf for rerpaoplarip other MSS. {rsTpa- 
pia-Ttp hi) ; so Meineke. 

272 



GEOGRAPHY, 9 i. 22 


Brauron, where is the temple of the Artemis 
Biauroma, to Hake Aiaphemdes, where is the 
temple of Aitemis Tauropolus, to Mjrimus, to Pro- 
balmthus, and to Marathon,, where Miltiades utterly 
destroyed the forces under Datis the Persian, 
without waiting for the Lacedaemonians,, who came 
too late because they wanted the full moon. Here, 
too, is the scene of the myth of the Maralhonian 
bull, which was slam by Theseus After Marathon 
one comes to Trieorynthus , then to Rhamniis, the 
sanctuary of Nemesis , then to Psaphis, the land of 
the Oropians. In the neighbourhood of Psaphis is 
the Amphiaraeium, an oracle once held m honour, 
where in his flight Amphiaraiis, as Sophocles says, 

with four-horse chariot, armour and all, was 
received by a cleft that was made ^ in the Theban 
dust.” ^ Oropus has often been disputed territory ; 
for it is situated on the common boundary of Attica 
and Boeotia Off this coast are islands * ofFTlioricus 
and Sunium lies the island Helena , it is rugged and 
deserted, and in its length of about sixty stadia 
extends parallel to the coast. This island, they say, 
is mentioned by the poet where Alexander ® says to 
Helen ^^Not even when first I snatched thee from 
lovely Lacedaemon and sailed with thee on the 
seafaring ships, and in the island Cranae joined with 
thee in love and couch ” ; ^ for he calls Cranae ® the 

1 By a thiindeibolt of Zeus, to save the pious prophet 
from being slain. ® Frag. 873 (Nauck). 

® Pans * Ihac^ 3 443. ® “ Rough ” 

® Goplxov, Tzsohucke, from conj. of Casauhon, for Oopfov 
<zBE, Bovpiov I (’), Aid 

® [IrrAfoi^], lacuna supplied by Xylander , so the later 
editors, ^ <pik6t7iti Ka\ evyp, omitted m Acg?ilno. 

273 


VOL. IV 


T 



STRABO 


ravTTjv yap Xiyei Kpavdr)v ty)v vvv ^l£i\ev'qv 
diro Tov itcel yevecrOai r^v pu^tv, pier a Be rr/v 
^EXivr)v r) Eu/ 3 o 4 a irpoKevrab rrj^i nrapaXia^y 

opLOiW arevr} icaX paKpd real Kara prjKO^ Trj 
rjireLpcp Trapa/Se/SXrjpi&rfy KaOdirep r] eerrt 

B" diro TOV ^ovviov Trpb^ to votiov t 7)9 Eu/Sota? 
aKpQVi 0 KoXoven A€Vfcr)v ukti^v, crTaBlcov rpia- 
icoctLq}v ttXovv dXXd irepl EiV/Soia^^ pLev elpijcrerat 
ijarepov,^ TO 09 B' iv piecroyaCa B7]pov<i 
^Atti/cti^ puaKphv elTreXv Btd to 7rXi]6o^. 

23 . T&v Bi* opd)V Ta puev iv ovopbaTL pbdXtcTTd 
i(XTiv 6 T 6 ^TpLr)TTO<; Kal ^pLX 7 )<T(Jo<; fcal Avfca- 
/S?^TT09, €Tt Be Ildpvr]^ teal IS.0 pvBaXX6<^ pappd- 
pov S’ €(ttI tt)^ Te 'T/UT/rr/a? /cal nei»Te\/A:i79 ^ 
/cdXXidTa pbeTaXXa TrXr)ariov 7979 7 roX. 6 (» 9 * 0 S’ 
'T/U.97TT09 /cal puiXt dpiaTov TroieL Ta S’ dpyvpela 
Tcb iv ^Atti/ctj Kar dpya^; piev fjv d^ioXoyat 
vvvl 5 ’ iKXeiTref /cal Bt) /cal ol ipya^opbevoiy 7979 
pbeTaXXeia<; daOevco^ vira/covovarjc;, Tr]v rraXaidv 
iK^oXdBa /cal cr/ccopLav dva')(^covevovTe^ , evpia/cov 
eTc i^ avTrj^ diro/caBaLpopbevov dpyvpiov, tcSv 
dp')(^ac(ov diveLpoci^ /capcivevovToyv. tov Be peXiTO<; 

4:00 dplaTov T&v TrdvTcov 6 vto<s TOV ^Attlkov, ttoXv 
^ eXTtexTOV <j>a(n to iv Tot9 dpyvpeioi^, o /cal 
d/cdmia-TOv KaXovcriv dirb tov Tpoirov 7^9 
aKevaaia^, 

24 . HoTapLol S’ elcrlv 0 piev TLr}<f>icr(Tb^ i/c 

^ €i(>i\aerai tarr^poVy lacuna supplied by Ino , fier oKiyop 
k4^0fA€P t 

274 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. i. 22-24 


island now called Helena from the fact that the inter- 
course took place there And after Helen6 comes 
Euboea, winch lies off the next stretch of coast , it 
likewise is narrow and long and in length lies parallel 
to the mainland, like Helene The voyage from 
Suniiim to the southerly promontory of Euboea, 
which IS called Leuc^ Act^, is three hundred stadia. 
However, I shall discuss Euboea later but as for 
the denies in the interior of Attica, it w'ould be 
tedious to recount them because of their great 
number. 

23 . Of the mountains, those which are most 
famous are Hymettus, Brilessus, and Lycabettus, 
and also Parnes and Corydallus. Near the city are 
most excellent quarries of marble, the Hymettian 
and Pentelic. Hymettus also produces the best 
honey. The silver mines in Attica were originally 
valuable, but now they have failed. Moreovei, 
those who woiked them, when the mining yielded 
only meagre returns, melted again the old refuse, or 
dioss, and were still able to extiact from it pure 
silver, since the workmen of earlier times had been 
unskilful in heating the ore in furnaces But though 
the Attic honey is the best m the world, that in the 
coimtiy of the silver mines is said to be much the 
best of all, the kind ^\hich is called acapiiiston^ from 
the mode of its preparation 

24 . The rivers of Attica are the Cephissus, which 

1 10 1. 

2 *‘Unamoked,” i.e. the honey was taken from the liiv^e 
without the use of smoke 


* nevreXt/cfjs, Xylander, for kXiKris ; so later editors 

27s 


STRABO 


HpivefjAcciv^ ra9 e'XpaVi pecov Se hta rov 

TreStou, e(^’ o5 icaX rj yecl>vpa Kal oi ye<^vpi(TpoL, 
SiA Be T&v ff/c6\&v T&v airo rov aVreo? eh rov 
Heipaia KaO'qKovTcoVi ifcBiBaxTiv eh to ^aXTjptfcoVj 
XeipiappcoBr]*; to TrXiov, depov^ Be fieLovTai TeXeco^, 
€(TTi ^ Be T010VT09 fxoXXov 6 TX^o-cro?, etc OaTepov 
piipovc; Tov acrT€09 pecov eh t^v avTrjv rrapaXiav, 
etc TMV vTrep Trjq Ay pa^ /cal tov Av/ceiov pLep&v, 
Kal T^9 ’7rr)y7]<i, fjv vpbV7)K€V ev ^aiBpcp HXaTOiV, 
irepl pL€V ’Att4/c^9 TavTa, 


II 

1. S’ ecTTlv Botwr/a* Trepl ^9 XeyovTa 

Kal irepl t&v crvvey&v iOv&v avd/jLprjcrLv TroiTjcraa- 
6ai XPV <Tacj>ov<; '^dpiv, mv eiTrofiev irpore^ov 
eXeyop^iv Be Tr)V diro Sovvhv irapaXiap p'e^pt 
©eTTaXoviKeia^ iirl Ta<; dpKTOv<; TeTaadai, piKpov 
eKKXLvovcrav 7rpo9 Bvaiv Kal e^ovaav t^v OdXaor- 
oav 7r/009 Ta S’ virep^KeLpeva peprf^l irpo^ 
BvcnVi &)9 dv Taivia^ Tivd<;^ Bid [TracT]^ 

TGTapeva^ iTapaXXTjXov^* &v TrpcoTT) etTTlv [?5 
^Attik?] (tvv Tfj^'l yieyapiBi) €09 dv Taivia Tt^, to 

1 Tpivc^ueav, Kramer from conj of Oasaubon, for Tpiu^filav, 

2 Xy lander, for ^rt , so the later editors 

® vveplKcl/jL^va fifpv] lacuna of about ten letters m A 
supplied by hno (Kclfieva) and by Bu Tlieil {(lep) ; Muller- 
Dubner and Meineke following 

* [r^dffTjs x^pas]: lacuna of about ten letters in A supplied 
by Meineke. hno have x»P«s Ma-rrjs 

® Between icrriv and Me^apfSi, A has a lacuna of about 
twehe letters. Du Theil inserts as above, and so Muller- 
Dubner and Meineke. 

276 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. i. 24-2. i 

has its source in the deme Trinemeis ; it flows 
through the plain (hence the allusions to the 

bridge” and the bridge-raillenes ” and then 
through the legs of the walls which extend from the 
city to the Peiraeus; it empties into the Plialeric 
Gulf, being a torrential stieam most of the time, 
although in summer it decreases and entirely gives 
out And such is still moie the case with the 
Ihssus, which flows fiom the other part of the city 
into the same coast, fiom the region above Agra® 
and the Lyceium, and from the fountain which is 
lauded by Plato in the Fhaedrus,^ So much for 
Attica 

11 

1. Next m order is Boeotia; and when I discuss 
this country and the tribes that are continuous with 
it, I must, for the sake of clearness, call to mind 
what I have said befoie.^ As I have said, the sea- 
board from Sumum to Thessaloniceia extends towards 
the north, slightly inclining towards the west and 
keeping the sea on the east, and that the parts 
above this seaboard he towards the west — ribbon- 
hke stretches of country extending parallel to one 
another thiough the whole country. The first of 
these parts is Attica together with Megans — a 
nbbon-hke stretch of country, having as its eastern 

1 Literally, the “gephyra” (“bridge”) and “gephyrismi " 
(“bridge-ifoms ”). It appears that on this bridge the 
Initiated, on their procession to Eleusis, engaged m mutual 
raillery of a wanton character (hut see Pauly-Wissowa, 
S V Te(pvpifffiQl), 

® A suburb in the deme of Agryle 

8 229 A-D 

* 2. 5. 21, 7. 7. 4, and 9. 1 2 


277 



STRABO 


fi6V €(odL\yov TrXevpov exovcr'ja ^ rrjv a^ro Xovvtov 
fiexpi> ’O/jiwTroO fcal [t ^9 ^oi(cr\La<;,^ to S’ ecrTreptov 
rov T€ ^Icrdpiov /cal ttjv \^AX/cvoviSa ddX]aTTaVt^ 
T7]V Kara p*ixP^ [ppwv ti)? Bo^WTtja? ^ 

T&v irepl Kpiovaav* ret Se Xoiird \r^v drro 
'hovviov^^ P'iXP^ T(70/xoO rrapaXLav /cal Tr)v ct )9 
dv [rrapdXKrjXov avT7f\<; ® opeivrjv rrjv Btetpyoverav 
arro [Boiwrta? rrjv Bevrepa S’ 

iarlv 'q Boicorta, arro Tr]<i eco iirl Svatv rerapAvq 
ratvLa ti<s drro t^9 Kar Bv^oiav OcCXdrrq^ irrl 
ddXarrav rrjv Kara rov TSipi(raiov icoXitov, Icro- 
pbq/cq<; ttco^ rfj ’Atta/c^ q /cal iXdrrcov /card p7]/co<:* 
dperfj pbivTOL t^ 9 %<wyoa9 rrdpbiroXv BLa(j>ipei. 

2. "'E^opo^ Be /cal ravTr) Kpeirreo rqv BoitorLav 
diTO^aivet r&v ofiopcov edvayv, /cal ore fiovq rpe- 
ddXarro^ ierrt, /cal XipLevcov eviropel rrXeiovcoVt 
iirl p^ev Kpi(TaL<p /coXTrq) /cal r^ KopivSia/c^ 
rd e/c rrjf; ’lTaXta9 /cal Xt/ceXia^ /cal Ai^vq^ 
Bexop^vq, irrl Be rcov 7r/)09 Ev/Soiav pepd/v e<^’ 
e/edrepa rov EvpiTrov erxe^opevq^ T779 rrapaXLa^, 
rfj pev €7rl rqv AvXtBa /cal rqv TavaypL/cqv, rq 
S’ eTrl rov XaXyavea /cal rqv ^AvOqBova, rq pev 
elvat avvexq rqv /car Aoyvrrrov /cal Kvirpov /cal 
rd<i vq(rov 9 ddXarrav, rff Be rrjv /card ]\'la/f€ 8 om 9 

^ kwBi\yhv irX^vphv ^xov]cra : lacuna of about fourteen letters 
in A supplied by I)u Theil , so MuUer-Dubner and Meineke 
hTW have ktadtvhv /xipos ratviovcra. 

® [t^s Bot(cT]ias: lacuna of about ten letters supplied by 
Du Theil. 6 ?io have t^s ra6rp irapoKias 

® I'AXKVQylda Bd/iiarrav: lacuna of about fourteen letters 
supplied by hno. 

278 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 2. 1-2 

side the seaboaid from Sunium to Oropus and 
Boeotia, and as its western side the Isthmus and the 
Alcyonian Sea, which extends from. Pagae to the 
boundanes of Boeotianear Cieusa, and as its remain- 
ing two sides, the seaboard from Sunium to the 
Isthmus and the mountainous country approximately 
parallel thereto which separates Attica from Boeotia. 
The second of these parts is Boeotia, extending 
nbbon*like from the east towaids the west, from the 
Euboean Sea to the sea at the Cnsaean Gulf ; and 
it is about equal in length to Attica 01 perhaps less; 
in the fertility of its soil, however, it is far superior. 

2 . Ephorus declares that Boeotia is superior to 
the countries of the bordeiing tubes, not only m 
fertility of soil, but also because it alone has three 
seas and has a greater number of good harbours ; in 
the Cnsaean and Corinthian Gulfs it leceives the 
pioducts of Italy and Sicily and Libya, while in the 
pait which faces Euboea, since its seaboaid branches 
off on either side of the Euiipus, on one side towards 
Aulis and the teriitory of Tanagra and on the other 
towards Salganeus and Anthedon, the sea stretches 
unbioken^ m the one direction towards Egypt and 
Cyprus and the islands, and in the other direction 

% e unbioken by an isthmus or other obstacle 


* [Bpap TTjs 'Boitcri]as lacuna of fourteen letters supplied 
by Kramer. r6vcoy (also suggested by Kramer), Meineke. 

® [r^v airh Sowtou]; lacuna of about twelve letters in A 
supplied by Du Theil ; so Muller-Dubner. 

® [vapaWiijKoy avrijjs. lacuna of thirteen letters m A 
supplied by Kramer; so Muller-Dubner 
^ [Boiariai *A]TTUc^y; lacuna of about twelve letters 
supplied by Corais from conj. of Tzschucke; so Muller- 
Dubnei and Meineke 


279 



STRABO 


Kal TTjv UpoTTOvTiSa teal rov ^^Xki^amvTov, 
ITpOCrTLOTJCTL Se, OTt fCOl TtJV ^v/3otaV TpOlTOV riva 
/.lipo^ avT7]<; TreTroirjfcev 6 Ei;pfc7ro9, ofiro) arevo^; 
(ov teal ye(pvpei arwe^evy/juivof; tt/jo? avr^v SlttXs- 
4:01 dpep, rrjv [xev ovv eiraivel Sea ravra, Kai 

(j>r}(n TTpo^ '^ye/JLOVLav €v<j)va>^ €X€ep, ^ycoyfj Se 

Kal TTaiSeia xPV^^P'^p^p^ iTre/jbeXel^ tov<; ael 
irpOLGTapLevov<; aifrijf!, el xaC^ ttotb Kai^pOcoGav^ 
iTTL pLiKpbv^ rov p^yooz/oz/ ayfi/Jbelvac' Kaddirep 
’E7r<x/4€tz/ooz^Sa9 eSei^e, reXevrij guvto^ yap ixeL- 
vov T7)V f]yeiLoviav drro^aXelv evdv^ rov^ ©?;- 
y8atov9, yevaap.BVov^ avrrjf^ fjeovov" airiov Se 
elvat TO Xoycov Kal opLiXla^; rrj^ 7r/309 dv6pdi>- 
7roi>9 oXtycoprjaae, pb6vr}<; S’ iTnpLeXTjdrjpai Trj<; 
Kara TroXejxov dper^<;, eSee Se irpoaOeLvati Score ^ 
rovro rrpQ<i ''EXX7;m9 XPV^^P'^^ eGrev, iiTel irpo^ 
ye TOU9 ^ap/3dpov<; $La Xoyov Kpeerreov earL 
Kal ^Vmiiaeoe Se rb iraXaehv fiev, dypecorepoe^ 
edveae rroXep.ovvre^i ovSbv eSeovro r&v Toiovrcov 
iraiSev/jedroov, d(j>^ ov Se ijp^avro 7r/309 rjfjeepcorepa 
Wvr] Kal (})vXa rrjv rrpaypareeav ex^ev, irredevro ^ 
Kal ravrrj rfj aycoyfj Kal Karearrjaav rravreov 
Kvpeoe, 

3. 8’ ovv ^oecorea irporepov peev vrro /SapjSd-' 

pcov (pKeero ^Aovcov Kal TepepcKcov, iK rov Xovveov 
ireTrXavTjpevcov, Kal AeXeycov Kal ^Tdvrwv' elra 
^oeveKe^ eaxov oi perd KaS/^ov, 09 rrjv re 

^ Madvig, for ^Trel fxrihe ; SO Muller-Dubner no 

omit altogether , Corais, 

2 Corais and Meineke, from conj of Pletho, insert rl 
before vore, 

® fiuKpdy BZ. 


* on Blno, 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 2. 2-3 


towards Macedonia and the regions of the Propontis 
and the Hellespont. And he adds that Euboea has, 
m a way, been made a pait of Boeotia by the Euripus, 
since the Euiipus is so narrow and is spanned by a 
bridge to Euripus only two plethra^ long. Now 
he praises the country on account of these things ; 
and he says that it is naturally well suited to 
hegemony, but that those who were from tune to 
time its leaders neglected careful tiainingand educa- 
tion, and therefore, although they at times achieved 
success, they maintained it only for a short time, as 
IS shown in the case of Epameinondas ; for after he 
died the Thebans immediately lost the hegemony, 
having had only a taste of it ; and that the cause 
of this was the fact that they belittled the value of 
learning and of intercourse with mankind, and cared 
for the military virtues alone Ephorus should have 
added that these things are particularly useful in 
dealing with Gieeks, although force is stionger than 
reason in dealing with the barbarians And the 
Romans too, m ancient times, when carrying on war 
with savage tribes, needed no training of this kind, 
but from the time that they began to have dealings 
with more civilised tribes and races, they applied 
themselves to this training also, and so established 
themselves as lords of all 

3 . Be that as it may, Boeotia in earlier times was 
inhabited by barbarians, the A ones and the Tem- 
mices, who wandered thither from Sunium, and by 
the Leleges and the Hyantes. Then the Phoenicians 
occupied it, I mean the Phoenicians with Cadmus, 

^ 202 Enghsh feet 


281 


iireOevro^ Xylander ; so later editors. 



STRABO 


^ahfieiav ereixtae, fcal apxv'^ Toh iKj 6 vot<s 
aTreXcTrev* ifcecvoc Se ra<; ®^l 3 a<; rjj KaBfieia 
irpocrifCTLaav koX avvecpvXa^av rrjv apx'qv» 9770U- 
pevot Tcov TrXeLcrrcov Botcor&v €co<; r&v 'Ett^- 
yovoov (TTpareia^. Kara Se rovrov^ oXiyov xpovov 
iKXLTTovre^ Ta<; eiTavrjXdov TrdXiv* w S' 

avrQ)<^ VTTO @paK&v koX HeXaayMV ifcirecrovre^i iv 
@€TTaXca (TwearrijcTavTO rrjv dpx^v peTCb 'Apvaicov 
iirl TToXvv ware real Botcoroi? KXr)$ 7 ]vai 

Trdvra^, elr avearps'^av el^ Tr^v olfceLaVy tjS^] rov 
AloXifcov aroXov rrapeaicevaapevov itepl AvXiSa 
ri]^ BoLwriat;, hv eareXXov eh rrjv 'AaLav 01 
'Opearov nTalSe<i* irpoadevrec; Be rfj Boicoria rfjv 
'OpxopevLav (pv yap ^aav Koivfi irporepov, ovS' 
^^Op 7 }po<s perd Boioor&v avrov^ KareXe^ev^ aXV 
ISia^ M.ivva<i rr poaayopevaa^) per eKeivcov e^e- 
l 3 aXov TOV9 pev TJeXaayoij^ eh 'A^?;Va9, dej)' 
S)v ifcXYjdif] pepo^ ri t?;9 iroKew’^ HeKaaymbvi 
wK'qaav 8 e vtto rw ^Tprjrrcpy rou? Sk ®pafca<? iirl 
rov Tlapvaaabv, "Tai^re? Sh t??9 ^cokLSo^ ^^Tav 
TToXiv wKLaav. 

4 , ^rjal B''’E(j>opo<; rov<} pev %paKa^i rroerjaape- 
vov^ aTTOvSd^ nTpb<? rov<; Botcorov<;, eTTideaQai 
vvfcrwp arparoTreSevovaev oXtycoporepov, 0)9 eiprjVT)^ 
yeyovvLav Sca/cpovaapevwv S' ^ avrov^ii air m per 
vwv re dpa, on rd<; a7rovBd<; irape^aivov, pf) 
C 402 TTapa^TjvaL (pda/ceiv ifceLvovT awdeaSat yap 
ripepa^s vvfcrcop S' iircdiadar d(p' ov St) /cal rr}v 

^ d\ Corals inserts ; Se no 


^ The acropolis of Thebes 


282 


2 Ilzad 2 511 , 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 2. 3-4 

the roan who fortified the Cadmeia^ and left the 
dominion to his descendants. Those Phoenicians 
founded Thebes in addition to the Cadmeia, and 
preserved their dominion, commanding most of the 
Boeotians until the expedition of the Epigoni. On 
this occasion they left Thebes for a short time, but 
came back again And, in the same way, when 
they were ejected by the Thracians and the Pelas- 
gians, they established their government in Thessaly 
along with the Ainaei for a long time, so that they 
were all called Boeotians. Then they returned to 
the home-land, at the time when the Aeolian fleet, 
near Auhs m Boeotia, was now ready to set sail, 
I mean the fleet which the sons of Orestes were 
despatching to Asia. After adding the Orchomenmn 
country to Boeotia (for m earlier times the Orcho- 
menians were not a paitof the Boeotian community, 
nor did Homer enumeiate them with the Boeotians, 
but as a separate people, for he called them 
Mmyae^), they, with the Oichomenians, drove out 
the Pelasgians to Athens (it was after these that a 
part of the city was named Peiasgicoii,” though 
they took up their abode below Hymeltus), and the 
Thracians to Parnassus , and the Hyalites founded 
a city Hyas in Phocis 

4 Ephorus says that the Thracians, after making 
a treaty with the Boeotians, attacked them by night 
Avhen they, thinking that peace had been made, 
were encamping rather caielessly; and when the 
Boeotians frustrated the Thracians, at the same 
time making the charge that they were breaking 
the treaty, the Thracians asserted that they had 
not broken it, for the treaty said ^^by day,*' whereas 
they had made the attack by night ; whence arose 

283 



STRABO 


irapOL/Miav elprjaffai, ®paKLa Trapevpecri^. rou? Se 
TLeXaayov^, fievovTO<^ eri rov •iroXepbov, 

(TOfiivov^ airekdetv, aireXdeLV Be iccbt rov^ Boicotov^, 
Tov fxiv odv TOL<; Jle\aa’fyol<^ Bodevra XPV^P'^'^ 
firj e'XjeLv elirelv, rot<; Be BotcoroU aveXelv t7}v 
m‘po(f>7]Tiv a<T€/37]aavra^ eS Trpd^eiv tov<^ Be 
Oecopov^i v7rovo7]aavTa<; x^pt^ofjLivr}v to?? Ile- 
Xa(T70i9 Tr)v TrpocfiT^TLV /card to avyy€ve<; (iireLBr) ^ 
fcal TO iepov tleXacryiicov d.p'xfi^ VTTTjp^ev) 
0070)9 dveXeiVi dp'irda‘avTa<; rrjv dvOpayrrov elf; 
TTvpdv epb^aXeiv, ivdvjJLrjdivra^, elre xafcovpy't]- 
<xa<TaVi €LTe pLT], 7rpo9 dfi^orepa opd&f; ex^iv, el 
pL€v 'TTapexpwrrjptacre, KoXacrdelcrrjf; avrrjf;, el 6 ’ 
ovBev iKa/covpyrjce, to TrpocrTax^ev avT&v 
irpa^dvTcov. T009 Be irepl to lepov to pev 

dfcpiTovf; fCTelveiv T009 Trpd^avTa^^ fcal tuvt iv 
leptpf pLf) BoKipdcrai, /cadicTavai S’ ei9 Kpicnv, 
KoXelv S’ 67 rl T^9 iepeta^i TavTa^ S^ dvai Ta9 
7 rpo<^97TiSa9,^ a? XoittoX TpL&v ova&v Trepirjcrav 
XeyovTcov B\ 009 ovBapov vopo^ elr) Biicd^eiv 
yvvaiKaf;, TrpoaeXiorSat Kal dvBpaf; taov^ Talf; 
yvvac^l TOV dpiOpov* T009 p'ev ovv dvBpa^ 
(iTToyv&vai, T^9 Be yvvaiKaf; KaTayv&vaiy laoiyv 
Be T&v '^jnjipcov yevopevcov, Ta9 diroXvovaa^jfLicriaai* 
Ik Be TovTcov Bolcotol^ povoi^ avBpa^ irpodedirl^eiv 
iv ^coScovrj. Ta9 pevTOL nTpo<^rjTLBaf;) i^r)yovpeva<; 
TO pavTetov ® elTrelv, otl wpoaTdTTOL 6 ^€09 7049 
Bo40)to49j 7009 itap avToh TpLiToBaf; crvXTjffavTaf; 

1 M mh 

® After 7rpo(^>^Tt5as a leaf has fallen out of A ; but the loss is 
restored by a second hand (a) 

® TovvcufTtov <!^hcg, 

2S4 



GEOGRA.PHY, g, 2 4 

the proverb, Thracian pretense”; and the Pelas- 
gians, when the war was still going on, went to 
consult the oracle, as did also the Boeotians. Now 
Ephoius is unable, he says, to tell the oracular 
response that was given to the Pelasgians, but the 
piophetess replied to the Boeotians that they would 
piosper if they committed saciilege, and the mes- 
sengers who were sent to consult the oiacle, suspect- 
ing that the piophetess lesponded thus out of favour 
'to the Pelasgians, because of hei kinship with them 
(indeed, the temple also was fiom the beginning 
Pelasgian), seized the woman and threw hei upon 
a burning pile, for they consideied that, whethei 
she had acted falsely or had not, they were right in 
either case, since, if she uttered a false oracle, she 
had her punishment, whereas, if she did not act 
falsely, they had only obeyed the order of the 
oiacle Now those in chaige of the temple, he says, 
did not approve of putting to death without trial — 
and that too in the temple — the men who did this, 
and theiefoie they brought them to trial, and 
summoned them before the priestesses, who were 
also the prophetesses, being the two survivors of the 
three, but when the Boeotians said that it was 
nowhere lawful for women to act as judges, they 
chose an equal number of men in addition to the 
women Now the men, he says, voted for acquittal, 
but the women for conviction, and since the votes 
cast were equal, those for acquittal prevailed ; and 
in consequence of this piophecies are uttered at 
Dodona by men to Boeotians only ; the prophet- 
esses, however, explain the oracle to mean that the 
god ordered the Boeotians to steal the tripods^ and 

^ steal the dedicated tripods, thus committing sacrilege 

285 



STRABO 


eva ^ €69 AtDSciz/Tyz' TrifMTretv Kar ero?* teal S/; Ka\ 
iroielv TOVTO' ael jdp riva r&v avafC€Lfi€V(ov 
rptiTohcov vvfCT(op /ca$atpovpra^ teal Karatca- 
\v7rTovra<; lparLoL<;, (w? av Xddpa, rpLirohiq^opelv 
€69 Aq)Bc!)V7]V, 

5. M€Ta Be ravra r^v AIoKlic^v aTTOifciav 
avveiTpa^av to69 Trepl TlevOLXoPi TrXeierTOV^ ef 
kavroyv avprfrep.'y^avre^y &<TTe Kal ^olcotik^v 
TT pocrayopevd^vat varepov Be XpovoL^ iroWoU 6 
HepcriKO^ 7roX€yL609 'ire pi IlXaTaia<; y€v6p€vo<i 
BieXvpjjvaro ttjv ')(d>pav, elr dveXa/3ov a(f)d <5 
irdXiv €776 roo'ovrov, &(jre Kal rr]<; r&v ^EXXijvcov 
^P'<l>t<rfir}Tt](rac @r}/3a[ov<^, Bval pd'XP'i'^ 

KpaT'qcravTa<; AaKsBatpLOPtov^, ^EiTrapeivoovBa Be 
7 recro 6 ' T 09 ei ' tt) pLd)(p, ravrrj^ pch t7J<; eXirlBo^ 
Bt€(T(f)dXriaaVj vTrep Be t&p ^RXXijpcov opb(o<; fTroXe- 
pL7]crav 7rpo9 ^^(OKea<; tov<; to lepov crvX7]crapra^ 
403 TO Koipop, KaK(odepr€<; S* vtto re tovtov tov 
TToXepov, Kal r&p MaKeBoPcop entdepipcop ro2q 
'^EXXrjcnv, VTTO r&p avr&p rovreop Kal drre^aXov 
T7)p ttoXlp KaracKacpeLO'ap Kal dpeXa^op dpa- 
KTiadelaav, eKetpov S’ ^Btj TTparropre^ ipBee- 
are pop del pixP^ vpd^ oi/Be Kcoprj^ d^toXoyop 

Tvirop (Tco^ovcrr Kal dXXat Be 7roX€69 dpdXoyov ^ 
TrXrjp Tapdypa<; Kal ©eawi&p* avrai S’ iKapw 
avppepoven 7rpo^ eKeiPa^ Kpipopevai 

6 'Ef^9 Be T7]v TrepP^yrjtTiP t 7)9 %co/)a9 TroLrjreop, 
dp^apipQVf^ aTTO rrj^ 77^009 Ev/Soiap 7rapaXia<i t^9 

^ avX^cravraSf Groskurd, for (ruXKeyovras, also adding eVa , 
Kiamer approving 
® After aydxcyop no insert €XOb<rt 


286 


1 


^ e. every year 


2 See 13 1. 3. 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 2. 4-6 

take one of them to Dodona eveiy year , and they 
actually do this, for they always ^ take down one of 
the dedicated tripods by night and cover it up 
wuth garments, and secretly, as it were, cany it to 
Dodona. 

5 After this the Boeotians cooperated with Pen- 
thilus^ and his followeis in forming the Aeolian 
colony, sending with him most of their own people, 
so that it was also called a Boeotian colony. A 
long time afterwards the country was thoroughly 
devastated by the Persian w^ar that took place near 
Plataeae. Then they recoveied themselves to such 
an extent that the Thebans, having conquered the 
Lacedaemonians in two battles, laid claim to 
supiemacy over the Gieeks. But Epameinondas 
fell in the battle^ and consequently they were disap- 
pointed ill this hope , but still they went to war on 
behalf of the Greeks ?igainst the Phocians, who 
had robbed their common temple And after 
suffeiing loss from this wai,as also fioin the Mace- 
donians when these attacked the Gieeks,® they lost 
their city,^ which was rased to the ground by these 
same people, and then received it back from them 
when lebuilfc® From that time on the Thebans 
have faied worse and woise down to our own time, 
and Thebes to-day does not preset ve the character 
even of a respectable village , and the like is true of 
other Boeotian cities, except Tanagra and Thespiae, 
which, as compaied with Thebes, have held out 
fairly well 

6 Next in order I must make a circuit of the 
country, beginning at that part of the coastline 

® At the battle of Chaeroneia (338 B c ) 

* 335 BO ® By Cassander (316 b.c ). 


287 



STRABO 


(rvv€)(ov9 rfj ^PXV ^ ^D.pcoTTo^ zeal 

6 ^lepo9 Ai}X'y)v, ov KaXovat AeK^LvLov, KaS* ov 
?; *iraXath ’E/jerpia ev rfj EuySota, BtdirXovv 
exovcra i^yfcovra araBicov, perd Se to A^\<^Lviov 
6 ^Q;pco7ro<; iv GiKOcn ajahLoL^* icard Se tovtov 
icTTLP rj vvv ’EperyOiot, SiaTrX-oi;? S’ ctt' avrrjv 
ardSioc rerrapdfcovra, 

7 EZra ArjXiov, ro iepov rov ’AttoXXcovo? e/c 
AtjXou dcpiSpvpepov, Tapaypalcop ttoXLxviov, 
AiXZSo? hiexov <TTaScov<: rptaKovra, ottov pdxf) 
Xet,(})divre<; ^Adrjvatoi TrporpoTrdBijv e(j>vyov* iv Be 
(pvyfj Treaovra d<j) lttitov Sevocp&vra IBcbv 

KCLpeVOV TOV rpvXXoV '!£tC0XpdT7}<^ 0 ^iXoo’o^o?, 

(TTparevcov Tre^o?, rov i'ttttov yeyovoro^^ iKTtoBmv, 
dveXa/Se roZ? &poi<; avrov, zeal ecrcocrev iir\ TToXXoiz^i 
crraBiov^, €CO<; iiravaaTo rj (j>vy/}, 

8. EZra Xiprjv peya^, tv zeaXoven Ba$vv Xipeva* 
el0* f} AvXi^t Trerp&Bes %a)pZo?/^ zeal zedpr} Ta- 
vaypaLoDV' Xtprjp S’ icrrl TrepTTj/copra 7rXococ<^, 
&(Tr eZ/co? TOP vaizcrraOpov r&v BXX'qvwv iv t& 
peydXcp vTrdp^at Xtpevi, kuI o ^vpiiro^ S’ earl 
irXrjcriov 6 XaXzciBot^t ek ov diro 'Zovvlov ardBioi 
i^UKoacoe ^ e/SBopTjzcovra* eari S’ iir avrp yeepvpa 

^ irsrpdi^Tjs aghino 

* e^anStnoi (xOj Jones, following conj of Falconer, 
kirraKdaioi, eonj. Gosselin and Groskiird , TrevraKdffioij conj 
Kramer. 

1 Deep Harbour. 

® In 411 EC. Olialcis was joined to the mainland by a 
bridge. Moles w^ere thrown out into the Euripus from each 
shore, high towers were built at the ends of the two moles, 
leaving a passage through for a single ship, and “wooden 
bridges were set over the channels” (Diodorus Siculus 13. 

288 



GEOGRAPHY, 9 2 6~8 

opposite Euboea w^hicb joins Attica The beginning 
is Oropus, and the Sacied Haibour, which is called 
Delphinium, opposite which is the ancient Eretria 
in Euboea, tlie distance across being sixty stadia. 
Aftei Delphinium, at a distance of twenty stadia, is 
Oropus , and opposite Oiopus is the present Eretria, 
and to it the passage acioss the strait is forty 
stadia. 

7 Then one comes to Delium, the sanctuary of 
Apollo, which IS a leproduction of that in Delos 
It IS a small towui of the Tanagraeans, thirty stadia 
distant from Aulis. It was to this place that the 
Athenians, after then defeat in battle, made their 
headlong flight , and in the flight Sociates the 
philosopher, who was serving on foot, since his 
horse had got away from him, saw Xenophon the 
son of Gryllus lying on the ground, having fallen 
from his horse, and took him up on his shoulders 
and earned him in safety for many stadia, until the 
flight ceased. 

8 Then one comes to a large harbour, which is 
called Bathys Limen ; ^ then to Auhs, a rocky place 
and a village of the Tanagraeans Its haibour is 
large enough for only fifty boats , and therefore it is 
reasonable to suppose that the naval station of the 
Greeks was in the large harbour And near by, 
also, IS the Euripus at Chalcis, to which the distance 
from Sunium is six hundred and seventy stadia ; and 
over it is a bndge two plethra long,^ as I have 

47) The plurals bridges and “channels” may be 
explained by the fact that there w^as a small rocky island in 
the middle of the strait between the tw'o channels. In 
334 B c. they fortified the bridge with towers and gates and 
a wall, and included the Boeotian Mt Canethus (Karababa ’) 

289 

VOL. IV u 



STRABO 


hiTTkedpo^i 0)9 etp7]Ka^ Trvpyofi S’ eKaTepcoOev 
€(f)€(TT7}/cev, 6 pi€v GK Tr]<; Xa\fCLBo<;, 6 S* ifc 
B(?^a)Tta9* BttpKoBoprjrat S’ eU avrov^ arvpiy^, 
ire pi Se t^9 'rraXippoia^ rov EivpLiTov Tocrovrov 
pbovov elTretv Uavov, oti hr-raKL^ p^era^dXKeiv 
(paal tcaff" fjpepav kicdarriv Kal vvfcra* rrjv 8 ’ 
alriav iv aWoi^ (rfceirreov, 

9. TlXfiaiov S’ icrrlp i<j)^ vyjrov^; fceipLGVov x^pLov 
'ZaXyavev^, irrcopupbov rov ra(f>evro^ i^r avr^^ 
^aXyave(o<:, dvBpo<; Bolcotlov, Kad7]yr)aapiivov to ?9 
Il€p<rai<; elairkiovatv eU rov BtdirXovv tovtov i/c 
rov lS/laXiaH:ov koXttov, ov ^aacv avaipedrjvai, 
Trplv fj r(p BipiTTcp crwairreLV, utto rov vavdp)(ov 
Meya/Sdrov, vopicrOevra /caKOvpyov, w UTrary^ 
ip/SaXovra rov aroXov eU TV(f>Xov rfj^; 6aXd(raY]<s 

as a bridgehead withm the circuit of the city of Chalcis 
(Strabo 10. 1 8). Chalcis was still joined to the continent 
by a bridge m 200 b c (Livy 28 6), and Aemilius Paulus 
went to see it about 167 b.c (Livy 45. 27) And there was 
still a bridge there m the time of Livy himself, although the 
tower mentioned by him (28 6) was no longei there (note 
the tense of dmidebai) Strabo’s “two plethra” (202 
feet) IS accurate enough for the entire stretch across the 
strait, and he must have included the moles in his terra 
“bridge” Today the western channel is entirely closed, 
while the eastern is spanned by a swmg-bndge about 85 feet 
long. 

1922 

® The usual interpretation of this clause, “ a canal i<rvpiy^) 
has been constructed between {ets) the towers” seems im- 
possible. The literal translation is, “a tube has been con- 
structed across into them ” (the towers) Br4quigiiy (quoted 
in the French trans , vol 111 , Eclaircusemens x) appears to be 
on the right track; “On y a pratique des a-Vpfy^ (souier- 
mzns) pour y commiimquer” (“they have constructed sub- 

290 



GEOGRAPHY, 9 2. 8^9 

said , ^ and a tower stands on each side, one on. the 
side of Chalcis, and the other on the side of Boeotia ; 
and tube-1 ike passages have been constructed into 
the towers ^ Concerning the refluent currents of 
the Euripus it is enough to say only thus much, that 
they aie said to change seven times each day and 
night ; ® but the cause of the changes must be 
investigated elsewhere. 

9 . Near the Euripus, upon a height, is situated a 
Tplace called Salganeus. It is named after Salganeus, 
a Boeotian, who was buned there — the man who 
guided the Persians when they sailed into this 
channel from the Maliac Gulf. It is said that he 
was put to death before they reached the Euripus 
by Megabates, the commander of the fleet, because 
he was considered a villain, on the ground that he 
had deceitfully rushed the fleet into a blind alley of 

terranean passages so as to conuimnicate with the toners*’) 
Livy (28 6) says “ The city has tuo fortresses, one 
threatening the sea, and the other in the middle of the city 
Thence by a cuniculum^’ (literally, “rabbit-hole,” and hence 
a ‘ ‘ tube-hke passage- iv ay ”) “ a road leads to the sea, and this 
road used to be shut off from the sea by a tower of five 
stones, a remarkable bulwark.” Certainly avpiyl should 
mean an underground passage or else a roofed gallery of 
some sort above the ground (cf. the use of the word in 
Polybius 9 41 9 concerning the investment of Echinus by 
Philip, and in 15. 30 6) , and Strabo probably means that 
there was a protected passage across to the towers from both 
sides See Leake’s Travels in Northern Greece, II, 259 ; 
Grote’s Greece, VIII, cfa. 63 , and the discussion by the 
French translators (^. c,), who beheve that there were two 
passages for ships, one on each side of the strait. 

® “They take place, not seven times m the twenty-four 
hours, as Strabo says, but at irregular intervals” (Tozer, 
Selections, p 234) See the explanation of Admiral Mansell 
m Murray’s Greece, pp. 387-388 


291 



STRABO 


cTTevwiTQV* aiardoybevov Be rov /3dp^apov rr^v irepl 
avTov aTrdrrjv pLerayv&vai re /cal racj)^<; d^i&aai 
Tov ttvamo)? diroOavovra, 

C 404 10. Kat 97 Vpala S’ earl totto^ ^flpcoTrov 

ttXtjctlov /cal to lepov rov ^ Ap,(f>iapdov /cal to 
'i^apKicrcTov rov ’Eyoerp^ecD? /Mvij/nat 0 KaXelrac 
%LyrjXovi^ eTrecBr) oiydiCL TrapLovre^* TLve<i Be rfj 
Tavdypa rrjv avTijv ^aaiv, rj liloLfxavBpl<; S' iarlv 
97 avrr} ry Tavaypt/cr}*^ /caXovvrai Be /cal 
Tecpvpatoi ol Tavaypatoc. i/c Kz/coTrta? Se ri]<; 
©rj^ai/ci]^ piedcBpvffrj /card X/)i?o-/xo 2 ; Bevpo to 
^ A p(f>idpe tov* 

11 . Kal 6 Mv/caXrjarao^ Se /ccopbrj Hava- 
ypaiKYj^' Kelrat Be Trap"* oBov Tr)v i/c eh 

XaXjciBa, /caXovcri Be BoicoTia/c&<; MvKoXTjrrov'^ 
0)9 S’ avrm /cal to ^'Apfia t ^9 Tavaypai/c7]<^, 
KcapLr) eprjpo^ irepl rrjv Mi;A:a\ 97 TToz/,® aTro rov 
"^Ap^iapdov dppLaro^ Xa/3ova-a rovvopa, erepa 
ovcra rov "Apparo^ rov /card rrjv ^Arrt/cijv, 6 
iari rrepl $0X971), Brjpov ^Arrt/cr]^ opopov rfj 
Tavdypci. evrevSev Be 97 irapotpia rrjv dp^r^v 
eax^y V Xiyovaa" OTrorav^ Bt^' Apparo<i dcTTpdyjriy* 
darpaTrrjV riva (rrjpetovpevcov Kara %pr}crpov r5>v 
XeyopevcDV HvdaLar&Vy ^Xeirovrcov a>9 iirl to 
^^Appa, /cal Tore Trepirovrcov rrjV dvaLav eh 

^ "SilyTi^os Kvpiov $vf*ixct. Napic^cro’ou, (TiyTjKhs S’ 6 a’MTrri\6s 
(Eustathius, note on Od 24. 465) ; ot rhv oiyrjKhv H\p<a 'irapiSvT^s 
(Alciphron JSpist 3. 58) 

2 Here MS A resumes. 

® r^y eK BifiBS>v^ Memeke, for @7j$aia>v, 

* The words KaXovcri . . Mu/cci^tjttcJv, Meineke ejects. 

® yLvKQiXTjrrdVf Meineke and others emend to MvKa\7ia‘<r6v* 

® 6ir6rap (Eustathius, note on Od, 2. 498) for dTrire ; so the 
later editors 
292 



GEOGRAPHY, 9 2. 9-1 1 

the sea, but that the barbarian, when he perceived 
that he himself was mistaken, not only repented, 
but deemed worthy of burial the man who had been 
put to death without cause* 

10 . Near Oropus is a place called Graea, and also 
the temple of Amphiaraus, and the monument of 
Narcissus the Eretrian, which is called Sigelus’s,” ^ 
because people pass it in silence ^ Some say that 
Graea is the same as Tanagia The Poemandrian 
territory is the same as the Tanagraean , ® and the 
Tanagraeans are also called Gephyraeans The 
temple of Amphiaraus was transferred hither in 
accordance with an oracle 

11. Also Mycalessus, a village, is in the Tanagraean 
territory. It is situated on the road that leads from 
Thebes to Chalcis ; and in the Boeotian dialect it is 
called Mycalettus. And Harma is likewise in the 
Tanagraean territory; it is a deserted village near 
Mycalettus, and received its name from the chariot 
of Amphiaraus, and is a different place from the 
Harma in Attica, which is near Phyle, a deme of 
Attica bordering on Tanagra.^ Here originated the 
proverb, when the lightning flashes through 
Harma’'; for those who are called the Pythaistae 
look m the geneial direction of Harma, in accord- 
ance with an oracle, and note any flash of lightning 
in that direction, and then, when they see the 

^ “ Silent’s ’ (monument) 

® For love of the indifferent Narcissus Echo died of a 
bioken heart Nemesis punished him by causing him to 
fall desperately in love with his o^vn image which he saw in 
a fountain He pined away and was changed to the flower 
which bears his name 

® “The people of Tanagra say that their founder was 
Poemander ” (Pausanias 9 10) 

* Strabo means the Tanagraean territory. 


293 



STRABO 


AeX^oy?, oTav aarpa'^avra lSoxtiv* Irripovv 8’ 
eVl Tpfi<; p^rjva^y Kad^ eicacrrov pbrjva iwl Tpel^ 
'^pbipa^; fcal vvKra<i airo i<Txdpa<i rod ’Acrrpa- 
rraiov Aio?* eart S’ avrr} iv TeL')(ei fiera^v 
rod Jlvdiov /cal rod ^OXvpuTTiov, rrepl Se rod 
A ppLaro<; rod ^otcorca/cov oi puev ^aaiv ifcrrecrovro^; 
i/c rod dpp.aro<; iv rfj pLaxP rod ^ A pujiiapdov Kara 
rov roTTOv, ottov vdv iarl to hpov avrod, ro dpjia 
eprjpov ive')(67]vai irrl^ rbv ojxoivvpiov rorrov* oi Se*^ 
toD ^ Ahpdarov avvrpi^rivai to dpfjia cf>6vyovrQ<; 
<f)a<nv ivradOa, rov Se dia rod ^Apetovo^ crcodijvaL, 
^iX6)(opo<i S’ vrrb r&v Kcojj/qr&v oraydijvai ^Tjcrtv 
avrov, Kal did rodro IcroiroXirdav avroh Trapd 
r&v ^Apydcov vrrdp^ac* 

12. "'Eari Se r^ ck @ 7 )^&v el^ "'Apyo^^ 

dmovrt^ iv dpicrrepa rj Tdvaypa* « . . iv he^i^ 
Keirar Kal rj ^Tpla^ Se t^9 TavaypaLa<: vvv 
iari, TTporepov Se t^9 %rj^albov ottov 6 'Tp/eo9® 
pL€pLvd€vrat Kal 9? tou ^HpLcovo<; yiveai^, ^v ^rjcrv 
HLvhapo^ iv Tot9 BtOopapb^oi^s' Kelrai S’ €7709 
AvXiBos, evLOL Be rd<i 'To*ta 9 'Tpirjv'^ Xeyeadal 

^ TcepL B^A;, 

^ On ’'ApTos, which the editors in general consider corrupt, 
see 0 Muller, Ind Var. Led , p 1000, Daebritz (Z?e 
Artemidoro Strahoms Auctore Capita Tria) conj els 'AQiivas 
Uvru 

* For kvi6vri^ Meineke reads avi6vTi, 

* Numerous ejfforts have been made to supply tins lacuna 
of about fifteen letters, but all are mere guesswork (see 
C. Muller, I c , p. 1000). Daebritz {I c) conj /f[a2 ^ Tm 
nAaraiewy], 

® *Tp(a (Eustathius on Od, 2 496) for ‘Tppfa 

® *Tppi€is cuigh, ^ ^TppiTjVf all MSS 

^ See Dittenberger 611, note 3, 


294 




GEOGRAPHY, 9. 2. 11-12 

lightning flash, take the offering to Delphi ^ They 
would keep watch for thiee months, for three days 
and nights each month, fiom the altar of Zeus 
Astrapaeus ; ^ this altar is within the walls * between 
the Pythium and the Olympmm^ In legard to the 
Harma in Boeotia, some say that Am])hiaraus fell in 
the battle out of his chariot ^ near the place where 
his temple now is, and that the chariot was drawn 
empty to the place -which bears the same name ; 
others say that the chariot of Adrastus, when he 
was in flight, was smashed to pieces there, but that 
Adrastus safely escaped on Areion ® But Philo- 
chorus ^ says that Adrastus was saved by the 
inhabitants of the village, and that on this account 
they obtained equal rights of citizenship from the 
Argives. 

12. To anyone returning from Thebes to Argos,® 
Tanagra is on the left , and ^ . .is situated on 
the right And Hyria,^® also, belongs to the Tana- 
graean territory now, though in eailier times it 
belonged to the Theban territory. Hyria is the 
scene of the myth of Hyrieus, and of the birth of 
Orion, of which Pindar speaks in his dithyrambs ; 
it IS situated near Aulis. Some say that Hysiae is 

2 “Wielder of Lightning,” ® Of Athens 

* The temples of Pythian Apollo and Olympian Zeus. 

® “ Harma ” ^ 

® **The fleet horse of Adrastus, of divine descent” {lUcd 
23 346). 

’ See foot-note on 9 1 6 

® If Strabo wrote “ Argos,” which is doubtful (see critical 
note), he must have been thinking of the route taken by 
Amphiaraus, or Adrastus, back to the Peloponnesus. 

® See critical note 

The place mentioned m Homer, Iliad 2 496 
Fra^, 73 (Bergk). 


295 



STRABO 


^aaLy rrj^ UapacrcoTrLa^ oifcrav vtto t& Kidatp&vt 
irXrjaiov 'Epv0p&v iv tt} fieaoryaLa, airoiKOv ipii- 
o)v, fCTLO-pia Be NvfCT€eo<;, rov ^KvTCOTrrj^; iraTpo^, 
elcrl Be icaX iv rj] ^ApyeCa ^Ta-tac Kco/xrj, oi S’ 
ef avrr]^ 'Tcrtarat XeyovraL. r&v S’ ^Epv6p&v 
TOVTcov aTTOLfcoL at iv *l(ovLa^ ^EipvdpaL fcal 6 
^EXecbv ^ S’ icrrl fccopLT) TiavaypLfci^j airo r&v eX&v ® 
oavopbaapevri, 

13. Mera Be XaXyavea ^AvdrjBcov, ttoXi^ Xipeva 
exovcra, io'^drrj BolG>T^aK7]<^ irapaXLa^ 

C 405 7r/309 Ev^oLay /cadaTrep koX o 7ro49?T^9 eiprjfcev* 

^Avdr}B6va t iaxarocdcav, 

elcrl pevTot eri irpOLovri ptKpov iroXLxvai Bvo r&v 
EoicorwVy Adpvpvd re, rrap fjv o }L7](f>L<rao^^ 
iKBtBcocTL, /cal €Ti irveKeivu 'AXat,® opdvvpoi rol<i 
'^ArriKol^ Btjpol^. /card Be rrjv rrapaXLav ravrifjv 
KelcxOal (j>aaLV Alydf$ rd^ iv Ev/Sola, iv ah to 
rov UocreiB&vo^s tepov rov AlyaCov ipvyjcrOifjpev 
S’ avrov /cal irporepov, Biappa S’ icrrlv diro 
pev rrj<i ^AvGrjBovo^ eh Alyd<; e/carbv eiKocri 
crrdBioiy duo Se roiv dXXcov roucov rroXv iXdr^ 
rovs* /celrai S’ iirl opov<? vyjrrjXov to lepov, ^v 
Be' rrore /cal TroXt?* iyyij^ Be r&v Aly&v^ /cal ai 
^Opo^iac.'^ iv Be rf} ^ AvdriBoviq> M-eacrdinov opo<; 

1 *lcavlBi BE/. 

* ’EAetiv, the later editors, for Ka\ AloKew Acgh, *E\aici>v 
Bky d *E\€(&y A man sec., 6 'EXecfiv (Eustathius, note on 
Od, 2. 500) 

® i\aiwy B/i. * Kr}fi€r65 A, 

® ‘AXaf, Palmer, for fiXAof ; so the later editors. 

® Aiywv has fallen out of A, but is found in bhno EpiU 
*Ol>6fiiai, Epit , for *Op6$ai 

296 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 2. 12-13 

called Hyna, belonging to the Parasopian country ^ 
below Cithaeron, near Erythiae, in the inteiior, 
and that it is a colony of the Hyi leans and 
was founded by Nycteus, the father of Antiopd. 
There is also a Hysiae m the Argive territory, a 
village 5 and its inhabitants aie called Hysiatae. 
The Erythiae in Ionia is a colony of this Erythrae. 
And Heleon, also, is a village belonging to Tanagra, 
having been so named from the hele ” ^ 

13 After Salganeus one comes to Anthedon, a 
city with a harbour ; and it is the last city on that 
pait of the Boeotian seaboard 'which is opposite 
to Euboea, as the poet says, ^^Anthedon at the 
extremity.*’ ® As one proceeds a little farther, 
however, there are still two small towns belonging 
to the Boeotians : Larymna, near which tlie Cephissus 
empties, and, still farther on, Halae, which bears the 
same name as the Attic demes ^ Opposite this sea- 
boaid IS situated, it is said, the Aegae ^ in Euboea, in 
which IS the temple of the Aegaean Poseidon, which 
1 have mentioned before ® The distance across the 
strait from Anthedon to Aegae is one hundred and 
twenty stadia, but from the other places it is much 
less The temple is situated on a high mountain, 
where thei*e was once a city And Orobiae ’ also is 
near Aegae. In the Anthedonian territory is Mount 

^ I e the country along the Asopus River 
® “Marshes” 

3 Ihad 2 508. 

^ t e Halae Aexonides and Halm Araphemdes 
3 See Iliad 13 21, Odyssey 5 381 Aegae w^as on the site 
of the modern Limni, or else a little to the south of it (see 
Pauly- Wissowa, s,v “ Aigai ” 

® 8. 7 4 

’ Destroyed by a tidal wave 426 b c, (Thucydides 3. 89) 

297 



STRABO 


icrrlv airo M6<7<ra7rou, 09 rijv ^Jairvyiav iXOoDV 
M€(r<7aTrLav rrjv ifcaXecrev, ivravBa Be 

fcal ra Tvepl rov rXav/cop fivdeveruL rov ^Avd'q- 
Soviov, ov (pacriv eh KTjro^ fiera^aXecv, 

14. TTKtjo-lov S’ icrrlv *Avd7]B6vo<i iepoirpeir^f; 
roiro^ T^9 ^oioDria^i "^oXeco^ ^xcov, 6 fcaXov- 
p€vo<; ’^I<r<?9j (TVcTTeXkovTi rrjv irpmrrjv crvWa^}jv, 
oiovrac Be rive<; Belv ypd(j>eiv 

^laov ^ re ^a6er)v ^AvdriBova r ea'xaroaxrav, 

ifCT€ivovT€<s rrjv Trpdrrjv crvXkajSrjv Troirjrifc&s: Bed 
TO pLerpov, dvrl rov 

Nterdv re ^a6er}v 

fj yap N?cra ovBapov (^aiverat r^^ Bo4Ct)Tta9, 
W9 (l>7j<ri>v ’A7ro\XoSa)po9 iv roh Uepl ve&v a)9 
ovfc hv el pfj rrjv iiccrav ovreo^ elprifcev fjv 
ydp lopmvvpio^ rroXi^ iv MeyapcKj}, iiceWev dircp- 
Kicrpevrj [rTpo^s rrjv vrrmpecav Kcda]cpo!>vo^,^ ifcXe- 
XecTTrai Be vvv» rtvh Be ypdcpovai, 

Kpeverdv re ^aderjv, 

rrjv vvv Kpiovcrav Bexppievoi, to r&v %e<nne(ov 
irrtveiov iv r^ Kpccraitp iBpvpievov* dXXoc Be 

4>ajoa9 ^ re ^aOea^, 

^ ^l€raVf man prim, Ac, gkzJelno, 

® The lacuna in [djs ovk Uv eJXri is supplied by bkno, 

® The lacuna of about twelve letters m A between ydp and 
M€7apt/c^ IS supplied by Jones, following the conj, of Kramer ; 
ghno have 6 [*'I(ros tr6\is ip rg] 

* The lacuna in [irpbs t^v virdp^iap }itBa]tpcovos is supplied 
by Groskurd, 

® ^Tjpds, aBcghiklf but corrected m a, 

298 



GEOGRAPHY, 9 2. 13-14 

Messapius,^ named after Messapus, who, when he 
came into lapygia, called the country Messapia^ 
Here, too, is the scene of the myth of Glaucus, the 
Anthedonian, who is said to have changed into a 
sea-monster ® 

14 . Near Anthedon, and belonging to Boeotia, is 
a place that is esteemed sacred, and contains traces 
of a city, Isus, as it is called, with the first syllable 
pronounced short Some, however, think that the 
verse should be wTitten, sacred Isus and Anthedon 
at the extremity,” ^ lengthening tlie fiist syllable by 
poetic licence on account of the metre,® instead of 

sacred Nisa,” ® for Nisa is nowdiere to be seen in 
Boeotia, as Apollodorus says in his work On Ships , 
so that Nisa could not be the correct reading, unless 
by “ Nisa ” the poet means Isus ” ; for there was a 
city Nisa bearing the same name in the territory of 
Megara, whose inhabitants emigrated to the foot- 
hills of Cithaeron, but it has now disappeared. 
Some, however, think that we should write sacred 
Creusa,” taking the poet to mean the Creusa of 
to-day, the naval station of the Thespians, which 
is situated in the Cnsaean Gulf, but others think 
that we should read sacred Pharae.” Pharae is 

^ The modern Ktypa. 

2 See 6 3 1. 

® On the change of Glaucus to a sea-deity, cl Pansanias 
9 22 and Plato’s MepuUic 611 

* Iliad 2 508 

^ z e they make the letter *T ” long, and so indicate by 
using the circumflex accent instead of the acute ; or he might 
mean that they lengthen the syllable by pronouncing the 
“s” as a double “s.” 

® The 1 ” in Nisa is long by nature. 

^ ^ e. Ozi the (Homeric) Catalogue of Ships (see 1, 2. 24). 


299 



STRABO 


ecTTi SI Tr ?9 T6rpaKcofiLa<; rrrepl Tava^ypavy 
^KXe&vof;, ^'KppaTo<;y M.vKoKyjO'croVj ^ap&Vy^ 
ypd(j)OV(Ti SI /cal touto' 

NCcrai' T6 ^aderjv* 

/C(i)pbr) 8* icTTL rov ^E\i/c&vo<; ^ Nflcra. ^ yu,lv o?fv 
TrapaXia roiavTTj ri^ rj 'irpo^ ^vjSoLav. 

15. Ta S’ €^?59 iv Tfj peaoyaia TreBia iarl /coTXa 
TrdvTodev i/c t&v dXXcov puepd/v opeai 'irepie'^^^opeva, 
Toh ^Attikol^ pev tt/)!? vorov, npo^ dp/crov ^ SI 
Toh ^coKi/coW uTTo SI €cnrepa<i 6 ILiOaipwv 
Xo ^09 ipwiTrrei pi/cpov vrrep t ^9 Kpia'aia<^ daXdr- 

excov Tr)v dpxvy avvvejm roi^ Meyapi/coi^? 
/cal roc<? *ATri/coi? opecriv, €lt eTTLarpe^oav eh 
406 rd TreS/a, iravopevof; SI Trepl rrjv ©rj^atav. 

16. T&p Sl^ ireBLcov Tommv rd pev Xipvd^ei, 
TTorap&v dvax^opivoov eh avrd, r&v S’ ipTnir- 
TovTcov, elra i/cpifaei^ Xap^avoPTcov' rd S’ ^ dvi- 
^jrv/crat ® /cal yeoopyecTai 7ravToBa7r&<; Bid rrjv 
ev/capiriav, virdvrpov SI koX (Tr]payycl>Bov<i ovarj^ 
Kara 0ddov<; 7 ?j 9 , aeccrpol yevopevoi TToXXdfct^ 
i^aiaioi rov^ pev ecl>pa^av rcov iropcov, tov^ Be 
dvkcp^avy rov<; pev pixP^ iinj>aveLa^, rou? SI 
Bl vTTovopcov* avp^aivei St) koX Toh vBaaiy Toh 
pev Bb vTTOvopayv (pepeaOai r&v peLdpcoVy Toh 8’ 
€7rfc7roX^9, T049 re XipyaLoi^ koX roh TrorapCov?* 
kyxcoaQevrcov SI Kard ^d6ov<; r&v rropcov, av^e- 
crOaL rds XLpva^ avp^aivei P^xpf' r&v oi/covpevcov 

^ ^Tipav, 'Bchtkl, and man. sec in a. 

® v6rou . . . &pKT 0 Vy Wcl. ® BEkl. 

* fiev (for 5’) ® ret Se, insert before mi. 

300 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 2. 14-16 

one of the ^^Four United Villages in the neigh- 
bourhood of Tanagra, which are . Heleon, Harma, 
Mycalessus, and Pharae And still others wiite as 
follows ^^sacied Nysa/' And Nysa is a village 111 
Helicon ^ Such, then, is the seaboard facing Euboea 

15 . The plains in the interior, which come next in 
order, are hollows, and ai e surrounded everywhere on 
the remaining sides ^ by mountains ; by the mountains 
of Attica on the south, and on the north by the 
mountains of Phocis; and, on the west, Cithaeron 
inclines, obliquely, a little above the Crisaean Sea ; 
it begins contiguous with the mountains of Megara 
and Attica, and then bends into the plains, teimin- 
ating in the neighbourhood of Thebes 

16 . Some of these plains are marshy, since riveis 
spread out over them, though other rivers fall into 
them and later find a way out; other plains are 
diied up, and on account of their feitility are tilled 
in all kinds of ways. But since the depths of the 
earth aie full of caverns and holes,® it has often 
happened that violent earthquakes have blocked up 
some of the passages, and also opened up others, 
some up to the suiface of the eaith and others 
through underground channels The result for the 
waters, therefore, is that some of the streams 
flowthrough underground channels, whereas otheis 
flow on the suiface of the eaith, thus forming lakes and 
rivers. And when the channels in the depths of the 
earth are stopped up, it comes to pass that the lakes 
expand as far as the inhabited places, so that they 

^ The range of mountains in Boeotia between Lake Copais 
and the Corinthian Gulf 

^ i e except the eastern side, on the Euboean Sea. 

® Cf . 8 8 4. 


301 



STRABO 


roTTcov, &ar€ /cal iroXec^ /caraTvivecrdai /cal 
avQL')(6evTcov Be r&v avT&v fj aXXcov dva/caXvTT’' 
TearOat, /cal rov^ avTOv<; tottov^; irore p^ev 
irXelaOai, Ttore Be Tre^eveaOat, /cal ra? aura? 
TtoXei^ TTore fiev eirl rfj Xifivr)^ Trore Se arrcoOev 
Keladai, 

17. Aittw Be rovTO fyiverar^ /cal^ yap pevov^ 
cr&v d/cLV7]Ta)V toov TToXecov, orav fj av^riai*} r&v 
vBdrcov rjrrmv ^ ttJ? vrrepxvcreco^; Btd v'\jro<i r&v 
ol/ci^crecov, ^ Bid arroa-racriv, /cal Bid dvoi/ciapov, 
orav 7rXr}<Tia<Tp& /civBvvevcravre^ ttoXXclici^ 
drraXXayrjv rropicroovrai rov ^o^ov rrjv perd- 
Xr)yfnv r&v Xcopicov r&v aTtcodev rj r&v iv vylrei, 
irapa/coXovdel Be roU ovrm dvoL/ciaOeicri ro rrjv 
avrrjv TTpoa'i'iyopCav (pvXdrrovaiv, irvpto<; rrpO' 
repov Xeyopevoi^ drro rov avp^e^rj/coro^ roiriK&'ii 
pr}/c\eri XiyeaOai eViJ/iO)?*®] TlXaraid<; ydp diro 
Tij 9 rrXdr'T]^ r&v /cmrr&v elpTjadai irtOavov /cal 
TlXaraiea<; rov<i drro /cco7rrfXaaLa<i ^&vra<i, dXXd 
vvVf arrcadev ri]^ XLpvq^ oi/covvr€<;, ov/cer dv 
rrpoaayopevoivro irvpco^. ‘^EXo? re /cal ^EXe&v 
/cal EiXecriov eKXrjdr) Bid to evrl roU eXeaiv 
tBpOadai, vvv Be ov)(^ opoLo)^ e')(ei ravra, rj 
dvoi/cicrOevrcov, ^ t/)9 XLpv/)^ emrroXv rarreivco* 
6eiar)<i Bid rd^ iiarepov yevopeva^ eKpvaei^* /cal 
ydp rovro Bvvarov. 


^ tivarat B/. 

* ^ mi. 

* In lacuna of about thirteen letters in A between k and 
nx«Ta(c£$r g man, sec and tio read vvy jiT^Kir* 
fcpdrepou ; A man, sec has /a^ Keyeadai ; Corais vvv fjLviKeri 
KiyetrBai irvficas, and so Jones, but omitting vvv, 

302 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 2. 16-17 

swallow up both cities and districts, and that when 
the same channels, or otheis, aie opened up, these 
cities and districts aie uncovered ; and that the 
same regions at one time are traversed in boats and 
at another on foot, and the same cities at one time 
are situated on the lake ^ and at another far away 
from it 

17. One of two things has taken place ; either the 
cities have remained unremoved, when the increase 
in the wateis has been insufficient to overflow the 
dwellings because of their elevation, or else they 
have been abandoned and rebuilt elsewheie, when, 
being oftentimes endangeied by their nearness to 
the lake, they have relieved themselves from fear by 
changing to distiicts farther away or higher up. 
And it follows that the cities thus rebuilt which 
have kept the same name, though at first called by 
names truly applying to them, derived from local 
circumstances, have names which no longer truly 
apply to them ; for instance, it is probable thdt 
ftataeae ” was so called from the blade ^ ol the 
oars, and ^'Plataeans” were those who made their 
living from rowing , but now, since they live far 
away from the lake, the name can no longer truly 
apply to them Helos and Heleon and Heilesium 
were so called because they were situated near 
marshes , ® but now the case is different with these 
places, since they have been rebuilt elsewhere, or 
else the lake has been greatly reduced because of 
outflows that later took place ; for this is possible 

^ Strabo is thinking primarily of Lake Copais For a 
complete account of this lake, which is now completely 
drained, see Tozer, note on Pausanias 9 24 1. 

® In Greek, “plate ” 

® Helos (“marsh”), Hele (“marshes”). 


303 



STRABO 


18. ArjXoc Be /cal 6 K7}<f>icrcr6^ ^ rovro fiaXcara, 
Tr)v ISieoTraiSa XifjLvrjv irXrjp&v, av^ofievr}^ yap 
avTrj<^t &arre /civBvveveiv /cara'TTodijvai ra? K(OTra<; 
a? ^ 0 re 7 rotr}T^<i ovopba^ei, /cal air avr&v ^ XipvY) 
Tr)v iiTcovvfiLav etX'/jcj^e, ^dapa y€P7}6ev irpo^ rf) 
Xipvp 7rX7}(TLOV t€}V ILmTr&v avicp^ev vtto yrj<; 
peWpov ocrov rpid/covra crraBLcov /cal eBe^aro top 
TTorapoVi ecra i^epprj^ep ek rfjv 67rc<j>cipecap Kara 
Adpvppap T^9 AoKpiSo<; rr)p dpco^ kuI yap iripa 
iaripj ^9 ippijcOripep,^ r} ^ocmrcaKr} irrl rfj 
daXdrrrjj § nrpocreOeaav ^Vmpaloi rrjp dpco. 

C 407 KaXelrai S’ o T07ro9 eari Be xal Xipvrj 

Qpd)pvpo^* iprevdep S’ tjBtj 6 K.r]<:j)cacro<s eKBLBcoaip 
errl rrjp OdXarrap. rare pep ovv^ irav(rapep7)(; t?;9 
TrX7]ppvpiBo^i TravXa Kal rou kipBvpqv to69 irapoi^ 
KOV<TLP VTrrjp^e, ttX^p tS>v riBrj KarairoOeiawp 

TToXewp, ttolKip S’ eyypvpkpwp r&v TropcoPi 6 peraX- 
XevT^^ K^aT7y9,^ dp7]p yiaXKiBevf:, dpaKuOaipeip rd 
ipippdypara eTravcraTo, a-raacaadvrcop ra>p Boio)- 
r&v, Kairrep, (W9 avro<; ev rfj iTpo<; ^ AXe^avBpov 
eTTiaroXfi ^tjo-lp, dve^lrvjpepcov i)Br) ttoXX&v, iv 
0 I 9 oi pev rov "Op')(ppevov oiKeladac rov dp')(alov 
vTTeXdp^aPop, oi S’ ’EXeucrwa koX ^AOriva^ irapd 

1 Kr}(l>iff6s B. 2 ^ 5 ^ Pletho inserts 

® [ifjLy'fj<rdri]fi€y, lacuna of about six letters supplied by 
Groskurd , ?is etrofiev glikno ; eXirof^^v Corais 
^ /jLen aWevT^s KpcJrrjs, Prere {M4m de VAc. 23, p. 142), for 
fieraWehs ryjs Kp'^ryjs ; so the later editors. 

1 In Greek, ‘‘oars.” 

2 Ih(td 2 502. 

® See Tozer, Selections, p 236, note 2. 

* 9. 2. 13. ® Lower Larymna. 


304 




GEOGRAPHY, 9. 2. i8 


18, This IS best shown by the Cephissus, which 
fills Lake Copais ; for when the lake had increased 
so much that Copae^ w’as in danger of being 
swallowed up (Copae is named by the poet,^ and 
fiom it the lake took its name), a rent in the earth, 
which was foi med by the lake near Copae, opened 
up a subteiianean channel ^ about thirty stadia in 
length and admitted the iivei ; and then the river 
burst forth to the surface near Larymna in Locns , 

, I mean the Upper Larymna, for there is another 
Larymna, which I have alieady mentioned,^ the 
Boeotian Larymna ^ on the sea, to which the Romans 
annexed the Upper Larymna ^ The place is called 
Anchoe , ’ and there is also a lake of the same name. 
And when it leaves this lake the Cephissus at last 
flows out to the sea. Now at that time, when the 
flooding of the lake ceased, there was also a cessation 
of danger to those who lived near it, except in the 
case of the cities 'which had already been swallowed 
up. And though the subterranean channels filled up 
again. Crates the mining engineer of Chalcis ceased 
clearing aw^ay the obstructions® because of party 
strife among the Boeotians, although, as he himself 
says in the letter to Alexander, many places had 
already been diained. Among these places, some 
writers suppose, was the ancient site of Orchomenus, 
and others, those of Eleusis and Athens on the 

® According to Pauaanias (9 23 4), Lower Larymna 
anciently beloDged to Opus,” the Locrian city, but later 
‘‘ joined the Boeotian confederacy ” For a complete account 
of the two Larymnas see Frazer, note on Pausanias 9. 23. 7 

’ “Outflow” CAyx^v)^ 

® There seems to be an omis-^ion here. We should expect, 
“Crates . . began to clear away the obstructions but 
ceased.” 


VOL. IV 


X 


305 



STRABO 


rov Tplrcova irorafJiov' 'XeyeTCkp S’ olKLaai ^ Ke/cpo~ 
7ra, rjVLKa Boiayria^ iir^p^e,^ tcakov piiv r]^ Tore 
^D.yvyLa<$, a(pavLcrdi]vac Be TavTa<; iTriickvadeLaa^ 
vcrrepop, yeveaffai Be (j>a(rL koX tcarh ^Op^opevov 
j^dapas Kol Be^aaOac rov MiXava worapop top 
peovra Btd ^ AXiapria^ /cal iroLovvra evravda 
TO eXo9 TO (jiuov Tov avXrjri/cov /cdXapop. aXV 
o5to9 rj^dpLaraL reXeco^, eire rov 'xpaparo^ Bia- 
'^iopTo<; avTOP eh dS7]Xov(; 'iropov^, etre twp irepl 
AXLaprov eX&p /cal Xippcop r/r poapaXta/covTcop ® 
avTOpj d(j> d)p 'jroirjepra /caXel top tottop 6 iron^TTj^i 

/cal TTonfievff* ^ AXiaprov 

Xeycop. 

19. OSto^ pep ovp e/c r&p ^coici/c5)P 6pa>p ol 
TTOTapol Karatpepopraii &p 6 K>7<^t(ro'09 ifc AiXaCa^f 
^€0/ci/c7]<; TToXeco^St rrjp dp'xjqp XapjSdvet, /cadaTtep 
/cal ^'Opr}p6<i (fiTjaip* 

Ol 76 ACXatap e^oP 7r7jyfj<; eiri K^y^^crcroto* 

Bi ’E\aT€ta9 Be pveh, peyiarr}^ to)P ev ^(OKevaL 
TToXecopy /cal Bid Jlapa'/rorapicop xal ^aporeoop,^ 
opoiQx; ^co/ci/ccop TToXiapdrcop, eh ^atpcopeiap t^9 
Boi<i>Tta9 irpoeiaip, elra Bid T7;9 ^Opxopepia^; /cal 
T'^9 Kopcopeia/crjq eh ttjp Kct)7ratSa XCpprjp i^iTjcrr 
/cal 6 tleppTjcrao^ Be /cal 6 ’O\//,6t09, i/c tov ^RXc- 
/c&po<s (Tvp^dXXovTe^ dXKT^XoL^iy e /9 Tr)p avr^v 

1 5’ olxiffat, lacuna of about seven letters m A supplied by 
Oorais , «ol Kard bgno 

^ ^TTTjp^ej Corais, for soMemeke 

® TrpQavaKiaKdvrmVy Corais, for rrpoarapa\tcrK6pTa)v , so the 
later editors, 

306 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 2. 18-19 

Triton River 1 These cities, it is said, were founded 
by Cecrops, when he ruled over Boeotia, then called 
Ogygia, but were later wiped out by inundations. 
And it IS said that a fissure in the earth opened up 
near Orchomenus, also, and that it admitted the 
Melas River, which flowed thiough the territoiy of 
Haliarfcus^ and foimed there the inaisii which 
produces the leed that is used for flutes ^ But this 
river has completely disappeared, either because it 
is dispersed by the flssuie into invisible channels 
or because it is used up befoiehand by the marshes 
and lakes in the neighbourhood of Haliartus, from 
which tlie poet calls the place grassy,’’ when he 
says, “and grassy Haliartus/’^ 

19 . Now these rivers flow down from the Phocian 
mountains, and among them the Cephissus, which 
takes its beginning at Lilaea, a Phocian city, as 
Homer says . “ And those who held Lilaea, at the 
sou ices of Cephissus ” ® And flowing through Ela- 
teia, the largest of the cities of Phocis, and through 
Parapotamii and Phanoteus,® which are likewise 
Phocian towns, it goes on into Chaeroneia m Boeotia, 
and then through the territories of Orchomenus and 
Coroneia, and discharges into Lake Copais. And 
also the Permessus and the Olmeius, flowing from 
Helicon, meet one another and fall into the same 

1 On the Triton River, see Pausanias, 9. 33. 5. 

^ How could this be when the Melas lay on the northei n 
side of the lake and Haliartus on the southern (Tozer, ou cU., 
p. 237)^ 

3 So Pliny 16 66 ^ lhad 2 503. s 2 . 523 

® The usual spelling is “Panopeus ” 


^ ^avoritav, Corais, for ^aPTfirecov , so the later editors. 

307 



STRABO 


€fjL7rL7rT0V<n Xifivrjv rr)V Ka)7ra/Sa rov 'AXtdprov 
'Trkiqlo-iov* teal aWa Se peif/nara €l<s avrrjv 
ipL^dX\€t» eo'Tt pb€V ovv fieydXrj, rrjv 'nepLp.erpov 
€XOVcra oyBo'^Kovra fcal rpia/cocrLcov aTahioav, al Se 
i/cpva€&<; ovSapLov (patvovrat ttXtjv toO S^xofiepov 
TOP Kij<f)i(T<r6i^ ^aor/iaT 09 /cal r&v iX&p, 

20. \T&v Be TrepiJ/ceifiepcov ^ Xtfivdiv icrrlv t; re 
Tpecpia, /cal r} KTjcfttacrit^’^ fiepivrjraL /cal ^'OpLr}po<;* 

o<; p ip ^^TXr) vaiecr/ce fieya ttXovtoio /xefirjXco^;, 
XLfjipr) /c€/cXcfjLepo9 KrfiptcracBt. 

ov yap XCpLVTjp rrjv KcoTraiBa ^ovXerai Xeyetp, a)? 
otopral Ttve^y aXXa rY)p *l^XL/cy]v irpoaayopevo- 
fxevrjp (jfj irpoacpBLa 0)9 Xvpi/cTjv) otto t ^9 irXr^aLov 
ic(t)pbr}<;,^ fjv fcaXovcTLP ^^TXa<s (d)^Xvpa<; teal Ovpa^), 
ovBe ^^TB'rjVy 0)9 epioi ypd<j)ovatP, 

09 p €v Top vaiea/cev, 

f) pLev yap iariv iv AvBia 

C 408 Tpo>X(p VITO vLcpoevri, "TBr]9 ip ttIopc BrjpLCp^ 
p Be BotcoTia/cp* imcpipei yovp r<p 
XLpvp /ce/cXip€V 09 ^pt^iaaLBc 

TO 

Trap Be oi aXXoL 

paiov BolcotoL 

ff pLep yap iarc peyciXp, /cal ov/c ip rp ©rj^aiBt, ?; 
Se ^ pc/cpd, i/ceWep Bi virovopo/P TrXrjpovpivrjf 

1 The lacuna of about fourteen letters between 7r\7? and 5e 
js supplied by Meineke. Groskurd and Muller-Dubner add 
TrXe^ctf after ^XXa. bkno have vKrialov* Kai rk robrov, 

308 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 2. 19-20 

Lake Copais near Haliartus; and also other streams 
empty into it Now it is a large lake, having a 
ciicuit of three hundred and eighty stadia^ but its 
outlets aie nowhere to be seen, except for the 
fissure which admits the Cephissus, and for the 
marshes. 

20 Among the neighbouring lakes are Lake 
Trephia^ and the Cephissian Lake, which is also 
mentioned by the poet ^^Who dwelt in Hjl^, 
stiongly intent upon wealth, on the shore of the 
Cephissian Lake’'^ ]^e does not mean Lake 

Copais, as some think, but Lake Hylic^ (accented on 
the last syllable like Iy7ice), which is named after 
the village near by that is called Hyl^ (accented 
like lyra and thyra')^ not Hyd6, as some write, who 
dwelt in HydA” For Hyd^ is in Lydia, below 
snowy Tmolus m the fertile land of Hyd6,''^ whereas 
Hyl^ IS in Boeotid , at any rate, the poet appends to 
the words, ‘^on the shore of the Cephissian Lake,’’ 
the words, ‘^and near him dwelt the rest of the 
Boeotians ” For Lake Copais is large, and not in 
the territory of Thebes, whereas the other is small, 
and IS filled from Lake Copais through subterranean 

^ Otherwise unknown ^ Iliad 5. 708. 

® I had 20. 385 


* The lacuna of about nine letters before K€ip.4vcov is 
supplied by Oroskurd; so Kramer, Memeke, and Muller- 
DuSner 

® A reads ^ K . . , inserting in first hand , aheghikno, 
^ Kcovah, From conj. of Falconer, Memeke and Muller- 
Dubner read as above, though Falconer and Oorais read 
instead of 

^ rj for nai, Casaubon , so the later editors. 


309 




STRABO 


/cec/xiv't] fxera^i) fcal '^Avdrjhovo^, ^'O/XTjpo^ 

8' eviKW ifc^ipeti Tore /lev ifcreivcov Trjp Trpcorrjv 
crvKKa^TfV, a >9 iv KaraXoyco, 

rjB^ "'TXrjv fcal Here&va, 
iroLrjTiKW* TOT6 Sk crvcrreWcov* 

09 p iv "'TXt) vaL€(rK€, 

Ti;%tb9 ^ 

cTKvroropcov apL<TTo^/lL\Tp evL ol/cia vaLoov* 

ouS’ ivravda ei ypa<p6vT6>v tiv&v '*^TS^ evi* ov 
yap 6 Aia9 €k AvS/a9 to <rd/co^ pereTrepTrero, 

21. Adrat 8’ ai^ XLpvai rrjv rd^iv r&v €^e^^9 
roTTcolv cTTjpijvatvr dv. Stare ®] Xoycp rrepLX7)<j)- 
Oijvai cra<j!>w9, on 6 rroirjr^^ drdfcrco^ ')(^prjraL ^ 
Toh ovopaai tS>v rorrcov r&v re \_d^L(jDV pvTjpTj^ koX 
r&v ^aXerrov 8 ’ ev roaovroi<;, kuI darjpoi<; 

roh rrXeiarot<; /cal iv pecroyaia, pfjBapov rr) rd^et 
htarreaelv* ^ rrapaXla 8 ’ e'xjst rt *irXeovi/cT7}pa 
TTpos rovTO* Kal yvcopipdorepot oi rorrot, Kal rj 
OdXarra to ye i^rj^ virayopevei ^iXriov* BioTrep 
Kal rjpet^ eKeldev ireLpd)p\e6a rd^ d,pX^^ Xa^eiv,^^ 
ivravffa 8’ idaavre^ rovro rep 7r[oL7}Tf} clkoXovOovv- 
Te9 rroi'qaopev rr)v Btapidprjatv irpoandevre^ o ri 
av xpV^fpov § [X7j(f)$€V ® '^ptv, in eKeivov 

1 Tvx^os, Memeke omits. 

® [ASrat S* at], lacuna supplied by Groskurd ; so the later 
editors. 

® T<^ 1 rw[^' tfirifJL-ftvaivr* &v, &crre ry], lacuna supplied by Gros- 
kurd ; so Muller-Bubner. ^iroypd^ovcriv Sxrre, Memeke. 

* [TToinT^s drdKTtes supplied by Groskurd ; 

so later editors. 

^ Id^icav fxv-fifirjs Ka\ ray lacuna supplied by Groskurd; 
so Mdller-Ihibner. d^io\6^wv ktK , Memeke 

3to 



GEOGRAPHY, 9 2 20-21 


channels ; and it is situated between Thebes and 
Anthedon Homer, however, uses the woid in the 
singular number, at one time making the first syllable 
long, as in the Catalogue^ and Hyl 6 and Peteon,’’ ^ 
by poetic licence, and at another making it short, 
who dwelt in Hyl^,” and Tychius . . . , b j far 
the best of leather- workers, who had his home in 
Hyl 6 /’ 2 And ceitain critics are not correct in 
writing Hyd^ here, either ; for Aias was not send- 
ing to fetch his shield from Lydia 

21. These lakes suggest the order of the places 
that come next after them, so that nominally their 
positions are clearly determined, because the poet 
observes no order in naming the places, whether 
those that are worthy of mention or those that are 
not. But it is difficult, in naming so many places, 
most of them insignificant and situated in the 
interior, to avoid error in every case in the matter 
of their order. The seaboard, however, has a certain 
advantage with legard to this : the places there are 
better known ; and, too, the sea more readily sug- 
gests the Older of places Therefore I, too, shall 
try to take my beginnings from the seaboard, 
although at present I shall disregard this intention, 
and following the poet shall make my enumeration 
of the places, adding everything taken from other 
writers, but omitted by him, that may be useful to 

1 Iltad 2. 500. 3 ji^ad 7 221. 


* Treipd^uleda rhs apx^s lacuna supplied by Groskurd , 

so Muller-Dubner [efla irepiode^ew^i Meineke. 

^ aKo\ovdovv7es lacuna supplied by 

Groskurd ; so Muller-Dubner and Meineke 
® lacuna supplied by Groskurd; so 

Muller-D&bner. Mds<ri}P) Meineke. 

311 




STRABO 


Be 7rapa\et>^dev^ apx^Tai S’ utto ^Tpirjf; ical 
Trj <5 AvXiBo^f nrepl &v elpTjfcafiev* 

22 S%oii ^09 S’ iarl t 7]<; ®7]/3atKf]^ Kara 

rr)V oBov rrjv iTrl ^AvdrjBovo^, Biexovcra rS>v 
®7)^&v ocrov TvevrrjKOvra araBiov^* pel Be kuX 

TTorapLO^ Bl avri)^ S%04i'oC9. 

23. 2/cw\o9 S’ earl K(ofi7) Ilapaaa)7r[a<i vtto 
r<p KiOaip&vL, BvaoUrjro^ totto*? Kal rpa^v^, 

ov Kal rj rrapoifiia* 

eh Xk&\ov pb'ijr avro<; tvac, fjbijr a\X(p eireadai. 

Kal rov Uepffea Be ivOevBe Karayopbevov Biaarraa- 
BrjvaL <j>aaiv, ?}V Se Kal r&v rrepl ''OXvvOov 
rroXecov opicovvpbo^ ciyry S/twXo 9 . etprjrai S’ on 
IlapaacBTrtoL Kal Ktop/rj ri^ KaXelrai ev paKXe'ia 
rfj Tpaxt^vla, rrap^ fjv pel ^Aacorro^ Trorapof^, koX 
on ev ZiKvcDVia^ dXXo^ iarlv ^Kawiro^ Kal rj 
xd>pci‘ ’AorwTTta, S^’ ^9 pel" elal Se ^ Kal aXXoL 
TTorapol opcovvpoc r^ rrorap^ rovrco, 

24, 'O ’ET€<i)x^09 Be %Kdp(j>rj ^ percovopdadr], Kal 
avrrj Be rrj^; YlapaaoiirLa^, 6 yap ’Ac7Gi)7ro9 Kal 
6 ^laprjvo^ Bid rov rreBiov peovai rov npo rd>v 
®7]^S)V. ean Be Kal rj ALpKTj Kprjvr] Kal Uorviai,^ 

409 e^’ &v pvdeverai rd ire pi rov TLorviea VXavKov 
rov Biaairaadevra viro r&v liorvidBoiv Lirirajv 
T^9 iroXeco^ irXrjaiov^ Kal 6 K.idaip(ov Be ovk 
dirwOev r&v @7]^&v reXevra' irap avrov Se 6 

^ irapaXeKpQiVf Corais, for 'jrapa\r}(f)04p , so the later editors 
® :S,tKvoovia, Corais, for :^lkv&pi , so the later editors 
® etVl 8e, Corais, for peovcri , so the later editors ; Memeke, 
however, relegates eial Se . ro^rcp to the foot of the 
page 

* 'S,tcip<piiy Xylander, for 'Sicd<pKg,^ ; so the later editors. 

312 



GEOGRAPHY, 9 2 21-24 

us. He begins at Hyria and Aulis, concerning 
which I have already spoken ^ 

22 . Schoenus ^ is a district of the Theban territory 
on the road that leads from Thebes to Anthedon, 
and IS about fifty stadia distant fiom Thebes ; and 
there is also a river Schoenus which flows through it. 

23 Scolus IS a village m the Parasopian ^ country 
at the foot of Mount Cithaeron, a place that is 
rugged and hardly habitable ; whence the proverb, 
neither go to Scolus thyself nor follow another 
thither.” And this is also said to be the place from 
which Pentheus was brought when he was torn to 
pieces.** And there was another Scolus among the 
cities in the neighbourhood of Olynthus bearing the 
same name as this village. And, as I have already 
said,® there is also in the Trachinian Heracleia a 
village called Parasopii, past which flows a Rivei 
Asopus ; and m Sicyonia there is another Asopus 
Rivei, and also the country Asopia, through which 
that Asopus flows; and theie are also other rivers 
which bear this name 

24 . The name ‘‘^Eteonus”® was changed to 
Scarph^,” and Scarph^ too is in Parasopia ; for the 
Asopus and the Ismenus flow through the plain 
which IS in front of Thebes. And there is the spring 
called Dirc6 ; and also Potniae, where is the scene 
of the myth of Glaucus of Potniae, who was torn to 
pieces by the Potman mares near the city. Ci- 
thaeron, also, ends not far from Thebes The 

19 2. 8 and 9 2. 12. 2 ji^^td 2. 497 

® along the Asopus River. 

* by the Bacchic women ® 8. 6 24. 

« See 7. 3 6 


® Tl6rvtatj all editors, for UStpm, 


313 


STRABO 


’Ao-ewTro? pel, rrjv v^copeiav avrov kXv^q)v icaX 
TTQL&v Tov<; HapacrayTTLOV^ ek fcaroctcLa^ 7T\€iov<; 
SiDpTj/jievov^' airavra^i S’ vwo ©T^ySatot? oi/ra?, 
6T6poi S’ iv 77) UXaTateiov <j>a(rl rov re ^fc&Xov 
fcal rov ^Erecovov icaX ra<; ^Epvdpd^* teal yap 
rrapappel^ HXaraid^i fcal nrapd Hdvaypav eKhi- 
Soaa-iv* iv Bk rfj ©rj/Saiwv elcrl teal ai ©epdirvai 
teal 6 T6vpr)(7cr6<;, op itcoaprjerev ^A.VTipci')(p^ Bid 
TToXX&v iir&v, rd<; pr) irpoaovcrafs aperd^; Bbapid- 
fMovpevo^^ 

€<rri ri<i 7)vepoeL<; 0 X 6709 Xo^ 09 * 
yvdopipa Se rd errr), 

25. %e(77reLav Se Xeyei rd^ vvv ©ecrrrla^, ttoXX&v 
ovopdreov t5)v pev dpKf>oripw Xeyopevoov xal 
€vi/c&<; real 7rX7)6vvTetc&^, tcaSdirep teal dpp€Ptte&<; 
teal $7)XvK&(f, 7&V S’ oTToripco^. eerri Se 7roX69 
7 r /?09 ^EXitc&pi, voTKoripa avrov, emtceipevrj 

Se Epicralep teoXrrtp teal avrr) teal 6 ^EXc/ccov 
erriveiov S’ exovaiv al ®€<nrial^ "Kpeovaav, fjv 
Kal KpeovaiSa ^ tcaXov<riv. iv Se rfj ©ecnrietov ^ 
earl teal fj '^Aorteprj teard to 7r/oo9 ^EXitecova pepo<s, 
f) rov 'H< 7 £o 8 ou Trarpk* iv Se^ia yap icrri rov 
‘^EX. 6 a:Sz^ 09 , i<f v'slrr)Xov teal rpax^os; roirov tcei~ 
pivrj, drrixovaa r&v ©eam&v oaov rerrapdteovra 
araSiov^;, fjv teal tcetccopdSTjfcev auT 09 iv erreeri 

1 7rapapp€i, Du Theil, for Trapd , so the later editors 
a (see &€<nnds above), foi BecrTreiai 

® Kpeova-idttf conj. of Kramer, for Kpeovtrlav. So spelled by 
Xenophon, ffellemca 5. 4. 16, and Pansanias 9. 32 1. 

3H 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 2. 24-25 

Asopus flows past it, washing its foothills and 
causing the division of the Parasopii into several 
settlements , and all the settlements are subject to 
Thebes, though another set of writers say that 
Scolus, Eteonus, and Erythrae are in the territory 
of the Plataeans, for the river flows past Plataea, 
also, and empties near Tanagra. And in the terri- 
tory of Thebes are also Tlierapnae and Teumessus, 
which latter Antimachus has adorned with praise 
m many verses,^ although he enumerates goodly 
attributes which do not belong to it, as, for instance, 
there is a windy little hiir' , but the verses are 
well known 

25 . The ^^Thespiae*' of to-day is by Antimachus 
spelled Thespeia ” ; for there are many names of 
places which are used in both ways, both in the 
singular and in the plural, just as there are many 
which are used both in the masculine and in the 
feminine, whereas there are others which are used 
in either one or the other number only. Thespiae 
IS a city near Mt Helicon, lying somewhat to the 
south of it ; and both it and Helicon are situated on 
the Crisaean Gulf It has a sea-port Creusa, also 
called Creusis. In the Thespian territory, in the 
part lying towards Helicon, is Ascr^, the native city 
of Hesiod ; it is situated on the right of Helicon,^ 
on a high and rugged place, and is about forty stadia 
distant from Thespiae. This city Hesiod himself 
has satirised in verses which allude to his father, 

^ In his epic poem entitled Thebais, 

^ as viewed from Thespiae 


* (see %eixin4.s above), Memeke, for 


33:5 




STRABO 


Trepl^ rov nrarpo^? on Ik Kvp/rjt; AtoXtSo? 
pl€T^Kr](T6 TTpo^repov,^ Xiycov 

vdcraaro S’ ayx 'EXt/c&vof; ov^vpfj ivl fccopLj),^ 

''A(TKprj, %e4/4a icaK^, Oepei dpyaXirji ovBe ttot 

6 Se ^^XtKobv (Tvvexv^ ^arn Tp ^ay/cuBt etc r&v Trpo^ 
dpfCTov avTOv ® pLep&v putcph Be real i/c r&v Trpo^ 
kdTrepav Kara rov vararov Xipueva rrj^ ^wkLBo^^ 
ov KaXovenv drro rov crvpu^e^rjKoro^ 
vrrepKeirai yap Karh rovrov p,dXiarra rov Xtpbiva 
rov Kpiaaiov ^ koXttov kuI 6 "^EXik&v kcli ?; 
''Ao'Kpr) Kul eri ai ©eenrtaX xal to iirivetov avrrj^ 
if Kpiovo’a rovro Be Kal KoeXorarov vopLi^erai 
TO piipofs rov ILpiaaiov KoXrrov Kal drrX&<i rov 
KopivdiaKOV' orrdBioi S’ elal rri<; \7rapaXla^ r?)? 
aTTo ToO TlAv^ov rov Xip>€VO<; et? Kpeovaav ivevi]- 
Kovra' ivrevdev Bk eKarov ecKoai lro 9 t ^9 aKpa^i^ 
fjv f KaXovaiv* iv Be r& KoiXordrcp rov 

KoXrrov rov [Kpicracov (TvpjSe/SrjKe^^] Ta? nr] 7 a 9 
K€t<rdac Kal r^v Olvo'qv^ '7re[pl &v eL\py)KapLev?-^ 
6 pev ovv ^EXlkwp ov ttoXv BL€<Trr]K 0 t)^ rov 

1 i[v tTreari irepQ, lacuna of about eleven letters in A 
supplied by Jones, following Muller- Dubner, who insert to7s 
before ^ireo-i Kramer conj. voirjffdfjLevos /caret], Memeke 
leads 4[Tn\afi6jjL€pos] bcghi have iKe^vos Ttepi and no irepl only 

2 bkno add K4y<av after irarpds 

® fil€rt^K7j(r€ 7rpd]r€pop, lacuna of about ten letters in A 
supplied by Jones Cp 6 var^p avrov (^ e *H<ri<S5oi/) ATos 
p.^r^K7i(T^v els Botaro^s (13. 3 6) Kramer con3 ju.[erap€crr7j 
TrpdJ (Muller-Dubner so read) , and Memeke reads plerea-rv 

0pa{rii}T€poP 

* [M fci&pLri], lacuna supplied in k man sec. 

® supplied in A man. sec. 

316 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 2. 25 

because at an earlier time his father cliaiiged his 
abode to this place from the Aeolian Cyme, saying : 

And he settled near Helicon in a wretched village, 
Ascr^, which is bad in winter, oppressive in summer, 
and pleasant at no time ” ^ Helicon is contiguous 
to Phocis in its noitheily paits, and to a slight 
extent also in its westerly paits, in the region of the 
last harbour belonging to Plioeis, the harbour which, 
from the fact in the case, is called Mychus ; ^ for, 
speaking geneially, it is above this harbour of the 
Crisaean Gulf that Helicon and Ascr6, and also 
Thespiae and its sea-port Cieusa, are situated This 
IS also considered the deepest leoess of the Ciisaean 
Gulf, and in general of the Corinthian Gulf. The 
length of the coast-line from the harbour Mychus to 
Creusa is ninety stadia ; and the length from Creusa 
as far as the promontory called Holmiae is one 
hundred and twenty ; and hence Pagae and Oeno^, 
of which I have alieady spoken,® are situated in the 
deepest recess of the gulf Now Helicon, not far 

^ IVorJcs and Days 639-40. 

2 i,e “ Mychus,” “ Recess, ’ of what is now Gulf Zalitza 

3 8 . 6 22 . 


® aitrov, conj of Palmer for ahr^s ‘Bklno, avry acghi So 
Corais, Kramer, Muller-Dubner, and Meineke. 

’ Kpi<r<raiov BE^ 

® [irapaXias], lacuna of seven or eight letters m A supplied 
by hknojp 

® * 0 \jiiidsf conj of Palmer for lacuna of about six letters ; 
so later editsors 

[Kpiaraiov (rvp.]04$7jK€f lacuna of about ten letteis supplied 
by Kramer ; so the later editors. tot^Itov hkno 

* 7 re[/»l ^llpikafieVf lacuna of about six letters supplied by 
Groskurd ; so the later editors hkm have ^5 instead of 
Bkl add KopLpSiaKov before Uapvaaraov , Pletho ^cokikov, 

3^7 




STRABO 


Uapvacraov ivdfMiXko^ iariv i/ceivtp Kara re vylro<^ 
C 410 icaX TTepifxeTpov* apL^co yap ^(^iovo^oXa ra opi] 
Kal irerpcoBr}, 7r€pLypd<j>€TaL S’ oif TroWrj Xcopa, 
ivravda S’ iarl to re r&v 'M.ovcrQiv lepov Kal 
97 'Ittttou KpTjVii'} fcal TO T&v Aet^Tjd piBcov vvp^Q)v 
avrpov* ov re/cpLaipotr dv ®patca<; elvai 
Toii^ rov *EiXtK&va ralf; Movcrai<^ fcadc€pcocravTa<;, 
ot Kal rrjv TLieplBa^ Kal to AeljSrjdpop Kal ttjv 
TUpirrXeiav ^ ral<i avrat^ Qeal^ dviBei^av, iKa- 
XovvTO Be Ili6p€9* iKXcTTovrcop S’ eKeivcov, Ma/ce- 
Soz^€9 vvv exovat rd % 0 ()/)ia ravra, ecpijrai S’ 
OTi T7)v BoLcoTiav TavTTjv eTrmKrjadv irore @paKe>i, 
^taadpLevoi tov9 Bofo>TOU 9 , Kal ITeXacryol Kal 
dXXoi ^dp^apoL* ai Be ©eaTr^al irporepov fiep 
iyvcopt^ovTO Bid rov "'Epcora top Upa^creXov^, op 
^yXv'^e pep eKelvo<;y duedrjKe Bk FXvKepa ^ kraLpa 
@ecrm€v<nVi eKeWev ovaa to yevo<:, Xa^ovcra B&pop 
rrapd rov rex^^'TOu, rrporepov pep odv o^opepot 
TOP ''Rpcord Tive^ dpejSatvov irrl rrjv ^earreiav,^ 
aXXct)? ovK ovaav d^ioffearop, vvpl Be povi] 
<rvvearTy]K6 r&v ^oicoriaK&p iroXecDP Kal Idvaypa* 
T&p S’ dXXcjp epeiTTia Kal dvopara XeXeirTTai, 

26. [MeTja ^ Be Oecnrid^ KaraXeyei Fpaiap Kal 
MvKalXT^craop, Trepjl ^ o)v eipTqKapev' w? S’ auTO)? 
KoX Tvepl T&p [dXXcop* 

^ Yliepiav l&kno, ® Hi'irKeiay Aogkino 

® ©eViretav, Du Theil, for $4av ; so Kramer and Memeke 
* []yteT](£, laouna supplied by ^ , so the later editors, But 
hkno have rats 5^ ©ecrviais* 

318 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 2. 25-26 

distant fiom Parnassus, rivals it both in height and 
m circuit; for both are rocky and covered with 
snow, and their circuit comprises no large extent of 
territory.^ Heie aie the temple of the Muses and 
Hippu-cren^ 2 nyniphs called 

the Leibetlirides , and fiom this fact one might 
infer that those who consecrated Helicon to the 
Muses were Thiacians, the same w^ho dedicated 
Pieiis and Leibethrum and Pimpleia to the same 
goddesses ® The Thracians used to be called Pieies, 
but, now that they have disappeared, the Mace- 
donians hold these places It has been said^ that 
Thiacians once settled in this pait of Boeotia, 
having overpowered the Boeotians, as did also Pelas- 
gians and other barbarians. Now in earlier times 
Thespiae was well known because of the Eros of 
Praxiteles, which was sculptured by him and dedi- 
cated h}’’ Glycera the courtesan (she had received it 
as a gift from the aitist) to the Thespians, since 
she was a native of the place Now m eailier times 
travellers would go up to Thespeia, a city otherwise 
not woith seeing, to see the Eros; and at present it 
and Tanagra are the only Boeotian cities that still 
endure ; but of all the rest only ruins and names are 
left 

26 . After Thespiae Homer names Graea and 
Mycalessus, concerning which I have already spoken.^ 
He likewise says concerning the rest ; ® And those 

^ z.e they descend sharply and without foothills to the 
plains 

* See 8. 6 21 « Op 10 3, 17 * 9. 2 3. 

s 9 2 10, 11 6 9. 2. 11, 12, 17, 20 


® MvKalKv}<r<r6v, lacuna supphed by later MSS- ; so 
the later editors. 

5^9 



STRABO 

OL T d/jL<l)' ^'Ap/jL ivipLOPTo fcul lEilXecrtov fcal 

^Epvdpd<;, 

[oi T ’EXect)^’^] el^ov 7]S* '"TXtjv ica\ YlereSiva. 

rierewi; Se tcwpLT] ri}? ©/^jSa/So? 6771)9 t 7}9 eV’ 
' Av6r]hova oSov, 17 8’ H/caXeT] fiiar] AXtaprov 
Kal ^ AXaX/copLevLOV ifcarepov rpiaKOvra (rrahiov^ 
anrexovcTa* nrapappel 8’ avrrjv nrordpiLov opcovvpbov, 
Meoeoiv S’ 0 pi€v ^co/ccfcb^ ip rm Kpt<raUp ® fc6X'rr<pj 
Sii^^cop BoLcoria^ araBiov^ ifcarop i^T^/covrat 6 Be 
Boioi>Tiafco<i dir i/cGLPOv fcifcXi^rat, TrXrjaLop S’ 
iffrlp *Oy)(rj<TTOv vtto rw ^oLPifCitp opei, d(j)' od 
/cal pLercovopLaaraL ^oi>Pc/cL<;* rrj^ Be @rj^aLa<i Kal 
TOVTO Xeyeraiy [i/tt’ ivLoop^J Be t ^9 'AX^aprta? fcal 
MeSecbi' /cal ^£l/caXea,^ 

27. Elra cl>r}cri 

Ke»7ra9 Evrprjcrip re rroXvrprjp^pd re %i(T^rjv, 

rrepl pbkv oZv Ecott&p ecprjrat, 7rpo<rdp/crio<; Be 
icrrip iirl rfj KcoTra/Si XipLP'p, ai S’ aXXai Kv/cXcp 
elalv aiBe* ^ A/cpai^iai, ^oiplkL^^ ’07;\;?;o-to9, ^AXL- 
aprons, ’fl/caXea ® ^ AXaXKopuepaL, "^lX^ovclop^ Ko- 
pcopeia, Kal to 76 iraXatop ovk ^p t ?79 Xip/vr}^ 
411 KOLpop opopba^ dXXd Kad^ eKaamiP irpb^ airy 
KaroLKiav eKeLprjf; eircawpLo^ iXeyerOy Eoyirah pisv 
T&v Kcottwz^, ^ AXiaprls ^ Se ^ AXidprov, Kal ovroa^ 
€7rl T&p aXXcoPf vcrrepov S’ ^ iraaa Kcorrah eXe^^V 

1 [^A\a>v o"i t ’], lacuna of about six letters supplied by 
later MSS ; so the later editors. 

2 {o% r* ’EAeojy*], lacuna of about eight letters supplied by 
Hopper ; so the later editors. 

® Kpt<rcrai(p BE? 

^ [^?r’ eVijfyy, lacuna of about four letters supplied by 
Memeke ; Kramer conj. {/(p’ erdpcov ; bkno read UeTetiip 

320 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 2 26-27 

who lived about Harmaand Heilesiumand Erythrae, 
and those who held Eicon and Hyle and Peteon.” ^ 
Peteoii IS a village in the Theban temtoiy near the 
road to Anthedon Ocalee is midway between 
Haliaitus and Alalcomeniumj thiity stadia distant 
from each ; and a rivei beaiing the same name flows 
past it. The Phocian Medeon is on the Crisaean 
Gulf, at a distance of one hundred and sixty stadia 
fiom Boeotia, whereas the Boeotian Medeon, which 
was named after it, is near Onchestus at the base of 
the mountain Phoenicius , and from this fact its 
name has been changed to Phoemcis This moun- 
tain is also called a part of the Theban teintory; 
but by some both Medeon and Ocalea are called a 
part of the territory of Haliartus. 

27 . Homer then goes on to say: ^“^Copae, and 
Eutresis, and Thisbe abounding in doves Con- 
cerning Copae I have already spoken ® It lies 
towards the noith on Lake Copais, and the others 
around the lake are these : Acraephiae, Phoemcis, 
Onchestus, Haliartus, Ocalea, Alalconienae, Til- 
phusium, Coioneia, In early times, at least, the 
lake had no common name, but was called by 
different names corresponding to the several settle- 
ments lying on it, as, for instance, Copais from 
Copae, Haliartis from Haliartus, and so m the case 
of the rest of the settlements; but later the whole 
lake was called Copais, this name prevailing over 

1 lhad 2 499. 2 2 502. 

3 9 2 18. 


® ’jQ/caAw, CoraiSj for ‘’D.mKat , so Meineke 
3 ’HKaAea, Corais, for "'ClKuXai ; so Memeke 
7 *AX lafyrls, for *AKiapro5, conj Kramer; so Memeke reads, 

521 


VOL. IV 


Y 



STRABO 


Kar imfcpdrecav* KoiXoraropydp rovro to 'xoipiov* 
Ulivhapo^ Be /cal Kr)<})i<rcr[Ba /caXel ravrrjv* irapa- 
ridriaL yovv T7 )v TtX(f)&(T(Tav Kprjvrjv vtto 
TtXipcocrcrLcp opet piovcrav irXrjaLov ^AXtdprov /cal 
*AXaX/co/jL6vd)Vj €<^’ rj to Teipeaiov pbvrjfia' avrov 
Be Kul TO rov TLX<f)(oa‘(rLov ' AttoXXcovo^s iepov* 

28. "O Se 7roi7)Tr}<s ra2<; Kco7r<x^9 Eut/jj^- 

aiv TLdrjac, /ccofiLov ©eaTrieoav* ivravOd (f>acn 
ZijOov /cal ^Api^Lova ol/crjcraL, nrplv jBaatXeva-ai 
©rj^&v fj Be @L(T^r) %i<T^aL vvv Xeyovra/,^ 
ol/celraL Be jaiKpov virep T 779 0aXdrTr)<; opopov 
©ecnnevat to x^pLov /cal tt} Kop(oveia/c§, vtto- 
7r€7rrco/co<; i/c tov votlov p€pov<; 'EXt/c&vi /cal 
avTO* eTTiveiov S’ 7reTpG)Be<; irepiarepSiv 

pearov, i(j>^ o5 (prjalv 6 TrocTjrrjf; iroXvrpijpcopd 
re &icrl3rjp*^’ ttXoS? S’ €<ttIv ivdepBe eh Xt/cv&pa 
craBimv e/carov e^ij/covra, 

29. Be TLopdovecav /caraXeyet /cal ^AXiaprov 
/cal TlXaracdf; /cal rxiacrapra, 77 pev ovv Ko- 
pdoveca iyyi/^ rod ^EiXL/c^v6<; iarop e(jE>’ yylrov^ 
iBpvpevr), KareXd/Sovro S’ avTr)v eTravLOPre^ i/c 
rrj<; ®€TraXi/cr]<; ''Apvrj<; ol ^olcotoI pera ra 
Upcoi/cd, ore irep Kal top ^Op'Xppevov eaxov 
/cpaT'ijaavTe^ Be T '^9 K.opci)peia<i iv t& Trpo avTT}^ 
TreBitp to rfj^ ’Ircopca^ ^ ^Adr^pd^i lepop iBpvcraPTo, 
opcovvpov T^ @eTTaXi/c^, /cal top Trapappeovra 
worapov Kovdpcov ^ Trpoarjyopevorav opo/^dvco^ t^ 
€/cet, *AX/ca2o<} Be /caXei K.copdXioPy Xeycov* 

1 *lTfl ytaSf for ’Iwv/as, con]. Pletho ; so later editors read. 
322 



GEOGRAPHY, 9 2. 27-29 

all others , foi the region of Copae forms the deepest 
recess of the lake Pindar calls this lake Cephissis , ^ 
at any rate^ he places near it the spimg Tilphossa^ 
which flows at the foot of Mount Tilphossius near 
Haliaitus and Alalcomenae, near which latter is the 
tomb of Teiiesias ; and here, too, is the temple of 
the Tilphossian Apollo. 

28 . Next in older after Copae Homer names 
Eutresis, a small village of the Thespians, where 
Zethus and Ampliion are said to have lived before 
they leigned over Thebes Thisbe is now called 
Thisbae , the place is inhabited and is situated 
slightly above the sea, boi dering on the territory of 
the Thespians and on that of Coioneia, and it, too, 
lies at the foot of Helicon on the south ; and it has 
a sea-poit situated on a rocky place, which abounds 
m doves, in refeience to which the poet says, 

Thisbe abounding in doves.” From here to Sicyon 
is a voyage of one hundred and sixty stadia 

29 Next Homer names Coroneia, Hahartus, 
Plataeae, and Ghssas. Now Coroneia is situated on 
a height near Helicon. The Boeotians took pos- 
session of it on their return from the Thessalian 
Arn^ after the Trojan War, at which time they also 
occupied Orchomenus. And when they got the 
mastery of Coroneia, they built m the plain before 
the city the temple of the Itonian Athena, bearing 
the same name as the Thessalian temple ; and they 
called the river y, hich flowed past it Cuarius, giving 
it the same name as the Thessalian river. But 
Alcaeus calls it Coralius, when he says, Athena, 

1 Cp. 9 2 20. 


® Kovdpiov, for KovdxioP) conj Palmer , so later editors read, 

323 



STRABO 


^ [w V]a<7<r’ ^Adavda 7roXe[fjL7]S6fCO^], 
a TTOL ^ Kopcov€La<i ® iirl Xa(co ^ 
vavoo Trdpocdep [a//,^i]/3atz^649 ^ 

KcopaXio) TTorafioj irap oydai^, 

evravOa Be /cal rd TlapL^oidria avveriXovv* 
avy/caOLBpvrai, Be rfj ^ AQr\va 6 KiBrj*; Kara riva^ 
&<; (pacrif fivari/c^v air Lav. oi jiev ovv ev ry 
KopcoveLa Kopclovioi Xeyovrai, ol S’ ev IsJleaar)- 
via/cfj K.opcovaeh ® 

30. ^AXLaprof; Be vvv ovKerL iarL, /caraa/ca^elaa 

ev T<p 7rpo<i Hepaea TToXefiq)^ Tr)v exovcriv 

^AOrjvalot Bovrcov 'PcopbaLcov e/ceiro Be iv a‘rev& 
%a)/otw pLera^v vrrep/ceLfMevov 6pov<i /cal t^9 
Kft)7ra4So9 XLpbvrj^ TrXrjaLov rov Ileppycrcrov /cal 
Tov ^OXfiecou /cal rov eXov^ rov (f)V0VT09 rov 
avX'/jrt/cov /caXapLOv. 

31. TLXaraial Be, a9 evi/co>^ eiTrev 6 rrotijrT]^, 
412 vTTo Ktdacp&vL el<Ti fiera^v avrov /cal %r}^o)v 

Kara rrjv oBov rrjv eh ^AOrjva^ Kal Meyapa eVl 
ra)v opcov ro)v ’ATTi/c% Kal t?}9 MeyapLBo(;,^ 
ai^ yap ^EAevOepaX ttXtjo-lov, 0,9 oi pih 
ArriK^^, oi Be Ti}9 Bo4&>Tta9 (paaLv. elpt^jai S’ 
ore irapappel rd^ nXaTaia9 o ^ Act cotton; . evravBa 
MapBoveov koX rd^ rpiaKovra puvpidBa^ TLepatav 
ai r&v ^KXX7]vcov Bvvd/xei^ dpBr]v r)<pdvecrav* 

^ [S> 'Adapda 7ro\€[fjL7}B6Kos2 ' so read the later editors, 
following Weloker, inserting 5 V before acror’ and supplying 
the lacuna of about seven letters after TroAe 
® d wot, Welcker, for M, so later editors 
® Kopcoveias, Welcker, for Koipoovlas , so later editors. 

^ Kalco, Welcker, for auw] , so later editors. 

® [dfx^i]^aiveis, lacuna of about seven letters supplied by 
Welcker , so later editors 

324 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 2. 29-31 

warrior queen, who dost keep watch o*er the corn- 
fields of Coroneia before thy temple on the banks of 
the Coialiiis Rivei.” Here, too, the Pamboeotian 
Festival used to be celebiated And for some mystic 
leason, as they say, a statue of Hades ^ was dedicated 
along with that of Athena Now the people in 
Coroneia are called Coronii, wheieas those in the 
Messenian Coioneia aie called Coronaeis. 

30 Haliartus is no longer in existence, having 
been rased to the giound in the w^ai against Perseus ; 
and the countiy is held by the Athenians, a gift 
from the Romans. It was situated ma naiiow place, 
between the mountain situated above it and Lake 
Copais, neai the Permessus and Olmeius Rivers and 
the marsh that produces the flute-ieed 

31 Plataeae, which Homer 2 speaks of in the 
singular number, is at the foot of Cithaeron, between 
it and Thebes, along the road that leads to Athens 
and Megara, on the confines of Attica and Megans ; 
for Eleutherae is neai by, which some say belongs 
to Attica, others to Boeotia I have alieady said® 
that the Asopus flows past Plataeae Here it was 
that the forces of the Greeks completely wiped out 
Mardonius and his three hundred thousand Persians ; 

^ P Foucart (see BiilUti'n dc la Correspondame HelUmqiic, 
1885, ix 433), on the basis of a Boeotian inscription, con- 
jectures that Hades” should be corrected to ‘‘Ares ” 

^ Ihad2 3 8.6 24 


® Kopaav^s BE^ 

’OA/xetoS E, ^OKpiov Acghilno 

3 Bu Theil, Corais, Groskurd, and Meineke, 

following conj of Pletho, emend to Boicorlas 

3 a/, Memeke inserts, following conj of Kiamer; others, 
fiVf. 

^3 Map56vwVf the later editors, for MapBf&viov 

325 



STRABO 


IBpvcravTo re ^EXevOepiov A409 lepov fcal ayS>va 
yvfjLViKov a-T€(f>aviTr]v uTriSei^av, ^EXevffipca Trpo^ 
aajop 6 va-avr 6 <;' ra^rj re Bel/ciwrai SrfpLocria t&v 

T€X€VTr}<TdvTCOV iv TYj p^Ci')(Jp» €aTl Be KOI iv TT) 

%iicv(dvL(} Bijfio^ HXaratac, oOevirep MvaadXKTj^ 

6 TroL7}Tri<;' 

MmoraX/ceo? TO pLvafxa rS> TlXaraLaBa* 

TXLaaavra Be Xejei /caroiKtav iv TCp ^TTrarw 
opeij 0 i<Triv iv tt) @rj/3aiKp TrXrjciov llevp.'rjacrov 
KoX T^9 KaS/xeta?. rd yeci>Xo(f>a KaXecTai 
ApL[a 0 I 9 vTvo'irJi'irTet ^ to ^Aoviov ^ KaXovfievov 
TreBiov, 0 Biareivei [P'ixP^^ ®r)^&v airo rod 
^TTraroi; opov<;, 

32* To S’ OVTO) prjOiv, 

OL 6' ^T7ro07]^a<; el^ov, 

ol /X€Z/ oVTac TToXeiSiov tl ^T^irodri^af; KaXov- 
pLevoVf Ol Be rd<; TlorvLa<;* rd^ ydp 
ixXeXei^dai Bid rrjv r&v ^Eiriyovcov arpareiav 
Kal pr} pberacrx^iv rov Tpcoi/cov iroXepov ol Be 
pLeracT’x^iv pev, olxeiv Be vtto jfi EaBpeLa rore 
iv TOt 9 iTTiTriSoi^ ;)^a)ptox9, /xera ryv rd>v ^Eiriyovcov 
d(j)oSov Tf)v KaBpeiav dBvvarovvTa^ dvaKTio-ar 
irrel Se ^ KaS/xeta itcaXeiro vtto ®?;^a9 

elireiv dvrl rov vtto rrj KaS/xeta oi/covvTa<i rov 
Troir}T7}v rov<i Tore &}]l3aiov^. 

33. ’07%?7crT09 S’ icrrlv ottov to ^ Api(j>iKTVOvi/cov 
^ rh 5e, Jones inserts 

* Aplla oh ^7ro7r]iirT6t, lacuna of about six letters supplied 
by Oroslturd Meineke ejects yec&Xocpa ... Spt from the 
text, and reads ^ instead of oh. See Aawias . Apiov 
6 . 3 . 9 . 

326 



GEOGRAPHY, 9 2 31-33 

and they built a temple of Zeus Eleutherius, and 
instituted the athletic games m which the victor 
received a crown, calling them the Eleutheria And 
tombs of those who died in the battle, erected at 
public expense, are still to be seen In Sicyonia, 
also, there is a deme called Plataeae, the home of 
Mnasalces the poet . ^ The tomb of Mnasalces the 
Plataean Homer speaks of Glissas, a settlement 
in the mountain Hypatus, which is in the Theban 
country neai Teumessus and Cadmeia The hillocks 
below which lies the Aonian Plain, as it is called, 
which extends fiom the Hypatus mountain to Thebes, 
are called ^^Dria.” ^ 

32 In these words of the poet, and those who 
held Hypothebes,” ^ some take him to mean some 
little city called Hypothebes, others Potniae , for 
Thebes, the latter say, was deserted because of the 
expedition of the Epigones and had no part in the 
Trojan War The former, however, say that the 
Thebans indeed had a jiait m the \var, but that they 
were living in the level distiicts below Cadmeia^ at 
that time, since they were unable to rebuild Cadmeia ; 
and since Cadmeia was called Thebes, they add, the 
poet called the Thebans of that time Hypothebans ” 
instead of people who live below Cadmeia/' 

33. Onchestus is where the Amphictyonic Council 

^ Of his woiks only sixteen epigra-ms are now extant 

® Thickets.’^ ® Iliads 505. 

^ The acropoh*? of Thebes. 


® Corais, for ovtov Ajghi, 'l6viov hkno , so the later 

editors 

* lfi4xpts lacuna of about twelve letters supplied 

by 0 Muller {I'iid Far Leaf , p 1001) ; others, eh tV 
Kab/xeitip, 

327 




STRABO 


avvTjyero iv rfj 'AXiaprLa 7rpb<; rf) Kco'jraiBi Xtpbvrf 
KoX Tw llTjvepiK^ Trehi(p, ev vyjreL /cecjnevofi 'ifriXo^, 
IlocreiS&po^ lepov, kcu avro 'xjriXov, oi Se 
TTOiTjral fcoorpLOvaiVy aXarj /caXovvre^ ra iepa 
irdvra, kuv ^ y^tXd tolovtov icrri icaX to tov 
TLivBdpov Trepl tov ^AttoXXcovo^ Xeyofievov* 

[Ki\vr)6e\<; ^ eiryeL 

ydv T6 /cal ddXaaaav^ /cal a /coir taler iv fieydXaif; 
opicov virep eVra, 

fcal pbvXovf; StvdcraTo ^ l3aXX6[/jLevo<; /cp7}7rLBa<; 
dXcricov, 

ovK eS S’ 0 ^AX/calo^y Sanrep to tov TTOTajiov 
ovopua TrapeTpe'yfre tov Kovapiov^ ovto) /cal tov 
’07%^?<7TOi) /caTeyjrevcrTat Tryoo? raZ? icr^aTiali^ tov 
C 413 ^EiXL/ca>po<i avTov TiOei<i* o S’ eaTlv aircodev i/cav&^ 

TOVTov TOV 6pov<;» 

34. To Se Trjv€pt/cbv ireBtov dirb Trjvipov 
Trpoa-rjjopevTai^ fivdeverat S’ ’A7roXXo)ro9 V£09 i/c 
MeXta?, Trpo(f)7jTfj<s tov ptavreLov /caTa to TIt&ov 
op09, 0 cfyrjcnv elvat TpL/c6pv(j>ov 6 avTb<i TTOiyjTy)^' 

/cal TTore Tbv Tpi/cdpavov IlToiou KevOpuebva 
A;aT6cr%€0e* 

/cal Tbv TT^z^eyooz^ /ccCXel 

vaoTToXov pbdvTiv Bairkhoicnv opLOKXea. 

vTrep/cetTat Be to IItSoi' tov Tr^vepi/cov ireBLov 
/cal T^9 Ko)7ra6So9 XlpLvr)^ 7r/)09 ' AKpaicj^itp' 

@r}^al(ov S’ TO Te pavTelov /cal to opo9' to 

^ [Kt\vyiB^ls, lacuna of about two letters Jones supplies, 
following conj. of Meineke, who, in his text, reads BivTidelf, 
Bergk {Frag 101) reads TrepiBivaBeis 

328 



GEOGRAPHY, 9 2 33-34 

used to convene, in the tei'iitorj of Haliartus near 
Lake Copais and the Teneric Plain ; it is situated on a 
height, is bare of ti ees, and has a sacred precinct of 
Poseidon, which is also baie of trees But the poets 
embellish things, calling all sacred piecincts sacred 
groves,’* even if the}’^ are bare of trees Such, also, 
IS the saying of Pindar concerning Apollo ; stirred, 
he traversed both land and sea, and halted on great 
lookouts above mountains, and whirled great stones, 
laying foundations of sacred gioves But Alcaeus 
is wrong, foi just as he perverted the name of the 
River Cuarius, so he falsified the position of Onchestus, 
placing it near the extremities of Helicon, although 
it is at quite a distance fiom this mountain 

34 - The Teneric Plain is named after Tenerus 
In myth he was the son of Apollo by Melia, and was 
a prophet of the oracle on the Ptous Mountain, 
which the same poet calls three-peaked . and once 
he took possession of the three-peaked hollow of 
Ptous And he calls Tenerus ^‘temple-minister, 
piophet, called by the same name as the plains *’ 
The Ptous lies above the Teneric Plain and Lake 
Copais near Acraephiuin Both the oracle and the 
mountain belonged to the Thebans. And Acraephium 

^ i e foundations of temples This fragment from Pindar 
IS otherwise unknown (see Bergk, Frag 101) 

* Bergk, Frag, 102 


^ jx6\ovs SivcicraTo, C Muller {hid. Far, Leet p 1001), for 
fivxoifs divdatraro {^eivda-aro Acghi). Muller- Diibner and 
Bergk read pvxo^s divdaffaro, forcing the verb to mean 
‘shake ” Of other readings suggested only that of Em- 
perius, fivxohs 5’ ipdaaaro took up his abode in”), is at all 
temptmg- 

® fiaK\6\ji6vos]y lacuna supplied by Meineke. 


329 



STRABO 


S’ ^ Afcpaitpiov Kul avTO tcelrai ev vyjrec ^a<n Se 
toOto KaXeiadai "'Apvrjv vtto tov ttocyjtov, 
opLcovvpov rfj ©erraXi/c^. 

35. Oi Se <j)acn /cal rijv ''Apvrjv vtto rrj^; Xipvr]<; 
/caraTTodrjvac /cal rrjv MiBecav. Zrjv6BoTo<; Be, 
ypd(f>cDV 

ot Be iroXvcndc^vXov ^Aa/cp/jv e)(pv, 

ov/c eoi/cev ivTV')(^6vTi^ roi<f vtto ^HcioBov irepl ^ 
TrarpiBo^ Xe^Oelai /cal rot? utt’ EvBo^ov, ttoXv 
%e6/)a) XiyovTO^ Trepl Tr]<^''Acr/cpr}<;, ttw? yap dv 
Ti9 TroXvard^vXov t^v Toiavrrjv vtto tov ttoltjtov 
Xeyeadat TncrTevaetev ; ov/c eS Be ovBe ^ oi HdpVTjv 
dvrl r7j<;''Apv7)<; ypd(^ovTe<; ovBe yap fxia Bei/cwrai 
Tdpvr) Tvaph tol<; ^olcotoI^;, iv Be AvBot<^ ecrriv, f}<i 
Kal "OjuLTjpo^ pLepLifrjraL' 

'lBop6vei)<} S’ dpa ^alarrov evrjparo lArjOVo^^ 
viov 

'Bwpov, 09 iic Ta/>z^?79 ipi/3ooXa/cof^ elXrjXovffei. 

Xociral S’ elal r&v puev irepi/cetpievcov rfj XLpvrj 
ai re ^ AXaX/copueval Kal to TLX<j)d)<T(TLov,^ rmf S’ 
aXXcvv 'Kaipcoveia Kal Ae^dBeia Kal AevKrpa, 
Trepl &v d^iov pvrjaOfjvat. 

36. ^ AXaXKopuev&u roLvvv pbepLyrirai 6 TrotriTrj<;, 
aXX’ ovK iv KaraXoycp* 

^^apT} r’ ^Apyeirj Kal 'AXaXKop.evqi^; ^A6r}vr), 

ex^b S’ dpxcdiov lepov ^Adrfvd<i acpoBpa Tipbdpievov, 
Kai (f>ao-i ye rrjv deov yeyevrjadai ivOdBe, Ka- 
Bdirep Kal Trjv *'}ipav iv "^Apyei, Kal Bid rovro 

^ oiSe, Memeke, for oifre, 

330 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 2. 34-36 

itself also lies on a height They say that this is 
called Arne by the poet, the same name as the 
Thessalian city 

35. Some say that Arne too was swallowed up by 
the lake, as well as Mideia ^ Zenodotus, who writes 

and those who possessed Ascre^ rich m vineyards,'* 
seems not to have read the statements of Hesiod 
concerning his native land, nor those of Eudoxus, 
who says much worse things concerning Ascre. For 
how could anyone believe that such a place was 
called ^^nch in vineyards” by the poet? Wrong, 
also, are those who write ^^Tarn6*’ instead of ^Arn6’', 
for not a single place named Tame is pointed out 
among the Boeotians, though there is one among the 
Lydians, and this the poet mentions * Idomeneus 
then slew Phaestus, son of Borus the Maeonian, who 
came from fertile Tarn^.*’ The remaming Boeotian 
cities concerning which it is worth while to make 
mention are : of those situated lound the lake, 
Alalcomenae and Tilphossium, and, of the rest, 
Chaeroneia, Lebadeia, and Leuctia. 

36. Now as for Alalcomenae, the poet mentions it, 
but not 111 the Catalogue; ^^Argive Hera and Alal- 
comeman Athena.”^ It has an ancient temple of 
Athena which is held in great honour ; and they 
say, at least, that the goddess was born there, just as 
Hera was born in Argos, and that it was because of 

1 Of 1 . 3 18 

® it, Zenodotus emended Homer’s {lhad%^ 507) 

to “ Ascre ” 

3 Ihad 4 8 


2 M^ovos, Du Theil, for tIktopos; so most later editors 

3 Tiir<p^(riov Ach 


331 




STRABO 


TOV TTOirjT'^Vy 0)9 UTTO TTaTpLhwV TOVTCdVi afM<^OTepa^ 

oifTco^ ovop^daai, hid rovro S’ 6crci)9 ovS^ iv 
KaraXoyo) pLepyr^rau tS>v ivravda dvhpS)v, eireihri, 
lepol 01/769, TrapelvTO T7]<i arpareLa^. koX yap 
teal d7r6pdr]ro<; del SceriXecrev rj 7ro\i9, ovre 
peydXrj o^cra^ ovr iv evepfcel Xo^pico Ketpevq, 
dXX^ iv irehL^i* T 7 )v Se deov crejSopevoi 7 rdvr€<? 
direixovTO TTd(Tr)<i y8ta9, Serre /cal ®7]^alob Kara ^ 
Tr)v r&v ^^inyovoav arpareLav, ifcXiTrovre^i rrjv 
TToXcv, ifceicre Xeyovrat /caTa(^evy6iv icai eh to 
vTrepfceipevov opo^ ipvpvov to TtX(^(!><T(Tiov 9 v<j^' 
(p TiX(l>&(r(Ta Kprjvrj /cal ro rov Teipealov pvPfpa, 
itcel reXevTriaavTO<i Kara rrjv ^vyrjv. 

0414 37. l^aipcoveia S’ icrrlv ^Opxopevov irXrjcrLov^ 

OTTOV ^LXlittto^ 0 ^ApvpTOV pdxv peydXj} vifcrjaa^^ 
^Adrjvaiov^ re /cal Boicoroi/*; /cal "Kopivdiov^ 
/carecTTTj ^EXXaSo9 /cvpio^i* heL/cwrai Be /edv- 
ravOa Ta<pr) t<!}V Tvecrovrcov iv rf) pdxv Brjpoaia' 
rrepl Be tov<; tottov^ tou9 avrov^ /cal ^Bcopaloi 
7^9 ^iiBpLBdrov Bvvdpei^ rroWcov pvptdBcov 
/carrjycoviaavTO, &crT dXiyov^ iirl OdXarrav 
(TcoOevra^ (pvyelv iv rah vaval, rov<: S’ dXXovf; 
TOV<; pev diroXeaQai, rom Be /cal dXcavat, 

38 . Ae/SaSeta S’ icrrlv ottov Aco<; T po(f)coviov 
pavreiov iBpvrai, p^a(r^aT09 virovopov KardfSaertv 
exov, /cara^aivei 8 ’ au 709 o %/)? 7 < 7 T 7 ?pta 5 ’o/x€z/ 09 * 
fcelrai Se pera^v rov 'EXi/ccoz/o? /cal 7/79 Xa^- 
pcoveia^t Kopcov€ia<; TrXr^crLoy, 


332 


1 338 B.C. 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 2. 36-^38 

this that the poet named them botli in this way, as 
natives of these places. And it was because of this, 
perhaps, that he did not mention in the Catalogue 
the men of Alalcomenae, since, being sacred, they 
were excused from the expedition And in fact the 
city always continued unravaged, although it was 
neithei large noi situated in a secure position, but in 
a plain. But all peoples, since they revered the 
goddess, held aloof from any violence towards the 
inhabitants, so that when the Thebans, at the time 
of the expedition of the Epigones, left their city, 
they are said to have fled for refuge to Alalcomenae, 
and to Tilphossius, the mountain, a natural strong- 
hold that lies above it , and at the base of this 
mountain is a spring called Tilphossa, and the 
monument of Teiresias, who died there at the time 
of the flight 

37 Chaeroneia is near Oichomenus It was here 
that Philip the son of Amyntas conquered the 
Athenians, Boeotians, and Corinthians in a great 
battle,^ and set himself up as loid of Greece. And 
here, too, are to be seen tombs of those who fell in 
the battle, tombs erected at public expense And it 
was in the same region that the Romans so 
completely defeated the forces of Mithridates, many 
tens of thousands in number, that only a few escaped 
in safety to the sea and fled in their ships, whereas 
the rest either perished or were taken captive 

38 At Lebadeia is situated an oracle of Tropho- 
nian Zeus TKe oracle has a descent into the earth 
consisting of an undergiound chasm, and the person 
who consults the oracle descends into it himself. It 
is situated between Mt. Helicon and Chaeroneia, 
near Coroneia. 


333 



STRABO 


39. Ta Se AevKTpd iariv oirov AatcehaiixovLov^ 
(MeydXrj fid^O VLKYjaa^ ’ETra/zeiz^cwi^Sa^ dp')(^v 
evpero tt}? icaraAvam^i avrc^v* ovfceri yap 
i/ceivov rr]v tS>v ^RXki^vcov '^ye/aovlav dvaXa^elv 
t<T)(va'av fjv el^ov TTporepov, iccxX pLoXiar iTreihi) 
teal rfj Sevrepa avpb^oKy rfj irepl VLavTiveiav 
Katew eirpa^av, to p^evroL fi^ vcj) erepot^ ^ elvai, 
fcaiTrep ovreo^ iirraifcocn, (Tuvepbeiue pL6)(pL t?)? 
^PcojLiaicov eiTLicpaTeLa^' teal Trapa tovtol^ Se 
TLpbdpevot, ^iar€\Qv<Tt Sid rrjv rijs: TroXirda^ 
dpeTTjV, Seltcwrai Se 6 totto? o5to9 tcara Tr)v 
itc UXaTai&v eh ©ecTredf^ 6S6 p» 

40. S’ 0 7roL7}rr]<; p.epivif}raL rov r&v 
Op)(opL€vl(ov tcaTaXoyov, ^(typi^cov avrov^ diro rov 
Boicoria/cov €dvov<^. tcaXei Se Xlivveiov rov 
^Op'xpfievov diro e0vov<; rov M.ivv&p^ ivrevdev 
Se aTTOitCTjcrai Tiva<i r&v Mipv&p eh ^IcoX/cop 
(f^acriv, odev rov<; ^Apyovavra^s yiivva^ Xe'xp'^vai* 
ipaiperai Se to iraXatop teal TrXovaia rL<; yeyopvta 
7roXi9 teal SvpajMevY} peya" rov pep ovv rrXovrov 
pdprv^ teal ^'Opr)po<i' SiapiOpovpepo^ yap rov^i 
TOTTOV^ Tov^ rroXvxpT) parser aprd<i^ (j^rjcriv* 

ovS' 6V’ €9 ^Op')(^opepov TTOTipiacreTaii ovS* ora 

@?;/3a9 

Alyvirriaf;* 

rr}<s Svvdpem Se, on ©rj^aloi Saapov iriXovv 
roh 'Op')(pp€pLoi^ teaX ^PipyLvep r^ rvpapvovPTt 
avreop, OP v<f> ^BpateXeov^i KaraXvdrjpaC ^aaip, 
’ETeo.vX^9 Si, rcop ^aaiXevcrdprcov ev ^Opj(ppep(p 

^ krepav oegM 

334 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 2. 39-40 

39 Leiictra is the place where Epameinondas 
defeated the Lacedaemonians in a great battle and 
found a beginning of his overthiow of them, for 
aftei that time they were never again able to 
regain the hegemony of the Greeks which they 
foimerly held, and esioecially because they alsofaied 
badly in the second clash neai Mantineia However^ 
although they had sufFei ed such reverses, they con- 
tinued to avoid being subject to others until the 
Roman conquest And among the Romans, also, 
they have continued to be held in honour because 
of the excellence of their government This place 
IS to be seen on the road that leads from Plataeae 
to Thespiae 

40 . Next the poet gives the catalogue of the 
Orchomenians, whom he separates from the Boeotian 
tribe He calls Orchomenus Minyeian,” after the 
tribe of the Minyae. They say that some of the 
Mmyae emigrated fiom here to lolcus, and that from 
this fact the Aigonauts were called Minyae Clearl}'^ 
It was 111 eaily tunes both a rich and very poweiful 
city. Now to its wealth Homer also is a witness, 
for when enumerating the places that abounded in 
wealth he says : Nor yet all that comes to Orcho- 
menus ^ nor all that comes to Egyptian Thebes ^ 
And of its power there is this proof, that the Thebans 
were wont to pay tribute to the Orchomenians and 
to Erginus their tyrant, who is said to have been put 
to death by Heracles Eteocles, one of those who 
reigned as king at Orchomenus, who founded a 

1 On the treasury of Orchomenus, see Pausanias 8 38 

2 Iliad 9 381. 


® Tro\vxp^i^o.’r^<J‘ 0 ‘VraSi Corais, for vo\vxpi 1 IJ'CtTiorapras , so 
Memeke. 

335 




STRABO 


Ti9, X.apLTCiov iepov i^^pvadpevof;, irp&ro^ diMcj>6- 
repa ifKpaivec, fcal ttXovtov fcal hvvafXLV' 09, 
eir ev Xap^dveiv %aptTa9 eW iv t& hihovai 
C 415 Karopd&v eiTe /cal dpL^orepa, rd^ ffed^ iripTjae 
TavTa<;, ^ dvdy/crj ydp 7r/oo9 evepyeaiav ev^vf) 
yevopevov e/celvov Trpo^ rr)v r&v d€d)v tovtcov 
oppurjcraL Tip.r\Vy &crT€ ravTrjv puev e/ce/cr^ro 
TYjv Bvva/Jiiv* dXXd 7r/>09 ravrjj /cal ’X^prjpbdrcov 
eBer ovre ydp pbij eyoav t49 iroKXd BiSolt] av 
TToXkd, ovre fir) ^ XapbjSdvcov iroXXd ov/c av 
moXXd' el B' dpucj^orepa a‘vve)(ei, rrjv d/JLOLprjv 
to ydp /cevovpevov apa Kal 'irX'qpovpevov 
77^009 T7]v %yoeiaz/ del irXrjpe^ eartv, 6 Be BiBov<; 
pev, prj Xap/Sdvcov Be, ovS* dv iirl Qdrepa Karop- 
OoLiy Travaerat ydp BtBov^f iTriXeuTTOVTOf; rov 
rapeiov,^ 'TravaovraL Be /cal ol BiBovre^ t& Xap- 
^dvQVTi povov, prjBev, &crT ovB^ 

o5to9 irep(o<; av /caropdoiTj, opoia Be /cal rrepl 
Bvvdpeoi^ XeyoLT dv, %co/)i9 Be rov /coivov Xoyov, 
Bioto 

rd XPVP^^'^^ dvOpcoTTOLCTL ripidrara, 

BvvapLv re irXeicmjv r&v iv dv9pcl>7roc<; 

/cal iK r&v /ca6^ e/caara a/coirelv Bei, paXuara 
ydp T0V9 ^acTiXea^ Bvvaadai cj^apev BiOTrep /cal 
Bvvdara^; Trpoaayopevopev, Bvvavrai S’ dyovre^ 
i(j) a ^ovXovrai rd rrX'^ffrj Sid rrecffov^ ^ /Sca^;, 
•ireidovat pev ovv Be evepyeaia^ pdXiara ov ydp 
Tj ye Bid r&v Xoycov iarl ^aaiXt/o], aXX’ aiin] 

^ avdyKT} yap 6 irAeln-ra KCKTTifxivos appears to be a 
gloss, as Kramer notes. Meineke ejects. 

* p.'fi, Tyrwhitt inserts 

® A. 

336 



GEOGRAPHY, 9 2 40 

temple of the Graces, was the first to display both 
wealth and power, for he honoured these goddesses 
eithei because he w^as successful in 1 eceiving graces/ 
or in giving them, or both For necessarily, when 
he had become naturally inclined to kindly deeds, he 
began doing honour to these goddesses ; and there- 
fore he already possessed this power, but in addition 
he also had to have money, for neithei could anyone 
give much if he did not have much, nor could anyone 
have much if he did not leceive much But if he 
has both together, he has the lecipiocal giving and 
receiving ; for the vessel that is at tlie same time 
being emptied and filled is always full for use , but 
he who gives and does not receive could not succeed 
in either, for he will stop giving because his treasury 
fails; also the givers will stop giving to him who 
receives only and grants no favours ; and therefore 
he could not succeed in either way And like things 
might be said concerning power. Apart fiom the 
common saying, money is the most valuable thing 
to men, and it has the most power of all things 
among men,” we should look into the subject in 
detail We say that kings have the greatest power , 
and on this account we call them potentates They 
aie potent m leading the multitudes wdiither they 
wish, through persuasion or foice Generally they 
persuade through kindness, for persuasion through 
words is not kingly ; indeed, this belongs to the 

^ I e favours 


* After raixdov, the last word on the page, a whole sheet 
has been lost from A, and A resumes at ‘ErrTrep/coj/ koI r&v m 
9. 3 1, But the missing part is supplied by the second 
hand. 


z 


VOL, IV 


337 



STRABO 


fiev pTjTopLfcrjy /SacriXifcrjv Be TreLdo) \iyo/jL€Vy orav 
ev€pj€(TLac^ ^ipcocrt koX Biayoauw^ i<j>^ a ^ov- 
Xovrai' TveLdovai fiev Bi) Bi evepyeaLo^v, /Sid^ovTac 
Be Bed r&v ottXcov* ravra S’ dpLc^co 'x^prjpLaTGiv 
MV La icTTL* Kal yap arparidv e^ei 'irXeLaTrjv 6 
rpecf^eiv BvvdpLevo<;y Kal evepyerelv Bvvarai irXei- 
arov o TrXelcTTa fcefCTYnxevo^. 

Key oval Be to 'X^Mpiov, oirep rj XLjJbvr} KaTe'yei 
vvv 97 KcoTTa/?, dve‘^v)(daL Trporepov, Kal yecop'” 
yelcrOai TTavToBarnr&^ viro rot? ^Op')(ppevLoL<; 6 v? 
7 rX 7 )a-L 0 V oIkovctc' Kal tovt otfv TeKprjpiov rov 
ttXovtov Tideaat 

41. S’ ^ Ko’TrX'rjBova t^9 TTpeorrj^; 

avXXa^rj^; eKaXovv Tcvh" elr EvSeteXo? percovo- 
pLaaOrj Kal avrr) Kal 97 xcopay raxa re IBCoofia 
wpoaej^epo/JLevr} eK rov BecXivov KXiparo^ oIkbIov 
T 0 Z 9 KaTOtKoixTL, Kal pLaXtaja to evx^^P^pov,^ 
'^v^poTUTa ph yap Td &Kpa t^9 rjpepa^ eaTi, 
TOVTMV Be TO BetXivov Tov icodivov 'irv'vpoTepov* 
669 eTTiTaaiv yap ayei irXrjcna^ov Tp vvkti,, to 
S’ 669 dveaev defaerTapievov T979 vvkto^. lapa Se 
TOV yjrvxov<; 6 ^\609' toz^ ovv ‘^Xia^opevov irXel- 
(XTOV ev TM ^frvxpoTaTqy KaipM evx^^P'^pd>TaTov, 

^ ^idycoffiv, Memeke emends to &y<a(riv. 

2 6uy Memeke, for 

3 \f/vxp<frara . . euxetjuepe^TaTOJ', apparently a gloss; 
ejected by Memeke, 


' Dezhnou khmatos* apparently a false etymology of 
“Eudeielos,” based on the fact that the effect of the sun’s 
heat 18 greatest in the deiU (evening). But the most likely 
meaning of eudmlos is “sunny,” the word being used of 
places exposed to the hot sun (e g see Pindar, 0 3 111 and 

338 




GEOGRAPHY, 9. 2. 40-41 

orator, whereas we call it kingly persuasion when 
kings win and attract men whither they wish by 
kindly deeds They persuade men, it is true, 
through kindly deeds, but they foice them by means 
of aims Botli these things may be bought with 
money , for he has the largest army who is able to 
support the largest, and he who possesses the most 
means is also able to show the most kindness. 

They say that the place now occupied by Lake 
Co pais was formeily dry ground, and that it was 
tilled in all kinds of ways when it w^as subject to the 
Orchomenians, who lived near it And this fact, 
accordingly, is adduced as an evidence of their wealth. 

41 . Aspledon w’as by some called Spledon, without 
the first syllable Then the name, both of it and of 
the country, was changed to Eudeielos, perhaps 
because, from its evening inclination,^ it offered a 
special advantage peculiar to its inhabitants, especially 
the mildness of its winters ; for the two ends of the 
day are coldest ; and of these the evening is colder 
than the morning, for as night approaches the cold is 
more intense, and as night retires it abates But the 
sun is a means of mitigating the cold The place, 
therefore, that is warmed most by the sun at the 
coldest time is mildest in winter. Eudeielos is twenty 

Gildersleeve’s note thereon), and having a southerly rather 
than an “evening” (westerly) inclination, as is the case mth 
Aspledon (Buttmann Zextlogus, s,v AeiXri §§ 7-9, gv) 
Butcher and Lang, and Murray, m their translations of the 
Odyssey {sg ^ 21), translate the word “clear-seen/* and 
Cunliffe {Lexicon Homeric Dialect)^ “ bright, shmmg,” as 
though used for efjBriKos Certainly Strabo, as the context 
shows, IS thinking of the position of the place and of the sun*s 
heat (see 10 2 12, where he discusses “ eudeielos Ithaca” at 
length). 


22 


339 



STRABO 


Be Tov "Opxofjievov ardSia eltcoaL" ixera^v 
S’ 0 MeXa? 'Trorajuo'i, 

C416 42. "TTripKetrat S’ ^Op^opLevla*; 6 liavoTrev^, 

^co/ci/crj TToXi?, /cal ^Tdpb7roXi<;* rovrot^ S’ 6p>opel 
’OttoO?, ?5 TTWz/ Ao/cp&v p^r^TpOTToki^ T&v 
pbiSicov, TTporepov pcev ovv oticeiaOai rov ^OpX0‘ 
pbevov cj)a<rLV eTrl TreSt©, iTfiTroXa^ovrcov Be r&v 
vBdrwv, dvotKKrdijvat 7rpo<^ to *A/c6vriov opo^, 
iraparelvov eirl e^rj/covra crraBiov^ Hapa- 

irorapLicov r&v iv tt} <i/co/ciBt. iaropovcri Be too? 
ip T^ IIooT^ /caXovjuiipov^ 'Axcllov^ dTroL/cov<i 
^Opxop^evicav elvai rcop fMera ^laXpevov TrXavTj&ev- 
ro)V e/cetae perd rrjp Ti?9 TpoLa<; aXmcrtv* /cal 
irepl K.dpvfjTov S’ ^OpXopev6<i» ev ydp rrjp 

TOiavTYjv vXrjv vTrojSe^Xrj/caatv r)plv oi id irepl 
T&p TSie&v (TvyypdylraPTe^f oh d/coXovdovpev, orav 
ot/ceca Xiycocri irpQ<i r^v 'qfierepap viroPeaiv* 

III 

1, MctA Se rrjv BoLooTiav /cal top ^Op^opevov 
r) ^o^/ch ecTTL 7rpo<; dp/crov irapa^e^X’/jpevr} rfi 
BoLoyrLcL iTapairX7)aLcd<i diro daXarrij^;^ eh OaXar- 
rav, TO ye TraXatoo. o 7a/) Aa^vov^ j]v Tore tt)? 
^(o/clBo^,^ (Txi^<^v i(j> exarepa rrjv AoxpiBa xal 
peoro^ rarropevo^ rod re ^Oirowriov koXttov xal 
T^? T&p ^EmxpTjpiBicop rrapaXiav vvp Be Aoxp&p 
ecrrlp rj v&pa (to Be iroXcapa xaTea/caiTTai), 
(WCTT 000 exec ^ xaurjxei ^ ovxerc pe^pc rrj^ irpo^ 

^ ^ookI^os, the editors, for AoKplBos , ^cokIBos appears Q/ian, 
sec in B and between the lines m n, 

® Eacl and B man. prim, read ob Bo/cet instead of ou5* erceT, 

340 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 2. 42-3, i 

stadia distant from Orchomenus And the River 
Melas is between them. 

42 Above the Orchomenian tenitory lies Pano- 
peus, a Phocian city, and also Hyampolis And 
bordering on these is Opus, the metropolis of the 
Epicnemidian Locnans. Now in earlier times 
Orchomenus was situated on a plain, they say, but 
when the waters overflowed, the inhabitants migrated 
up to the mountain Acontius, which extends for a 
distance of sixty stadia to Parapotamii in Phocis 
And they relate that the Achaeans in Pontiis, as 
they are called, aie a colony of Oichomeniaiis who 
wandered there with lalmenus after the capture of 
Troy There was also an Orchomenus in the neigh- 
bourhood of Carystus. Those who have written 
concerning the Ships'^ have supplied us well with 
such materials, and are the writers we follow when 
they say things appropriate to the purpose of our 
work 


III 

1 After Boeotia and Orchomenus one comes to 
Phocis; it stretches towards the north alongside 
Boeotia, nearly from sea to sea; it did so in early 
times, at least, for in those times Daphnus belonged 
to Phocis, splitting Locris into two parts and being 
placed by geographers midway between the Opuntian 
Gulf and the coast of the Epicnemidians The 
country now belongs to the Locrians (the town has 
been rased to the ground), so that even here Phocis 

%e Homer’s Catalogue of Ships 


® Ka$'f}ic€iVf Memeke emends to KaBiiKeu 


341 




STRABO 


EiySota OaXaTTr)^ Be Kpicraicp^ 

koXtt^ crvvrjTrrai. avrr) yhp ^ Kpcaa ^ 7% 
^co/clBo^ icTT)v iTT auT ^9 iBpVfxivrj t ?79 0 aXdTT 7 }(; 
KoX Kippa fcal ^Avrlfcvpa ^ /cal rd virep avroov iv 
rfj fiecroyaLa avvexv 7 r/>o? 

VLapvaaa^y AeX<fiOL re /cal /cal AavXh 

/cal avTo^ 0 Tlapvaacro^,^ rrj^ re ^co/cbBof; &v /cal 
d(popL^cov TO ecrirepiov TrXevpov. hv rpoirov S’ ^ 
TTj ^oicoria rrapa/ceiraii rovrov /cal 
Ao/cpl<; ry ^co/ciBi i/carepa* Bltttj yap iari, 
BiTjpTjpbevr] VTTO rod Uapvacrcrov Bi^a* ^ fiev e/c 
rov earrepiov pbipov^ *7rapa/ceipb€vri r& Uapvacra’^ 
/cal pb€po<; avTOv vepjOpLevrj, KadriKovca S’ errl rov 
Y^^piaalov KoXiroVi 97 S’ e/c rov tt/jo? eo) reXevr&aa 
€ 7 rl r 7 }V TTpo^ Eu)Som ddXarrav. KaXovvrai S’ 
oi pev earrepcoL AoKpol Kal ’OfoXai, exovcri re 
eirl r-p Brjpocria cr/^paylBi rov eairepov daripa 
iy/cex^pO'jM^ov 01 S’ erepoc Bixci tto)? /cal avrol 
BtrjpTjpevoi, oi pev ^Orrovvrioi drro 7779 pi]rpo- 
TToXeco^, opopot ^coKevcTb /cal Bofca)TOt9» ol S’ 
^EiinKvr}pLBLOi diro 6 pov<i Kvy}plBo<;, rrpoaex^'i^ 
OlraioL^ re /cal MaXievaiv. iv pecxcp Be dp(f)olv 
TCdv re ^Karrepicov Ka) r&v ereptov Tlapvaacro^, 
iTapaprjKr}<; eU to TTpoadp/criov pepo^ e/creivopevo^ 
417 diro r&v irepl AeX<j>ov^ roircov p^XP^ crvp- 
^0X779 r&v re Oiraicov dp&v Kal r&v AlrcoXiK&v 
Kal r&v dva peaov Acopiecov, rrdXiv ydp wcrirep 
?7 AoKpU Birrr} ovaa ® 70^9 ^oc/Kevai Trapani" 

1 Kpi<ral(fjy Kramer and later editors, foi Kpio’calep, 

2 Kpitra, Kramer and later editors, for Kplca-a. 

® "AvrlKupa (as m 9 3. 4 and 9 5. 10), Kramer, for 
*Avritcippa ; so later editors, 

* Xlapyaffds, aBl ; so in later instances. 

342 



GEOGRAPHY, 9 3. r 

no longer extends as far as the Euboean Sea, though 
it does border on the Crisaean Gulf For Crisa itself 
belongs to Phocis, being situated by the sea itself, 
and so do Ciriha and Anticyia and the places which 
he m the interior and contiguous to them near 
Parnassus — I mean Delphi, Cirphis, and Daubs— and 
Parnassus itself, 'vvhich belongs to Phocis and forms 
its boundaij on its western side In the same way 
as Phocis lies alongside Boeotia, so also Locris lies 
alongside Phocis on either side ; tor Locris is 
double, being divided into two parts by Parnassus, 
the part on the western side lying alongside Par- 
nassus and occupying a part of it, and extending to 
the Crisaean Gulf, whereas the part on the side 
towards the east ends at the Euboean Sea The 
Westerners^ are called Locrians and Ozolae ; and 
they have the stai Hesperus engraved on their 
public seal. The othei division of inhabitants is 
itself also divided, in a way, into two parts * the 
Opuntians, named after their metropolis, whose 
territory borders on Phocis and Boeotia, and the 
Epicnemidians, named after a mountain called 
Cnemis, who are next to the Oetaeans and Mahans. 
In the middle between both, 1 mean the Westerners 
and the other division, is Parnassus, extending 
lengthwise into the northerly part of the country, 
from the region of Delphi as far as the junction of 
the Oetaean and the Aetolian mountains, and the 
country of the Dorians which lies in the middle 
between them. For again, just as Locris, being 
double, lies alongside Phocis, so also the country of 

^ In Greek, the “Hesperioi.” 


® ^ Ao[Kp\s SiTT'Jj oSjffo, lacuna of about ten letters m A 
supplied by Corais fronj conj. of Casaubon, 

343 




STRABO 


^\r)rai, ovtoo fcal r] t&v OlraLcov'^ fMera rrj^ 
AtrcwXta? kul tivodv ava [iktrov toitcov Ag)- 
ptfC7]<; ^ TeTpatroXeay^ t§ Ao/cplBc kKarkp(} Kal 
HapvaGCtp^ Kal toi<s Acoptevatv, virep rovrcov 
S* tjSt] oi @6Tra\ol ^ Kal r&v AlrcoX&v oi irpo- 
(fdpKTioi Kal ' A.Kapvdv6^ Kai ’HTrei/oco- 

TCK&v idv&v Kal T&v MaKeSoviK&v Sgl Si,® 
oirep 6<j)ap6v Kal ^rporepov, TTapaXXrfKovi; &a7rep 
raLvia<; rivd^ rerapLeva^ cltco t^9 effirepa^ iirl 
ra? avaTo\d<; ® vorjaat rh^ X6%0eto'a9 %c6/)a9. 
i€poTTpeTr7)<i S’ iarl Tra? o TLapvaGGof;, €%g)i^ dvrpa 
re Kal dXka xcopLa ripboopievd re Kal d^tarevopbeva* 
&v earl yvoypipL&rarov re Kal kciXKigtov to Kg)- 

pVKLOVj VVp<j>&V dvrpOV Opb&VVpOV T^ IS^CklKLCp. 

T&v Se vXevp&v rov IlapvaGaov to pev kairepLov 
vepovrai AoKpoL re oi ’OfoXat Kai tw€9 t&v 
Acopiicov Kal AlrcoXol Karh rov KopaKa Trpoaa- 
yopevopevov AItcoXlkov opo<;‘ to Se ^ ^coKec^ 
Kal Aaypieh oi rrXeiovf^, e%oyT€9 rr^v TerpaTroXiv 
ireptKeipbevrjv 7ra)9 TlapvaGG&, TrXeovd^ovGav 
he TOi? 7r/)09 eco, ai pev ovv Kara to prjKO<s 
rrXevpal t&v^^ Xe^^efcawi/ raivi&v 

1 [fcal ^ Tuv Olralcov], lacuna of about fourteen letters 
supplied by Jones from conj of Kramer ; [^al ri Ttava Olraia]^ 
Meineke. 

2 rl67rtii>v T7)s Aw]p(Ki)s, lacuna of about ten letters supplied 
by Kramer from conj of Du Theil 

® [wa^ Xlappacr]<r^t lacuna of about ten letters in A supplied 
by hkno 

^ [ot ©€TTaA.<}f], lacuna of about ten letters supplied by 
Oroskurd. 

® ’Ampv[aves Kal rtva]^ lacuna of about eight letters supplied 
by Corais (see Kramer’s note ad Zoc.). 

® [Set Se], lacuna of about six letters supplied by Corais. 


344 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 3. i 

the Oetaeans togethei with Aetolia and with certain 
places of the Dorian Tetrapolis, which he in the 
middle between them, lie alongside either part of 
Locris and alongside Parnassus and the country of 
the Dorians. Immediately above these are the 
Thessalians, the northeily Aetolians, the Acar- 
nanians, and some of the Epeiiote and Macedonian 
tribes As I was saying before/ one should think 
of the above-mentioned countiies as ribbon-hke 
stretches, so to speak, extending parallel to one 
anothei fiom the west towards the east. The whole 
of Parnassus is esteemed as sacred, since it has caves 
and other places that are held in honour and 
deemed holy. Of these the best known and most 
beautiful is Corycium, a cave of the nymphs beaiing 
the same name as that in Cihcia. Of the sides of 
Parnassus, the western is occupied by the Ozolian 
Locnans and by some of the Dorians and by the 
Aetohans who li\e neai the Aetolian mountain 
called Corax , whereas the other side is occupied 
by Phocians and by the majority of the Dorians, 
who occupy the Tetiapolis, which in a general 
way lies round Parnassus, but widens out in its 
parts that face the east. Now the long sides of 
each of the above-mentioned countries and ribbon- 

1 9 2. 1 


’ Sxrlvep raipias], lacuna of about nine letters supplied by 
Corais. S>ev€p rivds hhw 

® dlvaroXdsJf lacuna of about seven letters supplied by 
Oorais dpKTovs bkno, 

® Following the Epitome Xylander added vpbs Iw after rh 
de. So later editors before Kramer. 

7rA€u[pal r&vjf lacuna of about seven letters supplied 
by bkno 


345 




STRABO 


kKacrr}^ TrapdXkrfKoi ^ aTraa-ai eiaiv, ^ filv oJjaa 
irpoadpfCTLO^i r) Se 7rpo9 vorov'^ at Se XotTral 
eairipLOL rat^i e(pai^ ovfc elai TrapdXKrfkoi* ovBe ® 
^ irapaXia ifcaripa, rj re tov KpicaCov fcokirov 
P'ixpi^ ^Aktlov, fcal 7] 7rpo<; "Rv^ocav pexpi> ri}? 
©eaaaXovtKeta^ ® TrapdXXrjXoi dXXrjXat^ elalvt 
€69 0-9 reXevrd ravra rd ® edvr}* dXX^ ovrco 
Bix^ardai Bel rd ax^fidTCL tovtcov t&v 
C&9 dv iv Tptydvcp irapd rrjv /Sdcriv yeypapupuevoDV ® 
ypapbpb&v TrXecomv* rd yap aTroXrjipdevTa 
piara irapdXKrjXa ^ pev dXXijXot<^ earai, Kal t ^9 
/card p^KO<; ivavrCov TrX€vpd<^ e^ei TtapaXXri- 
Xov^ii rdq Be Kurd 7TXdro<; oviceTL?-^ 6 pev oiv 
oXo^x^pV^ TV7ro<; ovTO<i t ^9 XoLirrj^ Kal i<j>€^7]f; 
TrepioBeia^i rd KaS* eKaara S’ €^^9 Xeycopev^ utto 
T^9 ^cok[Bo<: dp^dpevot. 

2. Tavrrjf; S’ eim^avecnaTat Bvo 7ro\€69 AeXcpoo 
re Kal 'EXdreia' A€X(f)ol pev Bid to lepov rov 
Hvdiov ^ A.rr6XX(cvo^ Kal to pavrelov dpxcuov ov, 
el ye ^ k.yapkpvmv air avrov %/097crT77/?6a<raa-^a6 

^ irap[aA.A7?A.oO> lacuna of about seven letters restored by 
Kramer from conj of Du Theil Tapafi'fiKeis hkno. 

2 71 [5e irphs v6tov], lacuna of about ten letters supplied by 
Meineke from conj of Kramer ^ Be ecrirepios bkno, 7} Be 
v6rio$ Coral s from conj of Du Theil. 

2 vlapdWTikoL oii]5€, lacuna of about eight letters supplied 
by Kramer from conj of Du Theil vapafiiiKeis hkno 
^ Kpt[<rafou K6k7rov lacuna of about twelve letters 

supplied by Kramer hkno omit ndhTtov, 

® [©ecrffaXovifcefay], lacuna of about twelve letters supplied 
by Corais. 

346 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 3. 1-2 

like stretches are all parallel, one side being towards 
the north and the other towards the south , but as 
for the remaining sides, the western are not parallel 
to the eastein, neither aie the two coast-lines, 
where the countries of these tribes end, I mean that 
of the Cnsaean Gulf as far as Actiuni and that facing 
Euboea as far as Thessaloniceia, parallel to one 
another. But one should conceive of the geome- 
trical figures of these regions as though several lines 
were drawn in a triangle parallel to the base, for 
the figures thus marked off will be parallel to one 
another, and they will ha\ e their opposite long sides 
parallel, but as foi the short sides this is no longer 
the case. Tins, then, is my lough sketch of the 
country that remains to be traversed and is next in 
ordei Let me now desciibe each separate part in 
order, beginning with Phocis 

2 Of Phocis two cities are the most famous, 
Delphi and Elateia Delphi, because of the temple 
of the Pythian Apollo, and because of the oracle, 
which IS ancient, since Agamemnon is said by the 


® T 6 A[€yT 9 'raSra rd], lacuna of about twelve letters supplied 
by Kramer from conj of Du Theil. 

’ [toiJtwj/ r&v lacuna of about ten letters supplied 

by Kramer from conj. of Du TheiL ray roioircov 
llkno 

® [Bderiv yeypafifievtov']^ lacuna of about sixteen letters 
supplied by Jones. [iSao'i*' rerafAevosu] Kramer, Meineke, 
Muller-Dubner and others 

® o’xVH-ci.Ta 7ra]pd\K7}\a, lacuna of about 

thirteen letters supplied by Kramer The !MSS , however, 
read diro\ei(p6 Corais supplies instead of vxhp'O.Ta 

[KOTci p.r\Kos ivav]Tlov, lacuna of about fourteen letters 
supplied by Kramer from conj of Groskurd, 

T[a^ Se Karh TrXdros odj/ccTt, lacuna of about fourteen 
letters supplied by Kramer. T[cts $€ \otirds oujKert Corais 

347 



STRABO 


Xeyerac vtto tov tto^wtoO* o yap fccdapcoSo^ aSmv 
eladyerai 

V€CfC09 'OBvcr(Trjo<i fcal HrjXr/iaBim ’A%4X?)o9,^ 

W 9 rrore Srjpio-avro" — ava^ S’ dvSp&v ’Aya- 
fjbifjbvoDV 
Xaipe votp, 

^18 S )9 yap ol p^vd^^craTO 'AiroXXcov 

TLvhol' 

AeX(f>ol pLev Bid ravra, ^EXdreia Be, on iracr&v 
peyicTTri r&v evravOa •jr6Xe(i>v /cal iTn/caipmrdrrj 
Bid TO eiriKeiaQai toi<; crevol.^ /cal tov exovra 
ravTTjv ex^i'V rd^ ela^oXd^ Ta9 eh rrjv ^co/ciSa 
/cal TTjv HoicoTiav, oprj yapicrriv Olraia irpcorov, 
eireiTa rd t&v Ao/cp&v /cal rcov ^(o/cecov, ov 
Travraxov crrpaT07TeBoi<; /Sdcripa roh i/c ©erra- 
Xta9 ipi^dXXovcriv,^ aXV 7tap6Bov<i arevd^ 
peVi d<f)(opL(Tpieva<i Be, A 9 at rrapa/ceipevai tt 0 X 6^9 
<ppovpov<riv* dXovaoov S* i/ceivcov /cparelcrOat avpi- 
0aiv€i /cal Ta9 irapoBov^ eirel S’ rj rov lepov 
i7ri(j>dv€ia rov ev AeX(f>oi^ ex^^ irpecr^eiov, /cal 
dpia 97 deai^ ra>v x^P^^^ dpxv^ inrayopevei 
^vcn/CTjv (rama yap ian rd ecrirepicoraTa piepr] 
T^9 ^cc/cCBo<i), ivrevOev dp/creov, 

3. Eiprfrai S’, on /cal 6 TLapvaaaof; irrl ® r&v 
io-TTepLcov opcov ^ iBpvrai T 979 ^co/ciBo<:» tovtov 
TO piev 7rpo<s Bvcriv *7rXevpov ol Ao/cpol KaTexovaiv 
oi ’OfoXcti, TO Be voTiov 01 A€X<pol, TreTpwBe^ x^' 
pioVy deaTpoeiBh, /caTd Kopv/prjv e%ov to piavTeiov 

^ ’Ax^Xtjos, editors before Kramer, for ^vaKros. 

* eio’^dKKovo'ip BE^ and Qnan sec A. 


348 



GEOGRAPHY, 9 3. 2-3 

poet to have had an oracle given him from there , 
for the mmstiel is introduced as singing ^*^the 
quarrel of Odysseus and Achilles, son of Peleus, 
how once they stiove . . , and Agamemnon, lord 
of men, rejoiced at heart , . , for thus Phoebus 
Apollo, in giving response to him at Pytho, had 
told him that it should Delphi, I say, is 

famous because of these things, but Elateia, because 
it IS the Jaigest of ail the cities there, and has the 
most advantageous position, because it is situated 
in the nariow passes and because he who holds tins 
city holds the passes leading into Phocis and 
Boeotia For, fiist, there are the Oetaean Mount 
ains , and then those of the Locrians and Phocians, 
vtdiich are not eveiywhere passable to invaders fiom 
Thessaly, but have passes, both narrow and separated 
from one another, which are guarded by the adjacent 
cities ; and the result is, that when these cities are 
captured, tlieir captors master the passes also 
But since the fame of the temple at Delphi has the 
prioiity of age, and since at the same time the 
position of its places suggests a natural beginning 
(for these are the most westerly parts of Phocis), I 
should begin my description there 

3 . As I have already said, Parnassus is situated on 
the western boundaries of Phocis Of this mountain, 
then, the side towards the west is occupied by the 
Ozohan Locrians, whereas the southern is occupied 
by Delphi, a locky place, theatre-hke, having the 

1 Odyssey S 75 


® jue'xpi Jkt,ghino, but tVt on margin of A, man sec 
^ SpanVf Kramer, for dp&t' AEcghdno, /uepy^i B. 


349 



STRABO 


ical rrjv iroXiVi orrahLcov etcical^eica kvicXov TrXrj- 
povcrav* virepKeiTaL S’ avT^<: ?; Av/ccopeia, icj)^ ov 
TOTTOv TTporepov IBpvvro oi virep rov lepov* 

vvv S’ iir avT^ olfcovat irepl rrjv KpT^vrjv rrjv 
KaaraXiav^ irpo/cecraL Se TroXea)? 7] K.[p(j)i<; 
ifc Tov votCov pepov<;, opo<i aTroropiov, vdirrjv dno- 
Xlttov pera^v, Bb o OXeio-To? Biappel irorapo^^. 
viroTTiirrodKe Be rfj T^lp^et 7ro\t9 KLppa, 

eTTb rfj OaXdrrri lBpvp4vr], ^9 dvd^acn^ ek 
A€X<f>oif<} oyBoTj/copra ttov araBicov iSpvrai S’ 
diravTLfcpv %b/cvoi}vo<;, irpOKeirab Be t^9 Kbppa<; 
TO K.pLaalov 'ireBiov evBaipov* nraXiv yap^ i<f)e'- 
earlv dXXrj ttoX^?* K/Di<ja,^ ^9 o icoXtto^ 
^ptcraLo^* elra ' AvrLicvpa, opcovvpo^ rjj /card 
TOP M-aXia/cop koXttop /cal T7)P Olrrjp, /cal Bi] 
(j>a<7LP e/cel top eXXe^opop <j)vea0ai top darrelop, 
epravda Be cr/cevd^eadac /SeXriop, /cal Sid rovro 
dTToBrjpeiP Bevpo ttoXXov^, /caOdpaeo)^ /cal 6epa^ 
Trew yLpeadai yap ri cr7]crapo6bBh d>dppa~ 

/COP ip TT] ^co/cL/cfji pe6^ ov a/cevd^eaOaL top 
O lracop eXXe^opop. 

4 . Ax/tt) pep ovp avppepeii 7) Be Kip pa /cal 
^ Kpiaa ® /caTeaTracrdTjo-ap, rj pep {^porepov 
VTTO Kpicraicop, avri] S’ 77 Kpiaa varepop vtt 
K vpvXoxoy TOV ®eTTaXov /card top K-piaalov 
TToXepov evTVX'^wapTe^ yap oi Kpia-aloi Bid 
rd i/c T)j<? XiKeXiaf; /cal rrj^ "IraXia^ reXr], 

^ Instead of ydp BEX"/ read 5\ 

2 KpWa MSS and editors before Kiamei. 

® Kpltre/a 3kl, 



GEOGRAPHY, 9 3. 3-4 

oracle and the city on its summit, and filling a 
circuit of sixteen stadia. Situated above Delphi is 
Lycoieia, on which place, above the temple, the 
Delphians weie established in eailier times But 
now they live close to the temple, round the Cas- 
talian fountain. Situated 111 fiont of the city, 
toward the south, is Cirphis, a piecipitous mountain, 
which leaves 111 the intervening space a lavine, 
thiough which flows the Pleistus Rivei Below 
Ciiphis lies Cm ha, an ancient city, situated by the 
sea, and from it theie is an ascent to Delphi of 
about eighty stadia It is situated opposite Sicyon. 
In front of Curha lies the feitile Crisaean Plain , 
for again one comes next in order to another city, 
Cl isa, from which the Crisaean Gulf is named. Then 
to Anticyia, bearing the same name as the city on 
the Maliac Gulf near Oeta And, m truth, they say 
that it IS in the latter region that the hellebore 
of fine quality is pioduced, though that produced in 
the former is better prepaied, and on this account 
many people resoit thither to be purged and cured; 
for in the Phocian Anticyra, they add, grows a 
sesamedike medicinal plant with which the Oetaean 
hellebore is piepared 

i Now Anticyra still endures, but Cirrha and 
Cnsa have been destroyed, the former earlier, by 
the Cnsaeans, and Cnsa itself later, by Eurylochus 
the Thessalian, at the time of the Crisaean War.^ 
For the Cnsaeans, already prosperous because of the 
duties levied on importations from Sicily and Italy, 

1 About 595 B 0 


* TrpSrepov inrh Kpicai(cy, avr^ S* Kpiffa^ lacuna supplied by 
Oorais, following Pletho and marginal note in n. 


35 ^ 



STRABO 


419 7rcfcpS><; ireXcovovv tov^ iirl to lepov a<f>i/cvov'> 
fievov^ /cal irapa ra TTpoaraypLara rmv ’A/^- 
(f)i/crv6v(ov, roi> S’ avra /cal T 0 I 9 ^ Apcf^Kraevcri 
Ao/cp&v S’ elalv oiroi TOiv ’OfoXwz^, 
iTreXOovTe^ y^p /cal ovtoi njv re Kpicrav aveXa-' 
^ov, /cal TO ireZLov to vtto tmv ^Ap^cpi/crvovcov 
dvi€p(o0€v ai/Oiq Kareyed/pyovv, /cal fiaav 

Trepi Tov<s ^€vov <5 T&v iraXac Kpoorabcov* /cal 
Tovrov^ ovv eTtpcop'^aavTo ol ^ApL^L/crvove^t ^ral 
T^ 0€^ Tr]v diriBoorav, dXiycopTjrac S’ 

t/cav&f^ /cal TO Upov, wpoTepov S’ virep^oXXovTco^ 
iTipTjdr}*'^ Br)Xovcn ol t6 d7)cravpoi, ov<f /cal 
Brjpoi Kcd BvvddTat /caT€cr/c€vacrap, eh 0^9 /cal 
^pT^puaTa dveTidevTO /caBtepcopiva /cal epya t&v 
dpLaTODV Brjpiovpy&v, /cal 6 dy&v 6 ny^i«:o9 /cal to 
TrXYjdo<; T&v icTTOpovpevcov xP'^crp&v 

5. ^acrl S’ elvaL to pavTelov dvTpov /coTXov 
/caTh /3d0ov<$, ov pdXa evfworropov, dva^kpeaOai 
S’ avTOV TTvevpa ivOovcriacTTL/cov, virep/celcrOac 
Se Tov aTopiov Tptwoha vyfrifXoVi i(f>^ ov ttjv 
T lvOlav ava^aLvovcrav, Be'x^opevTjv to Trvevpa, 
dTrodeaTTL^eLv eppeTpd re /cal dperpa* evTUveiv Se 
/cal TavTa eh peTpov 7roLi')Td^ TLva^ vTrovpyovVTa^ 
T^ iep<p, Trpcorrjv Se ^rjpovorjv yevkadai (f>aal 
HvOLaVf /ceKXTjadai Se /cal t/jv irpo^riTiv ovtco /cal 
T7]v ttoXlv ttTTO ToO irv9k(r6aL) i/CTeTaoOaL Se t^v 
TT pcoTTjv O'vXXa^'qv, &9 €7rl toD dOavdTOV /cal 

1 ertju^^T;, Meineke insexts, following conj. of Oasaubon. 

^ Of Apollo at Delphi. 

» “Pythia”and “Pj^tho.’’ 

® “ To inquire of the oracle ” Other mytholo|ers more 
plausibly derived the two names from the verb pythesthai, 

352 




GEOGRAPHY, 9 3. 4-5 

pioceeded to impose haisli taxes on those who came 
to visit the temple,^ even contrary to the decrees of 
the Amphictyons And the same thing also hap- 
pened in the case of the Amphissians, who belonged 
to the Ozolian Lociians For these too, coming 
over, not only restored Crisa and pioceeded to put 
under cultivation again the plain which had been 
consecrated by the Amphictyons, but were worse in 
their dealings with foreigneis than the Crisaeans 
of old had been Accoidingly, the Amphictyons 
punished these too, and gave the teiritoiy back to 
the god The temple, too, has been much neglected, 
though in earliei times it was held in exceedingly 
gieat honoui. Clear proofs of tins are the treasuie- 
houses, built both by peoples and by potentates, in 
which they deposited not only money which they 
had dedicated to the god, but also works of the best 
artists ; and also the Pythian Games, and the great 
niimbei of the recoided oracles 

5 They say that the seat of the oiacle is a cave 
that is hollowed out deep down in the earth, with a 
rather narrow mouth, from which arises breatli that 
inspires a divine frenzy ; and that over the mouth is 
placed a high tiipod, mounting winch the Pythian 
piiestess leceives the bieaih and then utters oiacles 
m both verse and prose, though the latter too are put 
into verse by poets who are m the service of the 
temple They say that the first to become Pythian 
priestess was Phenionoe ; and that both the pio- 
phetess and the city w^eie so called ^ fioni the 
woid pythesthai,” ^ though the first syllable was 

“ to rot ” (note the length of the vowel), because the serpent 
Python, slam by Apollo, “ rotted ” at the place. 


353 



STRABO 


atcaixdrov ical BiaKovov^ r] fiev oZp eTTivoia avrrj 
T^9 T6 T&v iroXeoiV KTiaeo)^ koX Trj<; r&v /colvcov 
iep&v iKTifi'^(T€(t><;. /cal yap /card 7 r 6 \€C<! awpecrav 
/cal /card edvo^) ^vai/cm /colvchvikoi ovre^, /cal 
djia T^9 Trap* dXKijXcov %/?eta9 
iepd rd /coivd dm^vrcov Bid rd^ avrd^; alria^;, 
eoprd<; /cal rravrjyvpet^i crvvreXovvre^* (f>iXiKOv ydp 
rrdv TO roiovrov, diro r&v opLorparre^cdv dp^dfievov 
/cal o/jLocTTTOvBeov /cal 6 fiopocj>i€t>v» ocr/p Be rrXelov ^ 
/cal i/c rrkecovcov iireB^fiei, roa^Be /mei^op /cal to 
o<f)€Xo^ evopL^ero,^ 

6. 'H ph/ oZv errl rortkelov tc/mt) t& lep^ toi5t^ 

Bid TO (Twi^r), Bo^avri dyjrevBeaTaT/p 

rd>v TrdvToav vrrdp^ai, TrpoaiXajSe Be ^ ri /cal r) 
deai^i Tov TOTTOU. T779 ydp 'EWtt8o9 ev pLeatp 7rce)9 
earl ty}<; (rvfjLTrdarjt;, t7)<; re ivro^ 'ladpiov /cal t^9 
e/cTO^s ivofjbicrdT] Be /cat t^9 ol/covfievrj^, /cal e/caXe- 
erav t^9 7^9 oficf/aXoVy TrpoairXdaavTe^ /cal pivdov^ 
ov <j>rjcn HipBapo^i, on crvfnre/Toiev ivravOa oi 
derol oi dcl>e6evT€^ vtto tov Ai6<;, 6 pev diro tt)? 

C 420 Bvaeco^, 6 S’ dwo t^9 dvaToXrj<;, oi Be /c6pa/cd9 
<f>a<7L. Bel/cwrai Be /cal 6pi(j)aX6<; Ti9 iv t^ va^ 
reraivKopevof; /cal eTr’ avT& ai Bvo ei/cove^ tov 
pivdov. 

7. Totai;T^9 Se T7]<; evKaipLa<; ov(77]^ t^9 '/re pi 
T009 AeX^ov^i, (Twyecrdv re paBico<; i/ceicret 

^ TcKetoVf Tzschucke, for irkeiav. 

® ^ /jL€v odv . ivo/xiCero, Meineke, following Kiamer, 
ejects ® trpocreKdpero B/c? 


^ But m “ diakonos ” it is the second syllable that is long , 
and Homer does not use the 'word For the uses of the first 
two with long a see (e g.) Iliad 6. 108 and 5 4 

3S4 



GEOGRAPHY, 9 3 .5-7 

lengthened, as in fdhanaioh^ dkamatos, and diakonoh?- 
Now the following is the idea which leads to the 
founding of cities and fco the holding of common 
sanctuaries in high esteem : men came together by 
cities and by tribes, because they naturally tend to 
hold things in common, and at the same time be- 
cause of their need of one another, and they met 
at the sacied places that were common to them for 
the same leasons, holding festivals and geneial 
assemblies, foi everything of this kind tends to 
friendship, beginning with eating at the same table, 
drinking libations togethei, and lodging under the 
same roof, and the greatei the numbei of the 
sojourners and the gi eater the number of the places 
whence they came, the greater was thought to be 
the use of their coming together. 

6. Now although the greatest share of honour 
was paid to this temple because of its oracle, since 
of all oracles in the world it had the repute of being 
the most truthful, yet the position of the place 
added something For it is almost in the centre 
of Greece taken as a whole, between the countiy 
inside the Isthmus and that outside it; and it was 
also believed to be in the centie of the inhabited 
world, and people called it the navel of the earth, 
in addition fabricating a myth, which is told by 
Pmdar, that the two eagles (some say crows) which 
had been set free by Zeus met there, one coming 
from the west and the other from the east There 
is also a kind of navel to be seen in the temple , it is 
diaped with fillets, and on it are the two likenesses 
of the birds of the myth. 

7. Such being the advantages of the site of 
Delphi, the people easily came together there, and 

355 



STRABO 


fMakiara S’ ol iyyvdev, ical Stj /cal to ^A/m(^l/ctvo- 
VLKOV avarrj/jLa e/c tovtoov avverax^Vf 
KOLV&v ^ov\evcr6/JL€vov /cal rod iepov r^v eiri~ 
fxekeiav e^ov /coLvorepav, are koX airo- 

/ceifievcdv ttoXK&v /cal dvadTjpLcircov, <jE»uXa/c >)9 Kal 
dytaTeia<; heopiivcov pL6yaX7]<;. rd irdXai fiev ovp 
dyvoetrai, ^AKpL(TLO<i Se r&v pbvrjfiovevopevcov 
7TpwT09 Biard^at So/cei rd rrepl roi/^ AjMc^i/crvova^^ 
/cal TToXetf; d<popicrac rd<^ fierexovraf; rod cvvehpLov 
/calylrr](f>ov i/cdary Bovvai, /Lbhj/cad^ avrrjv, rffBe 
fisB" erepa^ ^ p^erd TrXeiovoov, aTroBel^ai Be /cal rdq 
^ Ap^L/CTvovL/cd<i Bl/ca<i, ocrai TToXeai irpb^ TroXe^? 
elcriv* vcrepov S’ dXXai, irXelovf; Biard^6i<i yeyova- 
criVi 6ft)9 /careXvdr] /cal rovro to avvTaypat tcaOdirep 
TO T&v ^Axcli^v* at pev ovv Trp&Tai Bvo/caLBeica 
avveXdetv XiyovTat 7roXet9* k/cdcTTr) S’ eTrepire 
HvXayopav, Bh Kar 6 to^ ovarj^ t 7]<; crvvoBou, 
eapo^ T€ /cat peToircbpov* varTepov Be /cal 7rXeLov<; 
TrpotrrjXOov ^ 7ro\e49. Tr}v Be avvoBov TLvXaLav 
eKdXovv, Trjv pev iaptv^v, Typ Be peTOTrtoptprjP, 
iwetBi] ip ni;Xafc9 (ivprjyopTOj a 9 icctt @eppoirvXa<i 
/caXovatP* edvop Be Trj AijprjTpt ol IJvXayopat, to 
pep o^p ef dpxv^ T0t9 iyyv<i peTTjp /cal tovtcop /cal 
Tov paPTetov, vcrTepop Be /cal ol Tropptodep d<f>t/c- 
povPTo Kal ixploPTO T^ papTelfp Kal empirop Boo pa 
Kal Or^a-avpov^ KaTecrKSval^op, Kaddirep 'Kpolao^ 
Kal 0 TraTrfp ^ AXvdTTT}^ Kal ^iTaXtooToop Ttvh Kal 
XcfceXoL 

8. 'E 7 rL(j)dopo<} S’ d)p 6 irXovTo^ Bva<f>vXaKT6<} 
^ •jtpotTriKBov A, avv^KBov A man sec and other MSS 


1 See 8 7 3 


e. Pylae— ’assembly man. 




GEOGRAPHY, 9 3. 7-8 

especially those who lived near it And indeed the 
Amphictyonic League was organised from the latter^ 
both to deliberate concerning common affairs and to 
keep the superintendence of the temple more m 
common^ because much money and many votive 
offerings were deposited there, lequiring great 
vigilance and holiness Now the facts of olden 
times are unknown, but among the names recorded 
Acrisius IS reputed to have been the first to ad- 
minister the Amphictyony and to determine the 
cities that w^ere to have a part in the council and to 
give a vote to each city, to one city separately or to 
another jointly with a second or with several, and 
also to proclaim the Amphictyonic Rights — all the 
rights that cities have in their dealings wuth cities. 
Later there were several other administrations, until 
this organisation, like that of the Achaeans,^ was 
dissolved Now the hist cities which came together 
are said to have been twelve, and each sent a 
Pylagoras,^ the assembly convening twice a year, 
in spring and in late autumn ; but later still more 
cities were added. They called the assembly 
Pylaea, both that of spring and that of late autumn, 
since they convened at Pylae, which is also called 
Thermopylae, and the Pylagorae sacrificed to Demeter. 
Now although at the outset only the people who 
lived near by had a share both m these things and 
in the oracle, later the people living at a distance 
also came and consulted the oracle and sent gifts 
and built treasure-houses, as, for instance, Croesus, 
and his father Alyattes, and some of the Itahotes,® 
and the Sicilians. 

8. But wealth inspires envy, and is therefore 
^ Greeks living m Italy 


357 



STRABO 


io-Ti, K&v /e/jo? vvvu ye roc nreveorrarov ecTL to 
ip AeX.^049 lepop 7^ ^ ^ ^ 

avaOrjpbdrcov rd p^ev rjpraLy rd Se TrXeLco ixivei. 
irporepov Se nvoXvxp'^P'CLrov rjv to Upov, icaOdirep 
'^Op,7)p6^ re eipr}fcev, 

ovS* oaa \divo<; oySo9 dcjy'ijropo^ ivTo^ iepyei 
^ol/Sov ^AttoWoovo^ Hvdot evl irerpTjecra'pf 

Kal oi Orjaavpol SrjXovcri^ fcal 7 ) crv\rj(ri^ 77 yevr]Qei<Ta 
vTTo r&v ^coxicop, i^ ^79 6 ^coxixof; xal lepo^s 
KaXovpLePO<; i^7]<p67] Tr6XepL0<;» avrr) pep ovp 77 
cvXrj(Ti<i yeyeprjrat Kara ^iXtinrop top ^Apvprov, 
0 421 irporepap S’ dXXrjp eTCLVOovaip ® dpxci^ciVt f) top 
v(f)' ^OpTjpov Xeyopepop ttXovtop i^€<j)6pi]crep* ovSe 
yap t^vo^ avrov (rcodrjpai irpo^ roy? iiarepop 
Xpopov^:, ip oh ol wepl ^Ovopap^op xal ^dvXXop 
i<TvX7](Tap TO lepop, dXXd tcl pep [rore aTre - 
v€)(6ePTa peoorepa ixeipo^p etpac t&p ')(pr]pdTQ)p* 
drroxetadat yap iv drjcravpoh diro Xa(f>vp(OP 
dpareOepTa, imypa^d^ o-co^opra, ip ah Kal ol 
dpadepre^' Vvyov ydp xal ¥ipoicrov xal 'EvjSapir&p 
fcal %7rLP7']T0}P T&p Tvepl TOP ^Ahpiav, xal ovTm 
irrl T&p dXXoop, oh [ov/c up Trpoa’ji^Koi^ rd 

^ 76 , Meineke, for S4 Oorais deletes 5^ 

® S’, after rap, Corais inserts ; so the later editors 
® impoovrip, Jones restores, for vvopoova-ipy Groskuid and 
later editors. 

* [T^^Te], lacuna of about four letters in A, supplied by 
Muller-Diibner, following con] of Kramer. uttS totJt&jv 
C orais. 

® oTs [oifK Up r:po<rY\Koiy Jones, for oi?T (ov hio) . . . 4ikoi, 

358 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 3. 8 


difficult to guard, even if it is sacred. At piesent, 
certainly, the temple at Delphi is very poor, at least 
so far as money is concerned ; but as for the votive 
offerings, although some of them have been carried 
off, most of them still remain In earlier times the 
temple was very wealthy, as Homer states nor yet 
all the things which the stone threshold of the archer 
Phoebus Apollo enclosed in rocky Pytho/’^ The 
treasui e-houses^ clearly indicate its wealth, and also 
the plundering done by the Phocians, which kindled 
the Phocian War, or Sacred War, as it is called. 
Now this plundering took place in the time of 
Philip, the son of Amyntas, although writers have 
a notion of another and earliei plundering, in 
ancient times, in which the wealth mentioned by 
Homer was carried out of the temple. For, they 
add, not so much as a trace of it was saved down 
to those latei times in which Onomarchiis and his 
army, and Phayllus and liis army,® robbed the 
temple ; but the wealth then carried away was more 
recent than that mentioned by Homer ; for there 
were deposited in treasure-houses offerings dedi- 
cated from spoPs of war, preserving inscriptions on 
which were included the names of those who 
dedicated them, for instance, Gyges, Croesus, the 
Sybarites, and the Spinetae* who lived near the 
Adriatic, and so with the rest. And it would not 

^ /had 9 404, ® See vol ii, page 314, note 2 

® 352 B.o Both weie Phocian generals. For an account 
of their robberies see Diodorus Siculus 16 31'61. 

^ See 5. 1 7. 


wheie there is a lacuna of about ten letteis. ourfe ro^rois ttv 
7rpo(r]'fiKoi, conj Kramer oh [oi reading of Corais 

Memeke leaves lacuna. 


3S9 



STRABO 


iraXaia y^^p'^fiara dvafiefit^^OaL, d)9 ^ /cal dWoi 
TOTToi Biacri^fiaivovcriv vtto tovtcop crK6vo)p7}9evT€<s 
tS>v dvBpS>v, 6VLOL Be top d^Tjropa Be'^dfievoi 
\iyeo-dat dTjaavpav, dcl>‘ijropo^ S’ ovSov /card 7% 
drjaavpLcrpLoVi iv rm vacp KaT(opv')(6aL ^a<rl top 
irXovrov i/cetpop, /cal roi/? Trepl top ’^Opopiap^op 
i7rp)(^€ip7]crapTa<; dpaa/cdirTeiv pv/crcopj creLap&p 
yepopb€P(ov fieyakcopi e^co tov paov <f>vy€LP /cal 
iravcraadat dpa<T/ca<f>rj<;s ip^aXelp Be /cal Toh 
dXKoi<; (fio/Sop Trj<; TOLavrr}^ eTTi'x^etpy^creco^, 

9. Tcop pa&p ^ TOP puep TTTepcpop eh row? 

fjLvdov^ Ta/cTeop, top Be BevTSpop T pocfycopiov /cal 
'AyapL'qBov^ epyov <f>acri, top Be pvp ^Ap^i/cTVOpe^ 
KaTecjKevacrap. Bet/cpvTai S’ ep T(p TspLepei rd^o^ 
'i^eoTTToXepov /caTd yepopevo^;, 

peco^, AeX^ov dpBp6<;, dp€\6pTO<; avTOP, m pep 
6 pvOo^i Bi/ca<s alTOVPTa top deop tov irarpmov 
<j>6pov, CW 9 Be TO et/co^j iiridipepop iep&, tov 
Be Maxaip€Q)9 diroyopop Bpdy)^op j>acrl top 
TtpocrTaTrjcravTa tov ip AiBvpoL^ lepov, 

10 . ^Aycop Be 6 pep dpx^alo<; ip A€X<f)oh 
/ci6apq)Bd)p iyepyjd^, iraidpa dBoPTcop eh top deov* 
eOrj/cav Be AeXcf^oh peTa Be top Kpio-atov TroXepop 
oi ^Ap(f>i/cTvop€<; iTrTri/cop /cal yvppi/cop iir 
Xoxov SteTa^ap cTecpapiTTjp /cal UvOia i/cdXe<rap, 

^ &)5, Groskurd inserts; so the later editors See Kramer’s 
note ad loc 

® vawv^ Oasaubon, for v^rwv A.{/*r(ay man sec )cgln ; so the 
later editors Word omitted by B??o 


^ The Greek word translated archer” in the above 
citation from Homer 
* Achilles 

360 




GEOGRAPHY, 9, 3. 8-10 

be reasonable to suppose that the treasures of olden 
times were mixed up with these, as indeed is cleaily 
indicated by oilier places that were ransacked by 
these men Some, however, taking aphetor ^ 
to mean tieasure-house,” and ^^tlneshold of the 
aphetor’* to mean " undeiground repository of the 
treasure-house,” say that that wealth was buued in 
the temple, and that Onomarchus and his army 
attempted to dig it up by night, but since great 
earthquakes took place they fled outside the temple 
and stopped then digging, and that then expeiience 
inspired all others with fear of making a similar 
attempt 

9. Of the temples, the one ^^with wings” must 
be placed among the myths ; the second is said to 
be the work of Trophonius and Agamedes ; and the 
present temple was built by the Aniphictyons In 
the sacred piecmct is to be seen the tomb of 
Neoptolemus, which was made m accordance with 
an oracle, Machaereus, a Delphian, having slain hm 
because, accoidmg to the myth, he was asking the 
god for redress for the murder of his father , ^ but 
according to all probability it was because he had 
attacked the temple Branchus, who presided over 
the temple at Didynia, is called a descendant of 
Machaereus 

10 As for the contests at Delphi, there was one 
in early tunes between citharoedes, who sang a 
paean in honour of the god ; it was instituted by 
the Delphians. But after the Crisaean war, in the 
time of Eurylochus,^ the Amphictyons instituted 
equestrian and gymnastic contests m which the 
piize was a crown, and called them Pythian Games 

® On the time, compare 9. 3 4 and foot-note 


361 



STRABO 


iTpoaiOecrav Be rot? Ki6apq)Sot^ avXrjrd^ re koX 
/ctdaptaTa<; %ct)/?i9 aTroBcoaovra^ ri peXo<;, h 

fcaXelrai v6p,o<; Ilvdi/c6<;, irevre S’ avrov pbiprj 
iariVy ayKpovai<;, dfiTreipa, KaraKe'keviT tap0ot 
/cal Bd/cTvXoij (Tvpiyye^, epeXoiroLrjcre pev ovv 
l^LpoaOevTj^i 6 vavapxo^ tov Bevrepov UroXapaLOV 
6 /cal Tov^ Xip€va<i •avvrd^a'; iv Be/ca ^L0Xoi<i, 
^ovXerat Be tov dy&va tov ^Ait6XXcovo<; tov Trpo ? 
TOV Bpdfcovra Std tov peXov<; vpvelv, dvd/cpovaiv 
pev TO iTpooipiov BrjXa>v^ apireipav Se ttjv TrpdoTTjv 
/caTairecpav tov dy&vo^y KaTa/ceXevcrpov Be ai/TOV 
TOV dy&va, tap^ov Be /cal Bd/cTvXov tov eimTata- 
VLcrpov^ TOV \_yiv6pevov^^ eirl ttj vikyi peTa tolovtcov 
C 422 pvdp&v, &v 6 pev iipvoi^ i(XTlv ol/celo^, o S’ 
cap/Sof^ /ca/cLcrpoL<;, &9 Kal to lap^L^etv, crvpiyya^ 
Be Tijv eKXei^^Lv tov drjpLov pipovpevcov 009 dv 
/caTa(TTp€<j>0VT09 eh 6(r%aToy9 Tivd<; avpiypov^, 

11. ’^E<^o/509 S’, ^ TO TrXetcrTOv 7rpoa")(pcopeda 
B/^d Trjv irepl TavTU eirtpeXecav, KaOdirep /cal 
IloXvl3i09 papTvp&v Tvyxdvec, avrjp d^ioXoyo^, 
Bo/cei pot TavavTta iroteiv eaff* ots Trj irpoatpeaet 

^ iiriiraiavifffJLSu, Coiais, for iicnrai(iavi(T}JL6v 
2 [yiv6}JLivov], Idcuna in A supplied by man see , with uvra, 
written above Woid omitted b;y 'Belch 


^ The oitharoedes sanq to the accompaminent of the 
cithara, and their contests must have had no connection 
with those of the flute-players and the citharists, whose per- 
formance (of the Pythian Nome) was a purely instrumental 
affair 

2 If the text of this sentence is correct, Strabo must be 
leferring to the melody played as the Pythian Nome in his 
own time or in that of some authority whom he is qupting, 
earlier compositions perhaps having been superseded by that 

362 



GEOGRAPHY, 9 3. lo-ii 


And to the citharoedes^ they added both flute- 
playeis and citharists who played without singing, 
who were to render a certain melody which is c«xlled 
the Pythian Nome. Theie aie five paits of it; 
angkrouiis^ ampeva^ katakeleusmos^ iambi and dactyh^ 
and syniiges Now the melody was composed by 
Timosthenes, the admiral of the second Ptolemy, 
who also compiled The Haibouis, a work in ten 
books , ^ and through this melody he means to 
celebiate the contest between Apollo and the 
dragon, setting forth the prelude as ana/a ousts ^ the 
first onset of the contest as ampeua, the contest 
itself as JaitakeleusrnoSf the tniunph following the 
victory as iambus and daciylus, the rhythms being 
in two measures, one of which, the dactyl, is appro- 
priate to hymns of praise, whereas the other, the 
iamb, is suited to reproaches (compare the word 
^^lambize”), and the expiration of the dragon as 
sipmges, since with synnges^ playeis imitated the 
dragon as bieathing its last in liissings ^ 

11 Ephorus, whom I am using moie than an}’’ 
other authority because, as Polybius, a notewoithy 
writer, testifies, he exercises great care in such 
matteis, seems to me sometimes to do the opposite 

of Timosthenes (fl about 270 bo). But since the invention 
of the Pythian Nome has been ascribed to Saeadas (Pollux 
4. 77), who was victorious ^vlth the flute at the Pythian 
Games about three hundred years before the tune of 
Timosthenes {Pausanus 6 14 9 and 10 7 4), Giihraner 
[Jdh'i'b fur Class P/a/fo/ , Suppl 8,3 875-1876, pp 311—35]) 
makes a strong argument for a lacuna m the Gieek text, and 
for making Strabo say that the melody was composed by 
Saeadas and later meiely described by Timosthenes in one of 
his numerous works. Op also H. Riemann, Eandb, der 
Mmikqeschyihte 1919, vol i, pp 63-65 
® “ Pipes ’’ ^ “ Pipings.*’ 


363 



STRABO 


Kcu T<x?9 ef vTTOcrx^^^criv. €7rtr tfi7](ra<; 

yovv Toh (piXojJbvOovcTLv iv rfj TJ 79 iaropia^; ypCL<f>fj 
fcal r^v aXrjOeiav kiraivk(Ta<^ tt pocrridricn nrepl 

rov fiavreiov rovTOvXoycp aepbvrjv nva u7roo';^6cr6i/, 
CO? 'TravTa')(pv fiev aptorrov vofit^et raXrjdh, fid- 
Xiara Be /card rrjv viroOeaLV ravrrjv, drorrov 
yap, el rrepl fiev r&v dXXcov rov rotovrov del 
rpoTTov Btco/cofiev, (prfo-b, Trepl Be rov fiavreiov 
Xkyovre^, h rravrcov ear tv dylrevSeararov, to?? 
ovrco^i dTTb(TTOi<i /cal ylrevBecn xprjcrofieda Xoyoi^, 
ravra S’ elrrchv i7n(f>epeb rtapa'x^prjfia, on vrroXafi- 
^dvovat /caraaKevdaac to fiavreiov ^ krroXXcova 
fierd @€/A/-So?, d>(f>€Xrj(Tai ^ovXofievov to yivo<; 
rjfi&v elra rr)v d^eXecav elirdoVi on et<; ijfieporrjra 
rrpovKaXelro /cal iacocf^povb^e, roU fiev 
pcd^wv /cal rd fiev irpoardrrcov, rd S’ dirayopevcov, 
rov<; S’ ovS* oXo)? TTpocnefievo^;, ravra Se^ Bcoi/celv 
vofii^ovcrc, (prjaLv, avrovy ol pev avrov rov 9eov 
crcoparoecBP] yivopevov, oi S’ dvOpcorrov^ evvoiav 
rrapaBiBovra T 97 ? eavrov j3ovXi]cr6co<?, 

12. ^Ttto^^? Be, Trepi r&v AeX(f>&v, oirive? elai, 
BtaXeyofievo^iy ro rraXatov Hapvaaaiov^ ^ 

rivd^ avrox^ova^ KcCXovfievov^ ol/celv rov Hap- 
vaaaov Ka9* ov p^poz^op ^ ArroXXcova, rrfv yrjv 
emovra, fffiepovv tou? dvdp&rrov^ diro re r&v 
•^fiepmv /capTT&v /cal r&v ^lodv, ef ^AOtjv&v S* 
opfirjffivra eirl AeXipoijf; ravrrjv ievai rrjv oBov, 
3<^4 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 3. 11-12 

of what he intended, and at the outset promised, to 
do. At any rate, after censunng those who love to 
inseit myths in the text of their histones, and after 
piaismg the truth, he adds to his account of this 
oracle a kind of solemn promise, saying that he 
regards the truth as best in all cases, but paiticulaily 
on this subject , for it is absurd, he says, if we always 
follow such a method m dealing with every other 
subject, and yet, when speaking of the oiacle which is 
the most truthful of all, go on to use the accounts that 
are so untrustworthy and false. Yet, though he says 
this, he adds foithwith that historians take it for 
granted that Apollo, with Themis, devised the oracle 
because he wished to help oui race , and then, 
speaking of the helpfulness of it, he says that Apollo 
challenged men to gentleness and inculcated self- 
control by giving out oracles to some, commanding 
them to do certain things and foibidding them to do 
other things, and by absolutely refusing admittance 
to other consultants. Men believe that Apollo 
directs all this, he says, some believing that the ^od 
himself assumes a bodily form, others that he 
transmits to human beings a knowledge of Ins own 
will 

12 A little further on, when discussing who the 
Delphians were, he says that in olden times certain 
Parnassians who w^ere called indigenous inhabited 
Parnassus , and that at this time Apollo, visiting the 
land, civilised the people by introducing cultivated 
fruits and cultured modes of life ; and that when he 
set out fiom Athens to Delphi he went by the road 


1 de, Corais brackets ; Meiueke deletes 
® Tlapj^afftriovs, Kramer, for Uapmcriovs* 

36s 



STRABO 


7} vvv^ KQ7)vaioLT7]v Tlvdtdha TrefXTrovcrr yevofievov 
fie Kara HavoTTea<; Ttrvov tcaraXvcraLj e^ovra rov 
ToiroVi ^Laiov dvBpa fcal Trapdvopiov* rov^ fie 
Happacralov^) crvpLpLi^apra^ avr&y fcal dXkov 
fMTjpvaac ')(a\e7T0P dpSpa, Jlv6eopa rovvopa, iTri- 
fc\rj<Tip fie ApaKOPra, fcararo^evopro<i S’ iTri/ceXevetv 
le iraidp, acj> ov top TratcoPLcrpop outox? ef e6ov<; 
TrapaBodrjvai toi<^ piWovai avpTTL'irreLP et? irapd- 
ra^tp* ipTrprjadrjpai fie fcal crfcrjprjv tots rov 
Uvdcopo^ VTTO T&v A€X<f>&p, KaddiTBp fcal pvp eri 
KoX del VTTopprjpa woLOvpipov^ t&p rare r^evope- 
pcop, TL S’ ap € 17 ] pvdcoBearepoPi ^ ^AttoWcov 
423 'To^evcop Kal fcoXd^cop 'Titvov<; Kal Uvdofpa^ /cal 
oSevcop e^ ^Adrjpcop eh AeX^ou? /cal y^p Traaav 
imcov ; el fie ravra pi] VTreXdp^ave pvdov^ elpai, 
TL ixpV^ pvdevopepr]p %eptp ^vvai/ca /caXelv 
TOP fie pvdevopevop Apd/coPTa di'Opcoirop, ttXtjp el 

(TV^X^P i^OvXeTO TOP T€ TTj^ LOTTOpla^ KoX TOP 

Tov pvOov TVTTOP ; ^ TrapairXijcna tovtol^ iaTt ^ 
/cal Ta irepl t&p AItcoX&p elpr]pipa. cpTjaag yap 
d7ropdtjTov<; avTov<: i/c TrapTo^ tov Tore 

pep AloXea<; (prjalp ixel^ ol/crjcraL^ Toif^ /caTexoPTa<; 
/3ap0dpov^ i/c/SaXoPTa^, Tore S’ AItcoXop peTa 

^ TtJTTov, Corais, for towoj', from conj of Tyrwhitt ; so the 
later editors. 

^ iart, Jones inserts, from conj of Kramer The lacuna 
of about twelve letters in A before Kal is partially supplied 
by the second hand with ro6rois 
® ineT, Jones inserts. 

366 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 3. 12 

which the Athenians now take when they conduct 
the Pythias ; ^ and that when he arrived at the land 
of the Panopaeans he destioyed Tityus^ a violent 
and lawless man who ruled there, and that the 
Parnassians joined him and informed him of another 
cruel man named Python and known as the Dragon, 
and that when Apollo shot at him with his arrows 
the Parnassians shouted ^^Hie Paean” ^to encourage 
him (the origin, Ephorus adds, of the singing of the 
Paean which has been handed down as a custom for 
aimies just before the clash of battle) ; and that the 
tent of Python was burnt by the Delphians at that 
time, just as they still burn it to tins day in re- 
membrance of what took place at that time But 
what could be more mythical than Apollo shooting 
with arrows and punishing Tityiises and Pythons, 
and tiavelling from Athens to Delphi and visiting 
the whole earth > Bui if Ephorus did not take 
these stones for myths, by wdiat riglit did he call the 
mythological Themis a woman, and the mythological 
Dragon a human being — unless be wished to 
confound the two types, history and myth ^ Similar 
to these statements are also those concerning the 
Aetohans , for after saying that from all time their 
country had been unravaged, he at one time says 
that Aeohans took up their abode there, having 
ejected the baibaiians who were in possession of it, 
and at another time that Aetolus together with the 

^ A sacred mission despatched from Athens to Pytho 
(Delphi) See 9 2, 11 

® A shout addressed to Apollo in his capacity as Paeaii 
(Healer) 


* olKicras A . 

367 



STRABO 


T&p ’HXiSo? ^Krfrei&Py KaTakvOrjvaL S’ vtt’ 

AldXicov^ r&v e'xPpf^v" tovtov<; S’ vtt ’AXa:- 
fiaiwvo^ fcal Aioixrjiov^. aX)C eTraveL/jLi iirl tou? 
^coH:ea9> 

13 . ’E^ ^ y^P ’^V '^CLpciXia per a rrjv 

*AvrLKVpav TroXb^viov eariv ^O7nadopdpado<;'^ elr 
afcpa ^apvycop, e'^ovaa v(poppop* eW' 6 Xiprjp 
vararo^ o rrpocxayopevdel^ Mt';^09 diro rov 
avp^e^rj/coro^, vrro r^ ^EXifC&Pt kuI tt) "'Aa/cpr) 
fceipevo^. ouS’ al ^AjSal Be to paprelop curtonBev 
T&p TOTToyp TOVTmv ia-TbP, ooS’ rj ''Ap,8pvcro^i 

[ouS’ f} MejSecbz^ ^ op&pvpo^ ry ^oimriaic^* eri 
pdXXop ip T7) peaoyaLa perd AeX(f>ov^ co? 7rpo9 
rrjp €<o AavXU 7roX6%2/iO)^, ottov Trjpea top &pq/cd 
(j)acri SupaaTevcrai (^fcal rd irepl ^cXop'qXav fcal 
TLpo/cprjp iicel pvOevovai, %ovf€vBiBiq^ S’ ip Meya- 
poi9 (^rjaLy^ Tovvopa Be t& t6'jt<p yeyopevai drto 
Tov Sao-009* BavXov<; yap tcaXovab rd Bdcrr], 
''Opr}po<s pep odp AavXLBa elirep, oi S’ vcrTepop 
AavXiap. /cal to 

KvTrdpicraop S’ e^op 

^ , naraXvBrivai 5' vtt’ Alo\4(av, lacuna of about twentj^'-two 
letters supplied by Jones Kiamer con] Kpc(,'rndripai virh 
rovray (see his discussion m note ad loc ). Groskurd rashly 
emends Alo\4as to Kovprjras, and inseits r^v x^po>v after 
<pr}<riv. For other quotations fiom Ephorus bearing on this 
passage, see 7 7 7, 8 3 33, 10 2 25, 10 3. 1-6 

® apxvh Oorais and Memeke emend to l|?}s 

368 



GEOGRAPHY, 9 3. 12-13 

Epeu from Elis took up their abode there, but that 
these were destioyed by the Aeolians, and that these 
latter weie destroyed by Alcmaeon and Diomedes 
But I letuiKL to the Pliocians. 

13. On the sea-coast aftei Anticyra, one comes 
first to a town called Opisthomarathus , then to a 
cape called Pharygium, where there is an anchoring- 
place ; then to the harbour that is last, which, fiom 
the fact in the case, is called Mychus ; ^ and it lies 
below Helicon and Ascie And the oracle of Abac is 
not fai fiom this legion, nor Ambiysus,nor Medeoii^^ 
which beais the same name as the Boeotian Medeon. 
Still farther in the inteiior, after Delphi, 
approximately towards the east, is a town Dauhs, 
where Tereus the Thracian is said to have held sway 
(the scene of the mythical story of Philomela and 
Procn^ IS laid there, though Thucydides® says at 
Megara) The place got its name from the thickets, 
for they call thickets daub Now Homer called it 
Dauhs, but later writeis call it Daulia. And 

Cypaiissus,” in the words ^Gield Cyparissus,'* ^ is 

^ Inmost recess 

® On the site of Medeon see Frazer’s Pausaiiias, note on 
36. 6 

® But Thucydides (2 29) says* “In that countiy (Dauha) 
itys suffered at the hands of Philomela and Procne.” 
Eustathius (note on llmd 2 520) repeats without correction 
Strabo’s erroneous reference. 

* Ihod 2 519. 


® ^OiriffdofiapaBos kgino , other MSS owiffBev b Mapadoy. 

^ [ou8’ 7} M€]d€(6v, lacuna of about six letters m A, supplied 
by Kramer. 

BovKvdiBris . . (pTitri, Meineke ejects. 


VOL. IV 


B B 


369 



STRABO 


Bi^ovrat Bltt&s, ol jjuev ofMcovv/xm [ t ^ oi 

7rapQ)vvfj,co<; kco/jltjv vtto tt) Aufccopeia. 

14. UavoTrev^ S* 6 vvv ^avoTev<i, opbopo<: tol<} 

Trepi AejSdBeLav roTroi^i, ^ rov ^Erreiov irarpl^, 
/cal rd Trepl rov Tirvov Be ivravda fivdevovacv, 
^'OfMrjpof; Be (j^rjaiv, on oi top 'PaSa- 

fiavOvv eh Ei/ySomz/ 

fjyayovy oyfrop^evov Tirvov yaiijiop vlov* 

/cal 'EXdpiov n cnrijXaiov arro rrj^ Tirvov firjrpo^ 
’EXapa? Bei/cvvrai /card r})v vijcov /cal rjp^ov 
rov Tirvov /cal rijiai rive^. rfknqcrLov Be Ae^a- 
BeLa<i /cal r) Tpa’Xji^f ofidawpio^ rfj Oiraia, ^co/ci/c^ 
7roXL)(vi]* oi S’ evoi/covvre^ Tpa%ivioi Xeyovrai* 

15. Be ^AvepKopeia d)v6p>aarai diro rov 
(TVfM^aivovro^ rrddov^* Karaiyi^ei yap eh avrrjv 
6 /caXovpevo^ K.aroTrrripio<; %(5/?09, /cprjpivo^ ri^ 
drro rov Ilapvacrcrov Biij/co)v* opiov S’ ^v 6 roiro^ 
o5to9 AeX<pdov re /cal ^co/cemv, ^vi/ca drrearrjorav 
TOU9 A€X(f}ov 9 drro rov koivov crvcrrrifiaro^ rcdv 
^(o/cecov Aa/ceBatfi6rioi /caX iTrerpe^frav /caO* avrov^ 

G 4:24: rroXirevecrOai* rive^ Be ^AvepicoXeiav /caXovaiv. 
el6* 'Ta/A7roX49 (^'Ta pierd ravra eKXrjOr) vrro 

^ There is a lacuna of about ten letters in A between 
ofiavvfxcas and ry, oi Se, but the second hand supplies r<p <pv, 
Groskurd proposes the insertion of ju,4voy before rtf} <pvT^ 


^ Cyparissus is the word for cypress-tree 
2 As the text stands, the meaning is obscure. The 
scholiast on Ven A, Ihad 2. 519, says that Cyparissus was 
named after Cyparissus the brother of Orchomenus, or after 
the cypress-trees that grew in it ; and the scholiast on Yen. 
B thzd , ‘ ‘ Cyparissus, the present Apollonias, named after 

370 



GEOGRAPHY, 9 . 3 . 13-15 

interpieted by writers in two ways, by some as 
bearing the same name as the tiee/ and by others, 
by a slight change in the spelling, as a village below 
Lycoreia ^ 

14 Panopeus, the Phanoteus of to-day, borders 011 
the region of Lebadeia, and is the native land of 
Epeius. And the scene of the myth of Tityus is 
laid here Homer says that the Phaeacians "led 
Rhadamanthys into Euboea "to see Tityus, son of 
the Eaith ” ^ And a cave called Elariuni is to be 
seen in the island, named aftei Elara the mother of 
Tityus ; and also a heio-temple of Tityus, and 
certain honours which are paid to him. Near 
Lebadeia, also, is Trachm, a Phocian town, wdiich 
bears the same name as the Oetaean city, and its 
inhabitants are called Trachinians. 

15 Anemoreia^ has been named from a circum- 
stance connected with it: squalls of wind sweep 
down upon it fiom Catopteiius,^ as it is called, 
a beetling cliff extending from Parnassus This 
place was a boundary between Delphi and the 
Phocians when the Lacedaemonians caused the 
Delphians to revolt from the common organisation 
of the Phocians,® and permitted them to form a 
separate State of their own. Some, however, call 
the place Anemoleia And then one comes to 
Hyampolis (later called Hya by some), to which, 

Cypanssiis ” Pausanias(10 36 3) says; "In earlier times the 
name of the city was Cypanssus, and Homer, in his list of 
the Phocians, purposely used this name, though the city was 
even then called Anticyra ” (see Frazer, note ad loc ). On the 
position of Lycoreia, see 9. 3. 3. 

® Qd. 7. 324 ^ "Wind-swept” 

® " The Look-out 

® About 457 B c (see Thucydides 1. 107-108). 

371 


B B 2 



STRABO 


Tivcov), €19 €fc ^omrLa9 ifcirecrelv e^aiiev rom 
"^Tai^ra?* eart S’ iv rff fiecro^aLa /jLaXcara fcal 
avTTjj nTkrjcrLov t&v Ilapa7roTafiLQ)Vf iripa ovaa 
T7)9 iv T® Tlapva<7(T^ 'TapuTreia^t fcal ^EXareia, 
rj jneyiarrrj ttoXl^ t&v ^coklk&v, fjv '^OpL7}p09 p^ev 
ovK olSe* vecoripa yap iarv tt}? rjXLKia^ 
i7ri/caLpia>9 S’ iSpvrai Trpo<; ra^ etc t 7J9 ©erraXca^ ^ 
eia^okd^* BrjXol Be rrjv ev^vLav ravrrjv koX 
ArjpLoadivrjq, (j>pd^cov rov dopv^ov rov yevrjOevra 
^ Adrjvrjatv al<f)ViSLa)9, iireiBr} rjtci tl 9 dirayysWcov 
<W9 T0U9 'Trpvrdv€L9i &9 ^EXdreia KaTeiXrjTrraL* 

16 HapaTTordfjLCOL S’ eitrl tcaroitcia rt9 errl t& 
'Kif)(l>Lcrcr& IBpVfJbiv'r} 'ttXtjg-Cov <PavoTevcn teal Xat* 
pcovevac teal ’EXareta. (ji7]crl Be Seono/HTTO^ rov 
TOTTov Tovrov Bik'xeLv Trj9 p^ev Kaipoovela^ o<rov 
T€TTapd/covTa araBLov^i BiopL^ecv Be tov9 ’A/^- 
fipv(rea9 teal Tlavoirea^ teal AavXiia^* Keladai S’ 
iirl r7]9 iplSoX^9 rrj^ etc Boicoria^ el^ ^coKia9 iv 
X6<p(p perpico^ v^j/i^XtS, pera^v rod re Hupvaorcov 
teal rov [ ASvXlov o]pov9^ irevraardBiov cT')(eB6v ri 
diroXeLTrovTcov dv\a piaov Biatpeiv Be rov 

KrjipLaaov, aTevrjv e/caripcodev BiBovra irdpoBov^ 
Ta9 pev dpxd^ itc AtXaia^ exovra ^cotcLtcPj^ 
7r6Xecd9 {fcaddirep teal ^'Oprjpo^ ^rjaiv^ 

01 re AiXatav exov rr'qyfi^ eirc Ki]<j)ta‘(TOio), 

6^9 Se Tfjv K(D7raiBa Xipvrjv itcBcBovra* to Be 
^ABvXtov ® rrapareLveiv iepP e^rjtcovra araBlou^ 

^ €Kehov 3710. 

2 0€TTaX^as, 7na7i sec m v, foi dahdrrTjs , so the later 
editors 

® ['ASuAlou ^]povs, lacuna of about seven letteis supplied by 
Kramer. ^HSuA^ov, Politus on Eustathius, II 567. 

37* 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 3. 15-16 

as I have said/ the Hyantes were banished fiom 
Boeotia. This city is very far inland, near Paia- 
potamii, and is not the same as Hyampeia on 
Parnassus, also far inland is Elateia, the largest 
city of the Phocians, v^hich is unknown by Homer, 
for it is more recent than the Homeric age^ and it 
IS advantageously situated in that it commands the 
passes from Thessaly Demosthenes ^ clearly indi- 
cates the natural advantage of its position when he 
speaks of the commotion that suddenly took place at 
Athens when a messenger came to the Prytanes 
with the leport that Elateia had been captured ® 

16. Parapotamii is a settlement on the Cephissus 
River near Phanoteus and Chaeroneia and Elateia 
Theopompus says that this place is distant fioin 
Chaeroneia about foity stadia anjJ marks the boundary 
of the teiritories of the Ambr> scans, the Panopeans 
and the Daulians , and that it lies on a modeiately 
high hill at the pass which leads from Boeotia into 
Phocis, between the mountains Parnassus and Hady- 
1ms, between winch is left a tract of about live stadia 
divided by the Cephissus River, which affords a 
narrow pass on each side. The river, he continues, 
has its beginnings m the Phocian city Lilaea (just 
as Homer says, and those who held Lilaea, at the 
fountains of Cephissus''),^ and empties into Lake 
Copais , and the mountain Hadyhus extends over a 

1 9. 2, 3 Of. 10 3. 4. a On tht Crown, 168. 

3 By Phihp in 338 u.c. * I had 2 523. 


* av[h jnecov x^lp^oy (pioop A, bplmv "Bikno), lacuna of about 
SIX letters, supplied by Meineke, following conj of Kramer. 

5 ‘AStJAiov, Kramer Pohtus), for Aa,<)Kiov , so the 

later editors 


373 




STRABO 


fiixpi Tov ^ AfcovTLOVy^ i(j> & Kelrai 6 ^Opy^ofjbevof;. 
Kai ^Ho-toSo9 S* €7rl TrXiov rrepl rov worapov 
\iyei Koi t^9 pvareco^y 609 Si’ oX ^9 peoL 
3>ct)A:t5o9 aKo\iw fcal BpafCovToeLSS><i* 

7 rap€K UavoTTTja ^ Sea r\i;%ce)i/a r ipvpvrjv 
KaL T€^ Si’ ^Op'x^opevov eiXeypevo^ etai, SpczKcov 
&<$. 

ra Bk ajevh rh irepl rov? UapaTTorapCov^ ^ 27 rrjv 
XlapaiTorapLav (Xeyerat, y^p dpefyoripm) Trepi- 
pd}(r}r<i vTTTjp^ev ip t[^ ^a>fccKm iroXi]p^y^ piav 
ixovrmv ravrrjv ip^oXr)p [ei9 Tr}p <J>o>/iCiSa®]. eVri 
Be Kri(f)i<T(TOf; 0 re ^(o/cL/cb<^ fcal 6 ^Ad^jprjai Kal 
6 ip iaXapLPiy rirapro^ Be /cal Tr^/iTrro? 6 ip 
%iKV&pi /cal 6 ip X/cvpq>, e/cro^ Be 0 ip "'Apyei, 
Ta9 TTrjyd^ e%ce)V i/c Avp/celov*’^ ip 'ATroXXtovva 
Be rfj 7 rpb<s ’‘ETriBdpptp irrjy'q ierre /card to 
yvpvdartop, fjp /caXovac Krj<j>Lcro- 6 p, 

l 7 . Aa<j)Pou<; Be vvp pev Kareafcairrar yp Be 
TTore T ))9 Oa)/ciSo9 7ro\i9 dnTTopevrj rrf^ Ev^oL/erj^ 
OaXdrry]^, Beaepovara tov 9 ’E7riA:v^/iiStov9 Ao/cpou<;, 
TOV9 pev €7ri TO 7 rpb<i Eoccolrlap pipo<;y 7009 Be 
7rpo9 ®] ^co/ciBa rrjp drrb daXdrr'rjf; /cadij/clovcrap 
C 425 7'ot€ iwl 6 dXaTTav^]* reKprjpLov Be to iv avr^ 

^ ^AKovrloVf Palmer, for ^Tpavrelov, Kramer approving 

® Tlapov^at Meineke, for XlavoTrr} Ag, navovrlSa BA;?io and 
editors before Kramer. 

* T€, Corais, for Be ; so later editors 

* Ilapa7rora[Ji,lov$y man, sec, in n, for 7roraiJLo6s , so the 
editors. 

® ^a^KiK^ vo\4]fjLepj lacuna of about thirteen letters 
supplied by Groskurd. 

374 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 3. 16-17 

distance of sixty stadia as far as the mountain Acon- 
tius/ wheie Orchomenus is situated. And Hesiod, 
too, describes at considerable length the river and 
the course of its flow, saying that it flows through 
the whole of Phocis in a winding and serpentine 
course , like a dragon it goes in tortuous courses 
out past Panopeus and through strong Glechon 
and through Orchomenus.”^ The narrow pass 
m the neighbourhood of Parapotamu, or Para- 
potamia (for the name is spelled both ways), 
was an object of contention in the Phocian war, 
since the enemy had here their only entrance into 
Phocis, There aie, besides the Phocian Cephissus, 
the one at Athens, the one in Salamis, a fourth and 
a fifth in Sicyon and in Scyros, and a sixth in Argos, 
which has its sources in Mt. Lyrceius; and at 
Apollonia near Epidamnus there is a fountain near 
the gymnasium which is called Cephissus. 

17 Daphnus is now lased to the ground. It was 
at one time a city of Phocis, bordering on the 
Euboean Sea ; it divided the Epicnemidian Locrians 
into two parts, one part in the direction of Boeotia, 
and the other facing Phocis, which at that time 
reached from sea to sea. And evidence of this 

1 Cf. 9 2 42. 

® A fragment otherwise unknown (Frag. 37, Rzach). 


® [ek tV lacuna of about fifteen letters supplied 

by Meineke, following conj of Kramer 

^ e/cTos . . AvpK€(ov, ejected by Memeke (cp« 6, 2. 4, 
8. 6 7). 

® Boiulriay robs Be wptJj’], lacuna of about eighteen 

letters supplied by Groskurd ; so the later editors 

* Ka$'^K[ovcrat' rSre errl BdA-arrap], lacuna of about eighteen 
letters supplied by Groskurd , so the later editors. 


S 7 S 




STRABO 


o ipainv elvai raxftov )S%eStou [etpiil- 
Tai^ Be 6 Aa(f)POv<^ i(f>* etcdrepa Trjv KoicpLBa 
[<r^/<7‘a4, coare /jLTjSafiov dirreadai dXXijXcov tov<; 
r ^E7rLfcv7jfjii[Biov<; fcal To]t>9® ^OttovvtLov^* vo-re- 
pov Be TTpoacopbo-drj rot^ ^OirowrioL^ 6 totto?.^] 
irepl fih Brj ^co/ciBo^i dTroxpV* 


IV 

1 . ’£^6^979 S’ iarlv f) Ao/cpL<s, Sare Trepl Tavri]<s 
\€/CT€OV, Biyprjrat Be Bi^a* to jxev ydp avT^9 
iarlv ol irpo^ EvjSoiav Ao/cpoi, [0^9 e\e}yofi€v^ 
cr'xLl^ecrOai irore e^' i/cdrepa rov Aa(^vovvTo<i' 
eirefcakovvTO S’ oi pev ^Ottovvtloi diro rrj^ 
pbTjrpoTToXeco^;, ol S’ ^EwifcvTjfJiLBLOc dwo opov<; rivbg 
Kpr]jjLtBo<i' TO Be XoiTTOP ol ecnrepiol eiai Aofcpol, 
ol S’ avTol /cal ^O^oXai /caXovvTac, '^copl^ei S’ 
avToif^ diro t&v ^OttovvtIcop /cal twv ^E’Ttc/cvt]- 
PlBlcov 0 T€ Hapvao'ao^ peTa^ij lBpvpevo<i /cal 77 
T&p Acoptioov TeTpdiroXt^ dp/cTeov S’ aTro tcov 
^OttovvtLcov. 

2 , ’£<^€^779 toLvvv TaA 9 ^AXai^,^ eU /tare- 
Xrj^ep 7 ] EoLcoTLaKr) TvapaXla 7) 7 r /309 Ev^ola, 

^ [e^pTylrat, lacuna of about foui letteis supplied by 
Kramer; so the later editors. 

2 [ffXtVai, SScTTje, lacuna of about eighteen letters supplied 
by Groskurd , so the later editors 

® ’‘^nriKvnfiilpiovs ical To]t5s, lacuna of about ten letters sup- 
plied by Groskurd , so the later editors 

* [^OfTowrlois 0 r^TTos], lacuna of about twelve letters supplied 
by Kramer from conj of Groskurd. 

376 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 3. 17-4 2 

is the Schedieium in Daphnus, which, they say, is 
the tomb of Schedius ; but as I have said/ Daphnus 
split Locris on either side, so that the Epic- 
nemidian and Opuntian Locrians nowhere boideied 
on one another ; but in later times the place was 
included within the boundaries of the Opuntians, 
Concerning Phocis, however, I have said enough. 


IV 

1 . Locris comes next m order, and therefore 1 
must describe this country. It is divided into two 
parts one part is that which is inhabited by the 
Locrians and faces Euboea ; and, as I was saying, it 
was once split into two pails, one on eithei side of 
Daphnus. The Opuntians were named after their 
metropolis,^ and the Epicnemidians after a mountain 
called Cnemis. The lest of Locus is inhabited by 
the Western Lociians, who are also called Ozolian 
Locrians. They are separated from the Opuntians 
and the Epicnemidians by Parnassus, which is 
situated between them, and by the Tetrapohs of the 
Doiians But I must begin with the Opuntians. 

2. Next, then, after Halae,^ where that part of 
the Boeotian coast which faces Euboea terminates, 

1931. 

“ The Greek word for “split” is “ schidzo,” which Strabo 
connects etymologicall}^ with ‘'Schedius*’ (see I had 2. 517). 

® Opus ^ See 9 2 13. 

® [o^s lacuna of about Six letters supplied by 

Kramer, so the later editors. 

® Holstenius, for ^tAAats ; so the later editors, 

’ Memeke emends to /careAijysy. 


377 




STRABO 


rov ^Ottovvtlov fcoXirov KeladaL crvfJbiSaivei. 6 S’ 
’OttoO? icrrl fiYjTpoTroXL^;, fcaddirep Kal to iiri- 
ypa/i/xa Sr}\ot to im t^ Trpcorj] rS>v rrevre 
(TTrfk&v r&v irepl ®6ppOTTvXa<^ i'jriyeypappevov 
7rpo9 T^ TToXvavBpLtp* 

TovcrSe TTodet (f>dtfiivov^ virep ^EXXdSo<; avria 
yiTjScov, 

p7)rp67roXt^ Aofcp&v ev9vv6p(ov 

dnTi')(ei Se ti}? OaXarTV}^ Trepl irevrefcatheKa crra- 
Blov^, Tov S’ iiTiveLov ^ /cal i^^/covra, Kvpo 9 S’ 
i/rrl TO iTTbveLoVi a/cpa repphari^ovaa top ^Ottovvtlop 
KoXnrov o-tuBlcov ovra Trepl rerrapdicopra* pera^v 
Se *07rovPT09 Kal Eivvov ttsSlop evSaipov^ KelraL 
Se Kara AlSrjyfrbv rri 9 Ev^oia^i Bttov rd ffeppd 
rd ^HpaKXiov9, rropdp^ Sieipyopevo^ crraSloov 
e^TjKOPra Kal eKarop, iv Se r^ Kvp(p AevKaXtoovd 
^aaip olKr{<Tai? Kal Uvppa 9 avrofft SeiKwrai 
(T^pa, TOV Se AevKaXLa)vo9 ^AOrjvriart, SUxei Se 
r7]9 Evrjp2So9 6 K.vpo<$ ocrov Trep’njKOvra araSLOv^* 
Kal 77 AraXdvrr} Se vrj(ro 9 Kara ^OTrovvra '(Spvrai, 
6pd}vvpo9 rfj rrpo rfj<; ’Att^/ci)?, XeyeaBac S’ 
^Ottowtcov^ TLpds Kal ev rfj ’HXeta <j)acripy d)p 
ovK d^iov pepvijcrdai, ttXtjv ore <yvyykveiav avrebv 
e^avaveovvrae to?? '^Orrowrioi^ vTrdpxovcrav. ore 
S’ ^OTrovvro9 ?}v 0 lildrpoKXo9> Xeyee ''Opn/)p 09 i 
Kal Score (povov cckovclop Trpd^a^ €<j)Vj€V ei^ 
n^yXea, 6 Se TraTrjp yiepoirco^ epeevev iv rfj 
nrarpuSe* iKeccre yap <f>rj(xev 6 ’A%iXX 6 U 9 utto- 

^ *Oiriots A, *Ofr6^is WcX For variants of €hdvv6fA(ov 'OvSets 
see Miiller, Aid Vwr, Lect, 
nrjveiov A^JWp, 

378 



GEOGRAPHY, 9 4- 2 

lies the Opuntian Gulf Opus is the metropolis, as 
IS clearly indicated by the inscription on the fiist of 
the five pillais m the neighbouihood of Thermo- 
pylae, near the Poljandrium ^^Opoeis, metropolis 
of the Locrians of iighteous laws, mouins for these 
who perished in defence of Gieece against the 
Medes ” It is about fifteen stadia distant from 
the sea, and sixty from the sea-port. Cynus is the 
sea-port, a cape which forms the end of the Opuntian 
Gulf, the gulf being about foity stadia in extent. 
Between Opus and Cynus is a fertile plain , and 
Cynus lies opposite Aedepsus m Euboea, where are 
the hot waters of Heiacles, and is separated fiom it 
by a strait one bundled and sixty stadia^ wide. 
Deucalion is said to have lived in Cynus ; and the 
grave of Pyrrha is to be seen there, though that of 
Deucalion is to be seen at Athens Cynus is about 
fifty stadia distant fiom Mount Cnemis The island 
Atalanta is also situated opposite Opus, and bears 
the same name as the island in fiont of Attica It 
IS said that a ceitain people in Eleia are also called 
Opuntians, but it is not worth while to mention 
them, except to say that they are reviving a 
kinship which exists between them and the Opun- 
tiaiis. Now Homer says that Pat rod us was from 
Opus,^ and that after committing an involuntary 
murder he fled to Peleus, but that his father Me- 
noetius remained in his native land ; for thither 
Achilles says that he promised Menoetius to bring 

^ A polyandniun is a place where many heroes are buried. 

3 An error. The actual distance is about half this 

® lhad 23 85 


® oIk^X^Q^l 'BklnOf Tzschucke, 


379 




STRABO 


crykddai rw Mevotritp fcard^ei^v rov TldrpOfcXov m 
Trj<; (TTpareia^ eTraveXdovra. ov fjLrjv e^aaiXeve 
ye eKelvo^ t&v ^OttovvtLcov, akX Ata^ 6 AoKp6<f, 
TrarpiSo^ &v, m <j)a<ri, Napv/covA Aldvrjv S’ 
ovopbdi^ovari rov dvaipeOkvra viro rov HaTpoKXov^ 
d<f)' o5 fcal rkfievo^ Aldvetov Seifcwrai fcal /cpijvr] 
T49 Alavb<;* 

0 426 3. p^erd rov Kvvov ’AXott?; icrrl koX o 

Aa(j)pov9, ov ecfya/iiev /carecnrdcrffar Xipr^v S’ icrrlv 
avTodi Si€Xo)V Kvvov Trepl ivevrjfcovTa crraStov?, 
’EXareia? Sk Tre^evovri eh rrjv puecroyaiav exarov 
eXxotTL 7]Sr) S’ icrl ravra rov MaXcaxov xoXttov* 
puerd ydp rov ^Ottovvtlov avvexv^ i<TTLv ouro?. 

4. Mera Se Aa(j)Vovvra KvrjpuBe^yj %a)/360i^ 
epvpvov, oaov arahLov^ elKoai TrXevaavri xaS" 
0 TO KrjvaLOv ix Tf)9 Evj3oca<; dvrixecTat, axpa 
^XeTTOvaa 7r/)09 ecrirepav xaX rov IsILaXika xoXirov, 
iropdpLcp ScecpyopivT] a^^^ov elxoaaaraBbcp* ravra 
S’ i]Srj rMV ^EirixvTjpbBbcov icrrl Aoxpcdv, ivravOa 
xal ai At^aSe? xaXovpbevai rpeh vrjCFOL Trpoxetvrat, 
drro ALxcb rovvopua exova ac* xal dXXat S’ elalv 
ev T(p TrapdirX^, a? exovre^ TrapaXec- 

iropiev, perd Be eXxoai araBLov^ diro Kvi^pLBcov 
XLprjv, vrrep ov xeirai ro @p6viov iv araBLoi^ roh 
taoL^ xard rrjv peaoyaiav. el6* 6 ^odypLo^ Trora- 
po<; ixBbBcoaiv 6 irapappecov ro ©povioVy Mdv7]v S’ 
eirovopd^ovaiv avrov eari Se Si<rr 

d^poXOb^ ip^abvetv roc<s rroaiv, dXXore Be xal 
BbirXeBpov tax^i'V rrXdro^, perd Be ravra %xdp- 
(^eia, araBbOb^ vTrepxeipevr) rrj<i ^aXarr-?;? Bexa, 

^ (f>afft^ Napinovj Tzschucke, for (patriv, 'ApvKov 


380 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 4. 2-4 

back Patroclus when Patioclus should return from 
the expedition However, Menoetius was not king' 
of the Opuntians, but Aias the Lociian, whose 
native land, as they say, was Narycus They call 
the man who was slain by Patioclus ^‘’Aeanes’'; 
and both a sacied precinct, the Aeaneium, and a 
spring, Aeanis, named after him, are to be seen, 

3. Next after Cynus, one comes to Alop6 and to 
Daplinus, which latter, as I said, is lased to the 
ground , ^ and here there is a harbour winch is about 
ninety stadia distant from Cynus^ and one hundred 
and twenty stadia fioniElateia, for one going on toot 
into the inteiior We have now leached the Maliac 
Gulf, which IS continuous with the Opuntian Gulf 

4. After Daphnus one comes to Cnemides, a 
natural stronghold, about twenty stadia by sea , and 
opposite It, in Euboea, lies Cenaeum, a cape facing 
the west and the Maliac Gulf, and sepaiated from it 
by a strait about twenty stadia in width. At this 
point we have now reached the tenitory of the 
Epicnemidian Locrians Heie, too, lying off the 
coast, are the three Lichades Islands, as they «aie 
called, named after Lichas ; and there are also other 
islands along the coast, but I am purposely omitting 
them After twenty stadia fiom Cnemides one 
comes to a harbour, above which, at an equal dis- 
tance m the interior, lies Thronium. Then one 
comes to the Boagiius River, w'hich flows past 
Thronium and empties into the sea. They also call 
it Manes It is a winter-stream, so that at times 
one can cross it dry-shod, though at other times it 
has a breadth of two plethra After this one comes 
to Scarpheia, which is situated ten stadia above the 

19 3. 1. 



STRABO 


Siey^ovcra fxlv ^ rov ®povLOv TpiaKovra^ eXarrocri 
Se fjbtfcp^ [rov Xifiivo^ avrov. emira^] NtAram iart 
fcal at ^eppLorrvXai, 

5. T&v Be XoLTT&v TToXecov r&v puev dXXcop ovk 
a^cov pLejxvrjcrdati Syv S* ^^Ofirjpo^s fxifivyjrai, KaX~ 
Xiapo^ fjL€P ovKert olicelrab, [evi^porop Be pvp eVJrt ® 
rreBLop, /caXovcri S'^ovrco^ dirb rov [orvju.j3ej8rj/c6ro^* 
/cal BP}cr(Ta S’®] oi/zc ecrri, BpvpLcl)Byj<; rLq totto?* 
ovB' [al Avyetai, &p rrjp )(dl>]pap^ exovcn Xfcap(j)ielr 
ravrr}V puev ovp rrjp ^rjcraav ev roh Bval ypairreop 
alypLa [arro yap rov BpvpLcl)Sov<i divopbaarai opco- 
pvpLco^f Scrrrep /cal Na7n7 ip rw ISjiriOvpLpTj^^ rreBicp, 
rjp 'EXXaz'i/co? dypo&p Adrrijv ovopbd^et), rov S’ 
ip rfj ^ Ar rc/cf} Bfjpiop, d<pP ov TiriaaLeh oi Brjpcorai 
XeyopraL, ip rfp hi crty/ia*^ 

6. 'H S^ Tdp^T)^ /ceirat i(f> yylrov^, BUxovara 

®povLov (TraBLov<i etKoari, %co/}ai/ S’ ev/caprrov re 
/cal evBevBpop ydp /cal avrr] dirb rov 

Sacrou? dpopLacrrat, /caXelrai Be pvp ^apvyar 
iBpvrai S’ avrodc ^'Hpa^; ^apvyaia^ iepovy drro 

1 (x4v, Jones, for Se, following eonj of Kramer 

2 [toC Kifxhos ouTou l-n-etTa], lacuna of about sixteen 
letters m A supplied by the second hand (^ireira) and by 
Groskurd. 

® [ev-fjpoTov 5e vvv ^cr]ri, lacuna of about fourteen letters 
supplied by Bu Theil (see Eustathius on Iliad 2 532) , so 
Memeke. 

^ KaKovcri 5\ Memeke, for tcaKovaiv 

® [(rujii0€/3vK(lros /cal Bijcrcra 5’], lacuna of about eigliteen 
letters supplied by l)u Theil , so Memeke. 

® [af Ai/yeiaif Sty r^v lacuna of about eighteen letters 

supplied by Memeke. 

Before" Kitcnv A leaves a space for about five letters. 

® After ffly/xa 3kno add ypdipovcriv. 

382 



GEOGRAPHY, 9 4. 4-6 


sea, thirty stadia distant from Thioniiimjand slightly 
less from the harbour itself Then one conies to 
Nicaea and Thermopylae 

5 As foi the remaining cities, it is not worth 
while to mention any of them except those which 
are mentioned by Homer Calliarus is no longer 
inhabited, but is now a beautifully-tilled plain, and 
they so call it fiom what is the fact 111 the case ^ 
Bessa, too, does not exist; it is a wooded place 
Neithei does Augeiae, whose territory is held by the 
Scarphians Now this Bessa should be wiitten with 
a double s (for it is named fiom its being a wooded 
place, being spelled the same way — like Nape ^ in 
the plain of Methymne, wdnch Hellanicus iguoiaiitly 
names Lape), whereas the deme in Attica, whose 
inhabitants are accordingly called Besaeeis, should 
be written with one a 

6. Tdrphe is situated on a height, at a distance of 
twenty stadia from Tin onium , its territory is both 
fruitful and well-wooded, for alieady ® this place had 
been named from its being thickly wooded. But it 
is now called Pharygae , and here is situated a 
temple of Pharygaean Hera, so called from the 

^ le from KaK6s (beautiful) and ap6a> (till) Eustathius 
(note on Iliad 2 531) says ; “ Calliarus, they say, was named 
after Calliarus, son of Hodoedocus and Laoiiom^ ; others say 
that it was named Calliara, m the neuter gender, because the 
land there was beautifully tilled ” 

® Both “bessa and “ napS ” mean ” wooded glen ” 

^ le in the time of Homer, who names Tarphe (cp. 
“tarphos,” “thicket ’) and Thi onium together, Iliad 2. 533. 


® Tdp(f)v, for :^Kcip<f>i) (see :SKdp<l>€ta 9 4. 4), Kramer, following 
Tzschucke , so the later editors 

®popioVf Groskurd inserts , so the later editors 


383 



STRABO 


€V ^apvyaif; 'Apyeiar /cal /cal arroL/col 
(j>ainv €LVai WpyeLcov, 

7, T&v ye pb^v ^Eio-irepioov Ao/cpcop '^OfJbripo^ 
ov puipivrjTac, fj ov prjrS)^ ye, aXXa pbovov t& 
So/cetv dvriSia/TTeWeadai rovrot^ i/c 6 LV 0 v<^^ irepl 
&v elprjicapuev, 

Ao/cp&v, ot vaiovo-i ireprjv Upr}^ EuySoi???, 

0)9 /cal erepcop qptcop* aklC ovB' viro ^ dXXcop 
reOpvXrjPTat ttoXX&p' TroXeif; S* ea^op ''Apucjicacrdp 
re /cal l^avTra/crov, S>p 7 ) NavTra/cTO^ avjijuepei 
Tov ^ AvTLppiov 7rX7](TL0P, dpo/iaaTai S’ utto ri}? 
C 427 pavTT7)yLa<i t^9 i/cel yepofieprjf;, eire r&p 'Hpa/cXei- 
B&p i/cel pavTT^jyrjcrapipcop top aroXop, et6* ( 0)9 
(pTJCTLP ’'£(^ 0 / 309 ) Ao/Cp&P 6TL TTpOTCpOP irapU- 
cr/cevao-dpToop* earc pvp AltcoX&p, ^iXinTrov 
7rpo<r/cpLpaPTO<;, 

8. Avtov Se /cal r} XaXKu^y ^9 pbepbprjTai /cal 

d TTOiriTrj^ ip T(» AtrcoXi/c^ /caraXoycp^ viro/cdro) 
l^aXvB&Po^* auTov Be /cal 6 Ta(j)La<T(To^ X6(l>o^, 
ip (p TO TOV Nicra-ou pvijpa /cal tojp dXXcov 
KePTavpwp, &p diro t/}9 crijneBopo^; tpaal to vtto 
'^V Xo^ov iTpo')(eopbepop 8ucr&>8€9 /cal 

Bpo/ji^ov^ e^op vBcop peep* Bed Be tovto /cal 
’OfdXa9 /caXeeadai to edpo^. /cal ?; yioXv/cpeta 
S’ icTTl KaTa TO ^AvTippiop, AItcoXi/cop TroXLy(Piop» 
f} S’ ''ApL<pLo-aa irrrl toI<; d/cpoe^ XBpvTae tov 
Kpicraeov TreBeov, /caTeaTraa-ap S’ avTrjp ol 'Ap,(f>i- 
/CTVope^t /caddirep eipij/capep* /cal Otdvdeca Be /cal 

1 ouS* tTt6i Muller- Dubner, following conj of Kramei, for 
oW virh Twy oii Trore other MSS» 

3S4 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 4 6-8 


Hera in the Argive Phaiygae , and, indeed, they say 
that they aie colonists of the Argives 

7 Howe; er, Homer does not mention the Western 
Lociians, or at least not m express words, but only in 
that he seems by contrast to distinguisli these fiom 
those other Locrians of whom I have alread}^ spoken, 
when he says, of the Locrians who dwell opposite 
sacred Euboea/’ implying that theie was a different 
set of Locrians But they have not been much 
,talked about by many others either The cities they 
held were Amphissa and Naupactus ; of these, Nau- 
pactus survives, neai Antirihium, and it was named 
from the shipbuilding ^ that was once earned on 
there, whethei it was because the Heiacleidae built 
their fleet there, or (as Ephorus says) because the 
Lociians had built ships there even before that time. 
It now belongs to the Aetolians, having been 
adjudged to them by Philip 

8. Here, also, is Chalcis, which the poet mentions 
m the Aetolian Catalogue ; ^ it is below Calydon. 
Here, also, is the hill Tapliiassus, on which are the 
tombs of Nessus and the other Centaurs, from whose 
putrefied bodies, they say, Row^s forth at the base of 
the hill the water which is malodorous and clotted , 
and it is on this account, they add, that the tribe is 
also called Ozolian.® Molycreia, an Aetolian town, is 
also near Antirihium The site of Amphissa is on 
the edge of the Ciisaean Plain , it was rased to the 
ground by the Amphictyons, as I have said ^ And 

^ “Naus” (ship) and ‘'pactos” (put together, built), the 
Boric spelling of the verbal ttriKrSs, 
s lUad 2 640 

® i.e* Ozohan Locrians, as well as Western (see 9 4 1) 
The authorities quoted by Strabo derive “Ozohan” from 
“ozein” (to smell). *■ 9. 3. 4. 

38s 


VOL. IV 


c c 



STRABO 


^vTraXiov Korcp&v elcriv, 6 Be ttS? TTapdirXov^i 
0 AoKpiKO^ fjLLfcpov vTTep^dXKei r&v Biafcoaicov 
(rraBLcov, 

9 . ^AXoirrjv Be kul evravOa teal ev roh 
IMiBioL^ 6vofJbdt^ov<ri teal ev rj) ^dccorcBr ovroi 
/xev oZv diroiicoL rcjv ^ETrLfcvi^pbiBicov elaiv, ol 8 ’ 
^E7ri^€(pvpL0L Tovrmv. 

10. T 0 Z 9 Be Aofcpoh Tol<i pikv ^EcnrepiQL<; avvex^el^ 

elalv Kiroiikoiy to ?9 8’ ^ETrircvripiBioL^ Alviavef; 
ervvex^^^ ol ttjv Olttjv e^ovre^i, fcal puicrot Acopi€i<iS^ 
oiroi puev odv elalv ol ttjv reTpairoXiv ol/cjjcravre^y 
^v <f)ao'tv elvai pu'qrpoTroXiv r&v aTravreov Acopiecov, 
7roX€49 8’ err^ov ^EptveoVi Eolov, TLLvBoVy Korlviov 
virepiceiTai 8’ f) IIti;8o9 rov ^EpiveoVy irapappet 
8’ avTTjv 6pcovvpo<; TTorapLO^;, ipjSdWcov eh rov 
K7]<f)i<raov ov ttoXv t^ 9 AtXaw dircoBev* rivh 
8’ ' Kfcv<^avra Xeyoverc rrjv TllvBov. tovt0p 6 
^acriX€v<i AlylpLio^,^ i/CTrecroov r^9 xar'^x^V 

iraXiVy 0)9 IcrropovaiVy v(f>* ^HpafcXiov^i* dirept^V)]-' 
povevaev o5v avr^ rr^v reXevT'ijcravTt rrepl 

rr)v Otrrjv* '^TXXov yap eiceiroL'qcaTo rov irpea^v- 
rarov Ta>v ifcelvou nravBcoVy koX BieBe^aro eKelvo^i 
rrjv apxw oc aTToyovoc evrevOev oppitjOecac 
T0A9 * HpaKXelBaif; vnrijp^ev rj eh UeXoTTovvrjcrov 
jcddoBo<;» 

11. T€0)9 pi^ev odv fjaav ev d^Kopari al 7roXe49, 
fcaL-rrep ovcrai pi/cpal Kal Xv'irpoxcopoL, eiretr coXt- 
yct)p7]67]arav ev Be <£>(oxikS iroXepm Kal rj} 

1 AiyijjLios, Kramer, for AtxctXtos , so the later editors. 


1 He means, apparently, the Ozolian Locrians. 
3B6 




GEOGRAPHY, 9. 4 8-1 1 


both Oeantheia and Eupalium belong to the Locrians 
The whole voyage along the Locrian coast slightly 
exceeds two hundred stadia in length. 

9 Theie is a place named Alop^, not only here 
and among the Epicnemidian Locrians, but also in 
Phthiotis. Now these ^ are colonists of the Epicne- 
midian Locrians, but the Epizephyrian Locrians are 
colonists of these.^ 

10 The Aetolians border on the western Locrians ; 
and the Aenianians who inhabit Mount Oeta border 
on the Epicnemidian Locrians , and in the middle 
between them are Dorians ® Now these Dorians 
are the people who inhabited the Tetrapolis, winch, 
they say, was the metropolis of all the Dorians , and 
the cities they held were Erineus, Boeum, Pindus 
and Cytinium. Pindus is situated above Erineus ; 
and a river bearing the same name flows past 
it, emptying into the Cephissus not very far fiom 
Lilaea By some, however, Pindus is called Acyphas 
The king of these Dorians was Aegimius, who 
w'as diiven fiom his throne, but w^as brought back 
again, as the story goes, by Heracles; accoidingly, 
Aegimius lequited the favour to Heracles after the 
latter s death on Oeta; for he adopted Hylliis, the 
eldest of the sons of Heracles; and Hyllus and his 
descendants became his successors on the throne. 
From heie it was that the Heracleidae set out on 
then return to the Peloponnesus 

11 Now for a time the cities in question were 
held in respect, although they were small and had 
poor soil, but afterwards they were lightly esteemed. 
During the Phocian War and the domination of the 

2 Again he appeals to mean the Ozolian Locrians 
® See 9 3 1 

387 

c c 2 



STRABO 


Ts/laKehovcov eTrcfcpareLa Kal AircoX&v fcal ^AOa- 
fMavcov davfjbacTTOv, el fcal avr&v el^'PcdfJuaiov^i 
rjXde, ra S’ avra TrenrovOao-i Kal Alvidve^* Kal 
yap Tovrov<i i^i^detpav AItcoXol t€ /cal ^ A6apbdve<;, 
AircoXol fiev pLerk ^ AKapvdvcov TToXepiovvTe^; Kal 
piiya Svvdpevot, ' A6apbdv€9 S’ vararoi tS)v ’HTrei- 
pcoT&v €69 ci^Lcopia TTpoa')(6evre<i, tjStj t&v dXkoov 
drreLprjKOTCdVi Kal puer ^ApivvdvBpov tov ^aa-cXeoof; 

0 428 SvvapLLv KaracrKeuacrdpLevoL ovroi Be rrjv Olttjv 

BiaKarelxov, 

12. To S’ o/?09 Biareivei diro ©eppoTrvX&v Kal 

Trj<i dvaroXi]^ irpo^ tov koXttov tov ^Api^pa- 

KLKov Kal T^v kcnrepav* Tpoirov Be Tiva Kal tt/jo? 
6pda<; Tept^vei t^v diro tov Hapvaaaov p^ixp^ 
UlvBov Kal tS)V VTrepKeipiivayv jSapjSdpcov opeivrjv 
TO opo^ TOVTO, TOVTOV Bi} TO pukv 7r/)09 @€/?/t 0 - 
7roXa9 vevevKO<i pbepo^ OI'tt) KaXeiTai, crTaBicov 
BiaKocrlcov to pid)KO^, Tpa^v Kal v'sfnjXoVf v’^rjXoTa- 
TOV Be KUTa tA^ ®€ppi07rvXa<;' Kopv(f>ovTac ykp 
evTavda Kal TeXevTa 7rpo9 ofet? Kal diroTopLOv^; 
/x€%/C)6 T?79 OaXdTTYj<; Kprjpivov^, oXLy7)v S’ anToXeLirei 
r/rdpoBov tol<; aTTo t^9 wapaXia^ ipifidXXovcriv eh 
TOV9 AoKpoi/^ eK Tpj^ @€TTaX6a9. 

13. Tr}V pL€V ovv irdpoBov ni;Xa9 KaXovcrt Kal 

'ZTeva Kal @ep/xo7ruXa9‘ e<TTi yap Kal deppba 
TrXrjariov {SSara, TipLd>pLeva 0)9 ^PlpaKXiovt; lepd* to 
S’ V7r€pK€LpL€V0V OpOS KaXXlBpOpiOV' Ttvh Be Kal TO 
Xoi^TTOv TO Bi AiTcoXla^ Kal t/J? ^AKapvavia^ BirjKov 
pi^XP^ ^ApbjSpaKiKov koXttov KaXXtS/JOyUoz^ 

TTpocrayopevova-t. 7rp09 Se Tah @€pp07rvXai<; icrTl 
<l>povpia 6Z/T09 T&v Xt€v&v, Nt/fttia pbev iirl ffaXaT- 


388 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 4. 11-13 

Macedonians, Aetolians, and Athamanians — it is 
maivelloiis that even a trace of them passed to the 
Romans. And the Aenianians had the same exper- 
ience, foi they too weie destioyed by the Aetolians 
and the Athamanians; by the Aetolians, when they 
waged war in conjunction with the Acainanians, and 
weie very poweiful, and by the Athamanians, when 
they attained to distinction (the last of the Epeirotes 
to do so, the other peoples having by this time been 
worn out) and under their king Amynander had 
acquired power. These Athamanians kept possession 
of Oeta 

12 This mountain extends from Theimopylae 111 
the east to the Ambracian Gulf in the west ; and, in 
a way, it cuts at right angles tlie mountainous country 
which extends from Parnassus to Pindus and to the 
barbarians who are situated beyond Pmdus Of this 
mountain, the part which veiges towards Thermo- 
pylae IS called Oeta , its length is tsvo hundred 
stadia, and it is lugged and high, but it is highest 
at Thermopylae, for there it uses into a peak, and 
ends at the sea in sharp and abiupt precipices, 
though it leaves a nanow pass for invasions from 
Thessaly into the country of the Locriaus, 

13 Now the pass is called not only ^^Pylae’’ and 
Narrows,’’ but also Theimopylae,” ^ for there are 

hot waters near it that are held m honour as sacred 
to Heracles ; and the moimtaiii that lies above it is 
called Calhdiomus, but by some the lemaimng part 
of the mountain, which extends through Aetolia and 
Acarnania to the Ambracian Gulf, is also called 
Callidromus. Near Thermopylae, inside the nar- 
rows, are forts — Nicaea, towards the sea of the 

1 “Hot-gates.” 


389 



STRABO 


rav Aofcp&v, T€t)(^iov<; Se fcal ^HpdfcXeia virep 
avT^^, T} Tpa)(lv KaXovfjbivT] TTporepoPf Aa/ceSat- 
fjLOvLcov icriafJLa* Siix^L Se dp'X^aba^ Tpax^J^o<i 
Trepl 6 ^ crraSCov^ ?; 'HpdfcXeia' ^^79 Se 7 ^PoSovp- 
rla, 'Xj^pLOV epvfjbvov. 

14. IIo/e 6 Se Svcreia-^oXa ra ravra 7 re 

Tpa%i;T 79 fcal to TrXrjdo^s r&v vSdrcov <j)dpayya<; 
rroLOvvToaVs a9 hLe^eiaL. 7rpo9 ydp r^ %rrepx^i'^ 
r& TrapappiovTL rrjv ^Avrifcvpav^ fcal 6 Avpa<^^ 
icTTiv, 6v (pacriv ‘HpafcXiov^; 

(x/Sia-ac rrvpdv* /cal aXXo 9 MeXa?, Si 6 %o>y Tpa- 
X^^o<; ei9 rrevre araSCov^, 7rpo9 Se pLeai^p/Spiav 
T79 Tpa%4/'09 4)T}(7cv ^HpoSoT09 ehac ^aOelav 
SiacTfpdya, Bi 79 ^AacoTro^, opdvvpo^ roh ^Iprj- 
pevQL<i ’Acra)7ro£9, €i9 rr]v OdXarrav eKirtirrei, rrjv 
ifcro<i ® IlvXSi/, rrapaXa/3d)v /cal rbv <i>oCvL/ca i/c 
T79 pearjix^pia^ avp^dXXovra ^ avnp, opbdvvpov 

7pwi, o5 /cal Td(^o<; irXr^ciov BeL/cvvrai' ardBioi 
S’ elcrlv iirl ®eppcoTrvXa^ diro rod 'Aacoirov irevre- 
/caiSe/ca. 

15. Tore phf odv fjv ivBo^orara rd p^copia 
ravray i)vLKa r^v /cXeLdpoov i/cvpteve t6)p Trepl rd 
Xrevdy /cal rol^ e^co r^v Xrev&v irpo^ roi/f; 61/T09 
^crav dy^P€<s irpcoreicoVy KaOdirep /cal 7reBa<; i/cdXei, 
^lXitttto^ T 79 *EXXaSo 9 rrjv KaXKiBa Kal r^v 
^opcvdovy 7rp09 Ta9 e/c rfj<; Ma/ceBoviat; d(poppd<; 
/SXeTrayv" iirtBecrpbov^ S’ ol vcrrepov TrpocTTjyopevov 
ravray re koX ere rrjv Ar]p,r]TpidBa* /cal ydp avrrf 

'ApriKvpav, Kramer, for ’AvriKippav, so the' later editors 

* 6 A^pasy Hopper, for '0\vpas man sec m A, *'OKvpos A, 
6 Aiipos cgkiy 6 AiSpas so later editors 

® i/cT<Js, Groskurd, for iyr6s , so Meineke, 

* (Tvfifidvra 

390 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 4. 13-15 

Locrians, and above it, Teichius and Heracleia, the 
latter m eailier times having been called Trachin, a 
settlement of Lacedaemonians, Heracleia is about 
SIX stadia distant fiom the old Tiachin Next one 
comes to Rhoduntia, a natuial stronghold. 

14. These places are rendered difficult of access 
both by the ruggedness of the country and by the 
number of streams of water which heie form 
ravines through which they flow For besides the 
Spercheius, which flows past Anticyra, there is the 
Dyras Rivei, which, they say, tried to quench the 
funeral pyie of Heracles, and also aiiothei ^ Melas, 
which is five stadia distant from Trachin. To the 
south of Trachin, according to Herodotus,^ there is 
a deep gorge thiough which the Asopus, bearing the 
same name as the aforesaid Asopus Rivers,® empties 
into the sea outside Pylae after receiving the Phoenix 
River, which meets it fiom the south and bears the 
name of the hero Phoenix, whose tomb is to be seen 
near it The distance fiom the Asopus to Thermo- 
pylae is fifteen stadia. 

15 . Now at that time these places were at the 
height of their fame when they held the mastery over 
the keys of the Narrows, and when there were 
struggles for the primacy between the peoples outside 
the Narrow's and those inside them, for instance, 
Philip used to call Chalcis and Corinth " the fetters 
of Greece,” having Macedonia in view as his base of 
operations,^ and the men of later times called, not 
only these, but also the city Demetrias " shackles,” 

1 See Vol. ni, Book 7, Frag 52. 

2 7 108, 200, » 8 6 24 and 9. 2. 23 

i e. by holding these places he could control Greece even 
from distant Macedonia. 



STRABO 


TrapoScov r)V Kvpia r&v Trepl ra Te/jL 7 rrjy to t6 
C 429 n }]Xlov exovara /cal rrjv ^'Oaaav. varepov S? 
rrdvTcov vtto /liav i^ovcriav v'lrrjy/jiivcop, diravr 
dreXeverai ^ irdaL /cal dvecpye. 

16. Uepl Se rd Srei/a ravra ol Tvepl AecovuSav 
fjL€rd dklycDV r&v ofiopcov rot? tottol^ dvricrxov 
7r/>09 rdq ToexauTa? r&v llepcr&v Swafiei^i 
irepieXOovre^ drparr&v rd oprj KareKoyjrav 
avroiff; oi ^dp^apot. /cal vvv to rroXvdvhpLov^ 
e/ceLvcov eart /cal crrTjXai /cal ^ OpvXovpbivT} eiri- 
ypacj))} tt) Aa/ceSatpLovLwv arrjX^, ovrco^ ^ exovara* 

& ^ev\ oLTrdyyeiXov AaKeBaipovioi^;, on T^Se 
/ceipeda to?9 /ceCvcov ireiOopevoL vopipoi^, 

17. ’^EcTTii Be KalXiprjv peya^ air 66 1 Kal A'i]pV’- 
T/309 lepov, iv <p /card irdcrav UvXaiav dvaiav 
ereXovv ol ^Ap<f)CKrvov€<^, i/c Be rov Xipevo^ eh 
^Hpd/cXetav rrjv Tpax^va ire^fj crrdBioi Terra- 
pd/covra, ttXoS? S’ irrl to K^jpaLov ijSBopyj/covrci , 
e^G) Be HvX&v eiOv^s 6 S7rep;\;e^09 i/cBiBoxnv, eVt 
Be noXa9 ttTTo ^vpiTTOv ardBcoc Trevra/coarcoc 
rpidfcovra, /cal rj pev AoKph reXo^ 

e^co ®€rraX&p iari rd irpb^ eco Kal rbv MaXiaKov 
koXttov, rd Se 7r/?09 Bvaiv AlreoX&v Kal ^AKap- 
vdvcov, ^Adapdve^ Be Kal airol eKXeXonracn. 

18. ISJieyiarov Kal nraXaiorarov r&v ©erra- 
X&v (Tva-rrjpa, &v rd pev "'Opr}po<i €tp')]K€, rd S’ 
dXXoL rrXeLov^, AlrcoXov^ S’ '^Oprjpo^ pbv del ivl 
ovoparc Xeyec, 7ro\et9> ovk eOvif rdrrcov utt’ air oh, 

^ B.iravr* ctreXetferat, Meineke, for wdura rekevr^^ 

® The words from o^tods to 6 dh Trotiyr^y (9 5 4) have fallen 
out in A, but are restored by the second hand, 

392 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 4 15-18 

for Demetrias commanded the passes round Tempe, 
since it held both Pelion and Ossa But later, now 
that all peoples have been brought into subjection 
to a single power, everything is free fiom toll and 
open to all mankind. 

16 It was at these Naiiows that Leonidas and his 
men, with a few who came fiom the neighbourhood 
thereof, held out against all those forces of the 
Persians, until the baibarians, coming around the 
mountains through bj’^-paths, cut them down And 
to-day their Polvandiium^ is to be seen, and 
pillars, and the oft-quoted insciiption on the pillar of 
the Lacedaemonians, which is as follows* Stiangei, 
report to the Lacedaemonians that we lie here in 
obedience to their laws.” 

17 There is also a large harboui lieie, and 
a temple of Demeter, in which at the time of every 
Pylaean assembly the Aniphictyons performed sacri- 
ficial rites From the harbour to Heiacleian Trachm 
the distance on foot is forty stadia, and by^' boat to 
Cenaeiim seventy stadia. The Spercheius empties 
immediately outside Pylac. The distance to Pylae 
fiom the Euripus is five hundred and thirty stadia. 
And whereas Loens ends at Pylae, the paits outside 
Pylae to^vaids tlie east and the Maliac Gulf belong 
to the Thessalians, and the parts towaids the west 
belong to the Aetolians and the Acariianians. As for 
the Athamaniaiis, they are now extinct 

18. Now the laigest and most ancient composite 
pait of the Gieeks is that of the Thessalians, who 
have been desciibed partly by Homer and partly by 
several others The Aetolians Homer always speaks 
of under one name, classing cities, not tribes, under 

^ See 9 i 2 and foot-note. 


393 



STRABO 


ifK^v el TOu<? Kovp7]Ta(^, ou? iv fiipei raicreov 
AlreoXiK&p aiTo &€rTa\o)v S’ aptcreov, ra fiev 
^(poBpa TraXaih koX pLvSdBTj, kuI ov')(^ OfioXo- 
fyovpueva ra iroXkd, i&vref;, tcaddirep koX iv rots 
aWoi<^ eTTOL'ijo'apLev, rd Be ^aivopbeva rjfMv fcaLpia 
Xe^yovre^, 


V 

1. ’^Ectta S’ avTrj^ Trpo<i doKarrip pev rj diro @€p- 
poirvXcov pixP^ ifc^oXT]^ rod TLr^vsLOv teal tcov 
dfcpcdv rod llijXcov irapaXLa ^Xerrovaa rrrpo<^ eco 
KOI rrpo^ rd dtepa EvySota? rd j36peia* exovci 
Bk rd pev 7rpo<; Kv^ola /cal @eppo7TvXai<; MaX^e?? 
/cal oi ^Qt&rai ’A^aio^ rd Be 7r/?09 r^ Ut^Xl^ 
Mdyv7jr€^, avrr] pev ovv r; irXevpd rrj^ %erTaXLa<; 
kfpa XeyiaOco /cal rrapaXla. e/carepcodev S’ diro 
pev lUrjXiov /cal Jl7]V€tov tt/jo? rrjv pecroyaiav 
Ma/ceSoi^e? irapaKecvrai pixP^ ^aLOvia<? ^ /cal rwv 
^HrreipciorL/c&v idimv dreo Be rcov SepporrvXSyv rd 
rrapdXXrjXa rol^ yiaKeBoatv opo} rd Olrala /cal 
AlrcoXt/cd, TOfc 9 AcopievaL /cal rip Hapyaacio 
avvdirrovra' KaXe'iordco Be rd pevrrpd<i roL<^ Ma/ce- 
Boat irXevpdv dp/crt/c6v, rd S’ erepov voriov. Xotirdv 
S’ iarl rd ecrTrepiov, o irepi/cXelovaiv AlrcoXol /cal 
^ A/capvdve^ /cal ^Ap<}>lXoxot /cal r&v 'Hrreipcor&v 

^ Groskiird, Du Theil and other scholars wrongly regard 
Ttaiopiat as an error (see Frags 10, 11, and 12 a on pp 329 ff 
in Vol III). 


394 


1 Of. 10. 3 1 

2 Of. Frag, 12, on page 330 in Vol III. 




GEOGRAPHY, 9. 418-51 

them, except the Curetes, who should be classified as 
Aetolians ^ But I must begin with Thessaly, omitting 
such things as are very old and mythical and for 
the most part not agreed upon, as I have already 
done in all other cases, and telling such things as 
seem to me appropiiate to my purpose. 


V 

1 Thessaly comprises, first, on the sea, the coast 
which extends from Thermopylae to the outlet of the 
Feneius River ^ and the extremities of Pelion, and 
faces the east and the northern extremities of Euboea. 
The parts that are near Euboea and Tliermopylae 
are held by the Mahans and the Achaean Phthiotae, 
and the parts near Pelion by the Magnetans Let 
this side of Thessaly, then, be called the eastern or 
coastal side. As foi the two sides ® of Thessaly • 
on one side, beginning at Pelion and the Peneius,^ 
Macedonia sti etches towards the interior as far as 
Paeoma and the Epeirote tribes, and on the other 
side, beginning at Thermopylae, the Oetaean and 
Aetohan mountains lie paiallel to Macedonia, 
bordering on the country of the Dorians and on 
Parnassus® Let the foimer side, which borders on 
Macedonia, be called the northern side, and the latter 
the southern side. There remains the western side, 
which IS surrounded by the Aetolians and Acarna- 
nians and Amphilochians, and, of the Epeiiotes, the 

® i e, the northern and southern boundaries 

^ The moxith of the Peneius 

® On the boundaries of Macedonia, see Ftags, 10, 11, I2a 
and 13 on pp. 329-30 m Yol, III. 


395 



STRABO 


0 430 ^ASafnave^ teal IsioXorrol fcal rj r&v AtOUcop Trore 
Xeyo/jLevrj yyj Kal a7rX&<; 97 irepl Hivliov* [?] Be 
X(l>pci 7rd(T7)s ©fc'TTaXta? icrrl mX^v tov 

TlrjXtov Kal rfj<i ''Oo'ctt;?. ravT e^rjprai pLev 
tKavw* ov fi^v ye ttoXX^jv irepcXapL/Savec kvkXg) 
Xd>paVi dXX^ et9 rd weBia TeXevra. 

2 . Havra S’ icrrl rd fieaa t^9 ©erraXia^;, 
eyBaipboveaTaTr] %ce>/)a, ttX^v oa't] TroTapLOKXvarofi 
iarev, 6 yap TIi]veco9 Bed fiiar]^ picov Kat ttoXXov^; 
BtxofJeevo^ TTorapLOv^; vTrepxsirat TToXXaKis* to Be 
TraXaiov Kal eXipevd^ero, a >9 X-0709, to ireBLoVi eK 
re rS>v dXXcov fxepmv opeai rrepieipyopeevov, Kal 
rPi<; irapaXLa^i perecoporepa twv 'ireBicov exovo-Tjf; 
rd %copta. otto Se aeicrp&v pi-jyparo<i yevopuevov 
Kard ^ rd vvu KaXovpeeva l^epirr) Kal rrjv 'Ocraav 
dTrocrxleravro^ diro rod 'OXvpuiroVi Bie^eireae 
ravrp rrpos OdXarrav 0 Urjveio'^ Kal dve^v^e rrjv 
X^P^^ ravr^tjv, inroXeLTrerai S’ opm v re 
NecrcrcovU Xipvt'i peydXij Kal rj Boz/S?;/?, eXdrrcov 
eKeivrj^ Kal irXtTo-eecrrepa rfj TcapaXLa, 

3 ^otavTi) S’ ovaa eh rerrapa pepi] Bti^p^jro* 
eKaXelro Be to pev ^0Lwrt<;, to S’ 'Eo-T^a^WT^?, 
TO Be ^eTTaXea)ri<;, to Be IltXaaryLcoTi^. S’ 

77 ph/ ^l>6cd)ri<i rd voria rd irapd rrjv Oirrjv diro 
rod XiaXtaKod kqXitov Kal TivXaiKov pexpe rrj^ 
AoXoTTia^ Kal rrj^ HlvBov BiareLvovra, TrXarvvo- 

^ The words ^ Se . . . ireBcds are supplied by Jones. Cp, 
Plato’s Laws 625 D : r^v yap ti)s rrd<r7}s Kpijrris (pvtny 

6pdre &$ ouk ^crrif KaSdirep ^ rav ©erTaAwj', 'trehids Others 
only indicate a lacuna, except Groskurd, who fills the lacuna 
with too many words 

® Kara, Corais inserts So the later editors 

396 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 5. 1-3 

Athamanians and Molossians and what was once 
called the land of the Aethices, or, in a word, the 
land about Pindus^ The land of Thessaly, as a 
whole, IS a plain, except Pelion and Ossa These 
mountains rise to a considerable height, they do not, 
however, enclose much ierritoiy in their circuits, but 
end in the plains. 

2 These plains are the middle paits of Thessaly, 
a countiy most blest, except so much of it as is 
subject to inundations by rivers For the Peneius, 
which flows thiough the middle of it and receives 
many rivers, often overflows, and in olden times 
the plain foiined a lake, accoi ding to leport, being 
hemmed in by mountains on all sides except in the 
region of the sea-coast; and there too the region 
was more elevated than the plains. But when a 
cleft was made by eaithquakes at Tempe, as it is now 
called, and split off Ossa fiom Olympus, the Peneius 
poured out thiough it towards the sea and diained 
the countiy m question But there remains, never- 
theless, Lake Nessonis, which is a large lake, and 
Lake Boebeis, which is smaller than the former and 
nearer to the sea-coast. 

3 Such being its nature, Thessaly was divided into 
four parts One part was called Phthiotis, another 
Hestiaeotis,^ another Thessaliotis, and another Pelas- 
giotis Phthiotis occupies the southern parts which 
extend alongside Oeta from the Maliac, or Pylaie, 
Gulf as far as Dolopia and Pindus, and widen out 

^ In 7 7 1 and 7 7 8 Strabo classes the Amphilochians as 
Epeirotes. 

^ Hestiaeotis ” is the Attic spelling, and ‘‘ Histiaeotis^’ 
the Ionic and Rone spelling, according to Stephanas Byzan- 
tmus, s V. ^lirriaiav. 


397 



STRABO 


ixeva Se ^apadXov ^ teal r&v Trehicov t&v 

©erraXifc&v rj S’ ^EaTiaiu>rtfi rd ecnrepia fcal rd 
fiera^i) TLlvZov /cal rij? dveo MaKeSovCa^* rd Se 
Xotird OL re viro rfi ^Eiariaidri^t ve/JLopLevot rd 
TreSia, /caXovjJievot Se UeXaaji&rat,^ crvvdrrrovTe<i 
ijBrj TOi? /car CO Ma/eeBoai, /cal ol ©erraXioorai ^ 
i<f>€^rj<; rd fie'X^pt ls/ia^V7)rcicri<; rrapaXLa^; i/crrXrj-^ 
povvre^ 'XppLa, /edvravOa S’ ivho^cov ovoyLaraov 
ear at dptOpbrjatf; /cal dXXci><; /cal ^ Sid rr)v ^Optripov 
TroLTjaiv* r&v Se rroXecov oXCyat aco^ovai ro irarpiov 
d^Loopia, ptdXtara Se Kdptaa} 

4. Se TTOtrjrr}^ eh Si/ca fJtepr) /cal SvvaareLaf; 
SteXebv rrjv avpurraaav yrjv, ffv vvv ©erraXtav 
rrpoaayopevopev^ rrpoaXa^dov riva /cal ri]<; Olraia<; 
/cal T ^9 Ao/cpi/crj<$, co? S’ avrco<; /cal tt)? vrro 
Ma/ceSoaiv vvv reTayp>€vr)<;, vrroypd^ei ri /cotvov 
Kal rrdar) %o6pa avpt^aivov, to pera^dXXeaOai /cal 
rd oXa /cal rd Ka6* e/caara rrapd rd<; roov iirt/cpa- 
rovvreov Svvdpbei^, 

5. Ilpcorov<; Srj /caraXeyet tou9 vtt ’A;)^tXX€i, 

TO vortov rrXevpov /carexovra^ /cal Tra- 

1 ^apffdKoVi Kramer, for ^apaaXiov, So the later editors. 

8 ©erra\turai acg7i%. 

® 06TTaXi«Tat, Muller-Dubner insert, from conj. of Butt- 
mann and Groskurd. 

* Kal, Casanbon inserts. So the later editors 

398 



CxEOGRAPHY, 9 5 3-5 

as far as Pharsalus and the Thessalian plains. Hesti- 
aeotis occupies the western parts and the parts 
between Pindus and Upper Macedonia ^ The 
remaining pai ts of Thessaly ai e heldj firsts by the 
people who li\'e in the plains below Hestiaeotis (they 
are called Pelasgiotae and then country bordeis on 
Lowei Macedonia), and, secondly, by the Thessaliotae 
next in ordei, who fill out the districts extending as 
far as the Magnetan sea-coast Here, too, there will 
be an enumeration of famous names of cities, and 
especially because of the poetry of Homer ; only a 
few of the cities preserve their ancient dignity, but 
Larisa most of all. 

4 The poet, after dividing into ten parts, or 
dynasties,^ the whole of the country which we now 
call Thessaly, and after adding certain parts both of 
the Oetaean and the Locrian countries, and likewise 
certain parts of the country now classed under 
Macedonia, intimates a fact which is common to, 
and true of, all coimtiies, that whole regions and 
their several parts undergo changes in propoition to 
the power of those who hold sway. 

5 Now the first peoples he names in the Catalogue 
are those under Achilles, who occupied the southern 

^ See Frag. 12 in Vol III, page 331 

* The dynasties of Achilles, Protesilaus, Eiinielus, Philoc- 
tetes, Podaleirus, Eurypylus, Polypoetes, Grimeus, Prothous, 
and Phoenix, all of whom are mentioned m Iliad 2 685-756, 
except Phoenix, who in 9 484 is ** lord over the Bolopians 
and in 16, 196 is ruler of the fourth company ” of the 
Myrmidons. 


® Aapiaa, Kramer, for Adpuraa So the later editois. 

® «o/, before rows, omitted by and the later editors 

399 



STRABO 


pafceijiivovf; rfj re Oiry xal to ?9 ^Em/cvy]iJiihioc<; 
Aofcpoh, 

oaraoi to TLeXacryiKov ''Apyo<; evaiov 
OL T ''A\ov OL T ^AXoirrjv oL re T/?? 7 %ry 
ivepLOVTo 

01 T elxov ^OLrjv fjh^ ^EX-XaSa KaWcyvvai/ca, 
Mvp/jbtS6v6<; Be fcaXevvTO koX ^'EXkrjve^ ical 
^AxatoL 

431 (Tv^evywai Be tovtoi^ teal tov<; vtto rtp ^oLvifci 
teal fcoLvov a/jL<f)o2v Troiet top (Tt6Xov» 6 puev ovv 
TTOtrjrrjf} ovBajjLOv p^kiiv^rai AoXottikti^; crrpaTia^i'^ 
Kara rov^ irepl ''iXtov ayS>va<;* ovBe yhp avrSv 
TOP '^yejXQpa ^olpiku TreiroirjKep eU tol '9 kipBvpov<; 
e^coPTa, KadaTTep roplSHaropa* aXkoiB^ el prjKaait 
KaOdirep xal UipBapo^; pbvrjadeU rod ^oIviko^* 

09 AoXorrcdv ay aye dpaavp ofMcXov aepepBopd^ 
(rat, 

IrrTroBdpcop AapaS>p ^eXeat TTpoaepopop, 

rovro Brj Kal rrapd r<p 7roL7]rfj Kara to (rtcoircopiepov, 
0)9 eldoOacrt Xeyeip oi ypaptjJbarLKoL, (rvpvTraKOV(rreop, 
yeXolop yap to top ^acriXea pterex^i'^ r7]<; errpa- 
rela<i 

(patov 8’ eaxartrjp <l>0t7?9 AoXoweacrip dpda- 

(TCOV),^ 

T0V9 S’ vTTTjKoov^ ptT) iTapetpat ovBe yap avarpa- 
revetp &p r& ^Ax^XXet Bo^etev, dXXd [movov 
oXtycop ^ e7ricrTaT>;9 fcal pijrcop eirecrdat, el S’ dpa, 

^ cTTpartas, Corais, for (rrpar^ias So the later editors 
^ This verse is ejected by Meineke. 

400 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 5 5 

side and were situated alongside Oeta and the 
Epicnemidian Locnans, all who dwelt in the Pelas- 
gian Argos and those who inhabited Alus and Alope 
and Trachin, and those who held Phthia and also 
Hellas the land of fair women, and were called 
Myrmidons and Hellenes and Achaeans'’^ With 
these he joins also the subjects of Phoenix, and 
makes the expedition common to both leaders. It 
IS true that the poet nowhere mentions the Dolopian 
army in connection with the battles round Ilium, for 
he does not lepresent their leader Phoenix as going 
forth into the perils of battle either, any moie than 
he does Nestor , yet others so state, as Pindar, for 
instance, who mentions Phoenix and then says, who 
held a throng of Dolopians, bold in the use of the 
sling and bringing aid to the missiles of the Danaans, 
tamers of horses ” ^ This, m fact, is the interpretation 
which we must give to the Homeric passage according 
to the principle of silence, as the grammarians are 
wont to call it, for it would be ridiculous if the king 
Phoenix shared 111 the expedition I dwelt in the 
fartheimost part of Phthia, being lord over the 
Dolopians")® without his subjects being present; 
for if they were not present, he would not have been 
regarded as sharing in the expedition with Achilles, 
but only as following him in the capacity of a chief 
over a few men and as a speaker, perhaps as a 

1 lhad 2 681 . 2 183 (Bergk) 

^ Iliad 9. 484 , possibly an interpolation 

2 Q\(y<fiv ^<rrC, Memeke ejects, but Jones retains bhCyoiv. 

401 


VOL. IV 


D D 




STRABO 


avfM^ovXof;. ra S’ eirr} /SovXerai koX tovto 
StjXovv* tocovtov yap to 

pLvOcop T€ prjTpjp epievai irprjKTrjpd re epycov. 

[S/)Xo9 oifp ravTCL ^ XiycoVt 0)9 ^ eiprjTaL, to tg 
VTTO T(p ^AxiXXei [/cal t^ ^olvl/ci* avTd Be 
Xex^€VTa rrepl t&v vtt ev dvri^KoyLa^ 

iaTi. TO Tfi ’'Ap709 TO HeXacryL/cov /cal ttoXip 
B i'XpvTai ©eTTaXi/crjv ® irepl Adpcaap IBpvpbhrjp 
7 roT 6 , vvv S’ ovKGTL otfcrap* oi S’ ov iToXcpi dXXd 
TO T&p ®eTTaX&v TreSiov, ovtco<: 6 popLaTt/c&^ 
Xeyop^epop, depevov Tovpopa'' A^avTO^y e^^’Apyov^ 
Bevp^ aTTOt/crjaavTo^, 

C 5 . ^ 6 Lap re ol pep Tr)p uvttjp elpai tt} ^EX,XaSfc 
/cal ^AyalcLy Tama^ S’ elpai Biareppopepri^; t^9 
avpirdar)^ ©eTTaXta^s OaTepov pepo<: to potiop" 
oi S^ Btaipovcrcp, eoi/ce S’ 6 TroLr}T^<; Bvo Troieip 
Ttjp T€ <t> 0 tap /cal TTjp 'E\XaSa, orai' ovtco^ 

OL t’ elxop ^Ovi]P ^S’ 'EWttSa, 

0)9 Bv€lp ovacop* Kal oTap ovTco<i ^fj' 

eTTGLT dirdpevOe B/^ 'EWaSo9 evpvxopoto, 

<t>du]p S’ i^cKoprjp, 

V ff 

/CaL OTl 

TToXXal ’A;^aaSe9 elalp dp* 'EXXdBa re ^dirjp 

T6. 

0 pep ovp m'0i7]T7)<s Bvo iroceCy TroTepov Be TroXei^ ^ 

^ [59?A^>^ olp\y lacuna of about seven letters supplied by 
Kramer, who places a period after Xeym 

® Jones, for ravra, following con] of Kramer. 

® Jones inserts, following conj. of Muller-Dubner. 

402 



GEOGRAPHY, 9 5. 5-6 

counselloi Homei’s verses^ on this subject mean 
also to make this clear, for such is the import of 
the words, be a speaker of w^ords and a doer 
of deeds.” ^ Clearly, theiefore, he means, as I have 
already said, that the forces under Achilles and 
Phoenix are the same But the aforesaid statements 
concerning the places subject to Achilles are them- 
selves under controveisy Some take the Pelasgian 
Argos as a Thessalian city once situated m the 
neighbourhood of Larisa but now no longer 
existent ; but others take it, not as a city, but as the 
plain of the Thessalians, which is referred to by this 
name because Abas, who bi ought a colon}^ tliere 
from Argos, so named it. 

6 As for Phthia, some say that it is the same as 
Hellas and Achaea, and that these constitute the 
other, the southern, of the two parts into which 
Thessaly as a whole was divided; but otheis distin- 
guish between Hellas and Achaea The poet seems 
to make Phthia and Hellas two difiPeient things when 
he says, ^^and those who held Phthia and Hellas,” ^ 
as though there were two, and when lie says, And 
then (I fled) far away through spacious Hellas, and I 
came to Phthia,” ^ and, There are many Achaean 
women throughout Hellas and Phthia ® So the poet 
makes them two, but he does not make it plain whether 

^ ^ e, concerning Phoenix. “ lhad 9 443 

8 lhad 2 683. * Iliad 9 479 

« lhad 9 479 


^ [/cal ry lacuna of about seven letters supplied by 

Kramer So the later editors 
® MTT* [’AxtXXe? kprL\Ko’yic^, lacuna supplied by A man, sec. 
(iy kvTi) and by Groskurd (*AxtAAeT). 

® GerraKiK-^y, Tzschucke, for BerraKoviK^y. So the later 
editors. 

403 

D D 2 




STRABO 


')(cipa9, ov SrjXoc, oi S’ varrepov rrjv 'E\X,aSa oi 
pblv eiiTovre^ j^clopav Biarerdcrdai (^aa\v eh ra? 

Ta 9 <S>di6e)T^Sa9 diro naXai(papcrdXov' iv 
Be ri) xdapa ravrp /cal to ©ercBiou icrrc irX7](jlov 
T&v ^apadXcov dp.<fioiVi Tr]<^ re 7raXaia9 /cal t^ 9 
P€a9, /cd/c Tov ©eriBiov re/cfiatpo/JbevoL T 779 vtto 
/ jL€po<s elvai /cal rrjvBe rrjv 
elrrovre^ iroXiv, <^ap(rdXioi p^ev Becfcvvovcriv aTTo 
e^rj/covra araBucov T /79 eavr&v 7roX€G)9 Karea/cap- 
432 p€j/r}p TToXiv, fjv irertLaTev/caaiv etvai rrjp ^EXXdSa 
Kal Bvo /cp7]va<i TrXrjaiov, VLea-arjiBa /cal ^Tirepeiav, 
M-eXtraieh B* aTT^Oev eavrd^v ocrov Be/ca araBlov^ 
(p/cYjaOaL^ TTjv 'EXXdBa irepav rov'Evtirico^, rjviKa 
T} eavT&v TToXiS TLvppa mvopd^ero, i/c Be t^9 
'EXXaSo9, iv raireum /ceLpevij^, eh rrjv 

eavTCOv ^ peroiKriaat, rov^ '^EXXrjvav paprvpiov S’ 
elvai TOV ev rfj dyopa rp cr(j>eTepa rdfpov tov 
EX\t;vo9, TOV Aev/caXlcavo^ vlov Kal ILvppa^. 
laropetrai ydp 6 AevKaXicov t^9 ^OicortBo^ dp^at 
Kal drrXw rrj<^ @€TTaXta,9. 0 S’ ^Evi7rev<; diro 
T ^9 ’'O0pi;o9 Tvapd ^dpcraXov pveh eh tov ’Att^- 
Bavov TTapajidXXei, 0 S’ eh tov Urjvecov* irepl pev 
^EXX7]vcov ravra, 

7. ^Olol Be KaXovvTai ol re vtt ’Ap^tXXeZ Kal 
VITO UpcorecriXa/p Kal ^CkoKTi^Trp 6 Be TroirjTr]^; 
TOVTOV pdpTV9> bIttcov ydp iv t^ KaraXoycp tcov 
vtt’ ’A^tXXet* 

OL T elxov ^dir^v, 

iv Tp iirl vavcrl pdxp tovtov<s pev viropevovra^; 
iv rah vavcrl TrerroipKe perd tov ’A;j^fXXect>9 Kal 

^ otKeicrSat Acghi. ® avruv 

404 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 5. 6-7 

they are cities or countries. As for later authorities, 
some, speaking of Hellas as a country, say that it 
stretches from Palaepharsalus ^ to Phthiotic Thebes 
In this country also is the Thetideium,^ near both 
Pharsaluses, both the old and the new ; and they 
infer from the Thetideium that this country too is a 
part of that which was subject to Achilles. As for 
those, however, who speak of Hellas as a city, the 
Pharsahans point out at a distance of sixty stadia 
from their own city a city in ruins which they believe 
to be Hellas, and also two springs near it, Messeis 
and Hypereia, whereas the Melitaeans say that Hellas 
was situated about ten stadia distant fioin themselves 
on the other side of the Enipeus, at the time when 
their own city was named Py rrha, and that it was 
from Hellas, which wds situated in a low-lying 
district, that the Hellenes migrated to their own city ; 
and they cite as bearing witness to this the tomb of 
Hellen, son of Deucalion and Pyrrha, situated m their 
maiket-place For it is related that Deucalion ruled 
over Phthia, and, in a word, over Thessaly. The 
Enipeus, flowing from Othrys past Pharsalus, turns 
aside into the Apidanus, and the latter into the 
Peneius Thus much, then, concerning the Hellenes 
7 . "Phthians” is the name given to those who 
were subject to Achilles and Protesilaus and Phi- 
loctetes. And the poet is witness to this, for after 
mentioning in the Catalogue those who were subject 
to Achilles "and those who held Phthia,”® he 
represents these, in the battle at the ships, as stay- 
ing behind with Achilles m their ships and as being 

^ Old Pharsalus. 

2 Temple of Thetis, mother of Achilles 

» Iliad %m- 


405 



STRABO 


fcaO"* ^av')(Lav ovra<^y tow? S* vtto fjbaxo- 

fjihov^ e%oi/Ta9 Mehovlra tcocrfLi^ropa koX tov<; 
vTTo TJ pcoT€crt\d(p vTTo ^ TloBdpKOv<; Koap,r}9evTa<i 
Trepl ^ &v Kotvd)<; fiev ovrco (l>r}(rLv* 

ev9a Se Boccorol /cal Taoz^e? €\/C€xI'T(ov€<;, 

Ao/cpol /cal ^Oloc /cal (^aiBipioevre^ ^EiireLOi* 

IBlco 9 Be* 

7rpo ^dLccv Be MeBcov re /jLeveTrroXepLo^ re 
TloBdp/c7]<;, 

01 /lev rrpo ^BLoav /i^yaOv/icov dcopijx^svref? 

vav<f>iv d/ivvo/ievoi /lerd Boi>coTd)V ^ i/idxovTO» 

rdxa Be /cal ol crvv EvpvrTvXo) ^6 lol iXiyovro, 
opLOpOL rovTOL<; oWe?*® vvv fievroc Mayvr](ria^ 
VO/lL^OVCTL 7979 T€ VTT EvpVTTvXcp TO, TTepl ’OyOyul- 
viov ® /cal rrjv vrro ^CkoKrrjrr) rrdaav* rrfv B' vtto 
n.pcoT€aiXd<p Ti]<; ^6La<; drro AoXoiria^ /cal rrj^i 
THivBov ® /li^pc rrj^ Maypr/Ti/crj^; OaXdm]^* MXP^ 
Be 7^9 vrro IlpcoTecTLXdM rroXeco^; ^ Avr pci)vo<iy 7 ) 
vvv 7rX7)6vvrL/ca><; Xeyerac, ro rrXdro^ d^opi^erai 
7779 vrro Jli]X€L /cal ’A%iXXet 77 ) 9 , arro 7779 
Tpaxt'Via'i /cal rrjs OlraLa^ dp^a/ievoi^* ro 8’ avro 
ax^^ov rt pL7]/c6^ eart rod MaXia/cov /coXrrov. 

^ HeSoulra /co<r/i^ropa], lacuna of about thirteen letters 
supplied by Jones, instead of Kramer’s j^yeiiSva See Ihad 
2 727. 

2 {firSy Jones inserts 

® [Kocrfiridevras irejpt, lacuna of about eleven letteis supplied 
by Jones (see Iliad 2. 704) 

* lfA.€Th. Boiwjrwv, lacuna of about ten letters supplied by 
Tzschucke from Ihad 13 700 

® liivovres Acghlk, 

® *OpfA.evtoPy Xy lander, for ’^OpiJ.evov So the later editors. 
406 



GEOGRAPHY, 9 5 7 

inactive, but those who were subject to Philoctetes 
as taking part in the battle, having Medon as 

marshal,’* ^ and those who were subject to Pro- 
tesilaus as marshalled by Podarces.” ^ Concerning 
these, speaking in a geneial way, he says, ^‘^And 
there the Boeotians and loiiians with trailing tunics, 
the Locnans and Phthiansand illiistiious Epeians” 
and, in a specific way, ^^and m fiont of the Plithians 
was Medon, and also Podaices steadfast in war. 
These in their armour, in front of the great-hearted 
Phthians, were fighting along with the Boeotians in 
defence of the ships’*^ Pei haps the men with 
Eurypylus also were called Phthians, since their 
country indeed bordered on Phthia Now, how- 
ever, historians regard as belonging to Magnesia, 
not only the region round Ormenium, which belonged 
to the country that was subject to Eurypylus, but 
also the whole of the country that was subject to 
Philoctetes ; but they regard the country that was 
subject to Protesilaus as a part of Phthia, extending 
from Dolopia and Pindus as far as the Magnetan 
Sea ; whereas the land subject to Peleus and 
Achilles, beginning at the Tiachiman and Oetaean 
countries, is defined as extending in breadth as far 
as Antron, the city subject to Protesilaus, the name 
of which IS now spelled in the plural number, And 
the Maliac Gulf has about the same length. 

1 lhad 2 727 ^ Ihad 2 704 ^ juad 2 685. 

* Ihad 2, 693, 699. Of. 2. 727 and 2. 704. 


’ Kramer inserts from conj. of Du Theil So 

the later editors 

® rrts UivBoVf Du Theil, for rod ireBiov So the later 
editors. 


407 




STRABO 


8. Ileyol ''AXov fie /cal ’A\o7ri;9 BLaTropovaij fir} 
ov rovrov^ Xiyet rov<; tottou?, ot vvv h 
^OicoTiK^ riX^i <f)epovTac, dXKa Toit<; ip AoKpol% 
pbeypi hevpo iTTLicpaTovvTQ<i rov ’A%4XX.€(»9, (oo-irep 
/cal fiixP^ 'Tpa'^vo^ /cal rr}^ Olraia^, ecrrc yap 
Kal ’^'A\o9 /cal AXlov<; iv rfj TrapaXia r&v Ao/c- 
p&v, /cadarrep /cal ’AXottt;. ol fie top ^AXiovvTa 
dvrl ’AXo7r7;9 TiQkaa/, /cal ypci^ovcriv ovrco^' 

OL 6^ AXov OL 6' ^AXtovvS* ol re T^pVX^^^ 
ivepovro. 

C 433 0 fie ^^£Ci)Tt/co9 AXo^ viro rep Trepari Kelrac t 7]<; 
''Odpvo^f 6pov<; 7ryoo9 ap/crov /ceipivov rfj ^6L(OTihi, 
opopov fie T(p ^ilv<l>prj<7T%^ /cal T 049 AoXo^^nv, 
\jcd/ceWev^'\ TrapareLvovToe; eh ra TrXrfdLov rov 
MaXta/coS koXttov, cLTrexei fie ^Ircovov nrepl 

e^rjKOVTa orrahLov^; 6 '’'AX 09 ^ ^ ^^AXo9 {XeyeraL 
ydp dp<j)OTepa)<;), (p/ccere fie 0 ^A6dfia<; rrfv ^'AXov, 
d(f>avtardeLaav fie ® (TWcpKiaav ^apadXLoi ^ %/?oi^o/;9 
varepov. vTrep/ceLraL fie rov Kpo/clov TreStov pel 
Bk rrorapo^ ''Apeppvao^^ 7r/?09 rp relx^L. VTrb 
fie rp }Lpo/ci<p ©rf^aL elcxiv ai ^OLcorcBe^, /cal rj 
"'AX 09 ® fie ^OicoTL^i KaXelrai /cal"^ ^ Axcllk^, 
crwaiTTOvaa roh l^aXievaip, &cnrep Kal ol t?}9 
*'06pvo^ 7r,oo7rofie9. Kaddirep fie 97 ^vXaKrj 7 } 

^ Te(pp7]crrq: Acghino ; Tvp(f)p7}ffr$ hJc and editors before 
Kramer, 

* [fc^/ceteej'], lacuna of about eight letters supplied by Pletho 
on the basis of Vxhh Meineke writes /cMeude 

® Se, Memeke inserts 

* (rvu[if^/ct(raj/ ^apirdXtot], lacuna of about fifteen letters 
supplied by Kramer, So the later editors 

* ’'Ap(f>pv<ro5f Xylander, for "'Ap<l>v<T(ros. So the later 
editors. 

408 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 5 8 


8 But as regards Halus and Alope, historians are 
thoroughly in doubt, suspecting that the poet does 
not mean the places so named which now are 
classed in the Phthiotic domain, but those among 
the Locrians, since the dominion of Achilles ex- 
tended thus far, just as it also extended as far as 
Trachin and the Oetaean country , for there is both 
a Halus and a Halius on the seaboard of the 
Locrians, just as there is also an Alop6. Some 
substitute Halius for Alope and write as follows : 
'^and those who dwelt in Halus and in Halius and 
in Trachin.” ^ The Phthiotic Halus is situated below 
the end of Othrys, a mountain situated to the north 
of Phthiotis, bordering on Mount Typhrestiis and 
the country of the Dolopians, and extending from 
there to the region of the Maliac Gulf. Halus 
(either feminine or masculine, for the name is used 
m both genders) is about sixty stadia distant from 
Itonus 2 It \vas Athamas who founded Halus, but 
in later times, after it had been wnped out, the 
Pharsalians colonised the place. It is situated 
above the Crocian Plain ; and the Amplirysus River 
flows close to Its Avails. Below the Crocian Plain 
lies Phthiotic Thebes. Halus is called both Phthiotic 
and Achaean Halus, and it borders on the country 
of the Malians, as do also the spuis of Othrys 
Mountain. And just as the Phylace, which was 

1 Ihad 2 . 682 

2 On Halus, see Rawlinson’a note on “Alns,” Herodotus, 

7 173 . 


• Instead of ^ • **hXQ$ read ^ 

’ 7), after xal, Oasaubon omits. So in general the later 
editors. 

409 




STRABO 


VTTO UpcorecnXd^ t)}? ^6lc!)tiS6<; icrri rrj^ irpotr- 
'Xcopov TOL^ MaXievaiv, ovrco koX 97 '’'AX 09 * hik'xpi 
Be ®t]j3(ov irepl kfcarov araBiov^, ip fiiaco S* 
earl *t>apcrd\ov /cal ^dicor&p* ^IXiTrirof; fievrot 
^apcraXiot^ nrpoaeveifieVj dc^eXopLevo^ TCdv ^dtco- 
tS>p» ovtco Be <TVpbl3aiv6L tov<; opov^ /cal ra? 
avv^d^ei^ t&v re edvoov /cal reov tottcop dXXdr- 
T€(T0ai dec, Kaddirep elirofiev* ovrco /cal So^o- 
kXt]^ Tr)V TpcL'^Lviav ^6l5>tlv etprj/cev ^Apre/jii- 
Bcopo<; Be rrjp ^'AXop ip rfj rrapaXici ridrjo’t, e^co 
pi€P Tov MaXia/cov /coXrrov /ceipbeviiVt ^dicortv Be* 
rrpoLoov yap ivdevBe €09 iirl top HrjveLOV pierd top 
^Avrpcova rLdr]at nreXeoz/, elra top '^AXov diro 
TOV ilreXecv Biexovra i/carov /cal Be/ca (rTaSlov<;, 
rrepl Be t^9 Tpaxipo<; etprjrai, oiroia Ti9, /cal 0 
7 roiJjT^<? /carovopcd^ei. 

9. ToO Bi 'Zirepx^iov fxepuprjp^evo<i 7roXXd/ct<$, 
0)9 imx^P^ov TTorapLOv, t<X9 irrjyd^ exovro^ itc 
iLV^prjcrrov,^ Apvorrc/cov opov<; rov /caXovpuepov ^ 
. . . rrporepop, iKBcBovro^i Be irXriaLov ®eppLO- 
•TTvX&p pbera^if avrcov /cal Aapcuaf;, BrjXol, on /cal 
rd ivTO^ TTvXojp Sera tov MaXiafcov /coXttov, /cal 
rd 6/CT09 VTT i/c6LP<p fjp drrex^f' Be Aap^ia^ 0 
^rrepx^co^ rrepl Tptd/covra araBiovf; virepKei^pLevn}^ 
ireBiov Tivo^ /cadrjKoPTo^ iirl top M.aXia/cop /coX- 

1 Tv<(>p7}(rT0Vf Kraiuer, for Tpvciyrjs tov man pmm,, Tpv<l>7icrfr65 
A man sec , Tv/jLcppriarov A (m margin) BEcjtoj? and editors 
before Kiamer. 

® The lacuna of about five letters between KaXovpevov and 
^repov, except Trp, has not been supplied with certainty. 
Groskurd would write Tvp.<j>p7i(rrov ; Tzschucke conj, Te^p^tr- 
Tov, Jones conj. T4<f>pa or TiJ^pa (see Stephanus and MymoL 
Magnum^ s.v, TvpprjarSs), 

4 x 0 



GEOGRAPHY, 9, 5 8-9 

subject to Protesilaiis, is m that part of Phtbiotis 
which lies next to the country of the Malians, so 
also IS Halus , it is about one lumdied stadia 
distant fiom Thebes, and it is midway between 
Pharsalus and the Phtlnotae However, Philip took 
it a-way fiom the Phtlnotae and assigned it to the 
Pharsahans And so it comes to pass^ as I have 
said before,^ that the boundaries and the political 
organisations of tribes and places are always under- 
going changes. So, also, Sophocles speaks of Tra- 
chinia as belonging to Phthiotis And Arteniidorus 
places Halus on the seaboaid, as situated outside 
the Maliac Gulf, indeed, but as belonging to 
Phthiotis ; for proceeding thence in the direction of 
the Penems, he places Pteleum after Aiitron, and 
then Halus at a distance of one hundred and ten 
stadia fiom Pteleum As forTrachin, I have already 
described it,^ and the poet mentions it by name. 

9 . Since the poet often ^ mentions the Spercheius 
as a river of this country,^ and since it has its 
sources m Typbrestus, the Dryopian mountain 
which m earlier times was called . . and empties 
near Thermopylae and between it and Lamia, he 
plainly indicates that both the region inside the 
Gates, I mean in so far as it belonged to the Maliac 
Gulf, and the region outside the Gates, were subject 
to Achilles. The Spercheius is about thirty stadia 
distant from Lamia, which is situated above a certain 
plain that extends down to the Maliac Gulf And 

1954 . Of 3. 4. 19, 4, 1 I, and 8 3 10. 

2 9 4 ISff. 

2 Three times only, Iliad 16, 174, 176 and 23. 144. 

^ of Achilles’ domain. 

2 See critical note. 



STRABO 


iTOv* OTi S’ 0 XTrGpx^to^; e7rt%<Bpio9, e/c re rod 
rp4(p€iv ifCGLv^ rr}v fcofirjv <f)da/c€cv /cal rov rov 
lAeveadioPi eva rtSv Xox^y&v avrou, 'S^wep^ecov 
Xiyeo'dat, TratSa /cal rrjr d86X(f)Yj<; tt)? ’A%i\Xe« 9 , 
Mvpp.L86va^ S’ 6t/co9 KaXecadac irdvra^ rov^ vtto 
^A xiXXet /cal IlaTpo/cX^j ot arvvrj/coXov- 
Orjcrav AiyLvrjf; Sevyovri rS 11 97 X 64 . ^A^OLtol 
S’ i/caXovvTo oi ^OiArat Traz/re?. 

10. AtapiO iiovvraL Se rd^ vtto ^dicoTL/c^ 
riXei VTT ^AxiAXel Karot/cla^; dirb^ ^aXiicov 
dp^dpievoi ttXglov^ piv, iv S’ avral^ @7]/3a^ 
rd^ ^dicoTiha^, Aapcav,^ nrepl 6 

Aapta/co<i crvvecrTr] rroXepo^ A/laKehoai koI ^ Av~ 
TiTTarpcp 7rpo<; ^A6')]vabov<;' iv ip AecocrOivrjg re 
0 434 eirecre r&v ^AOrfvaLcov a'rparTjyo^, /cal Aeowdro^;^ 
0 ^ AXe^dvhpov rov ^a(nXeo)<^ kralpo<i* [iri Se 
'Nap0d/ctov^], ^EpiveoV) Kopcoveiav, opdvvpov r^ 
Bo46)T4/c^, yieXiraiav,^ ®avpaKOv<ii Upoipvav^ 
^dpa-aXov, ^Eperpiav^ opoovvpov rfj Ev^oi/cff, 
TlapaxeXcpira^f /cal rovrov9 6pcovvpov<i to49 
AlrcoXt/coL^* /cal ydp ivravOd icrriv ’A^^eX^o? 
TTorapo^ rrXr]aLov Aapia<i, irap bv ol/covatv ol 
Uapax^XpLrai, irapireive S’ ?; avri] tt/jo? 

dpKrov pev rfj r&v ^A<T/cXr)7naB&v r&v pdXtcrra 
TTpoaecnrepCcoVf /cal ry EvpvirvXov Ka\l en r^ 

1 a7r6, Corals inserts ; so the later editors. 

® aySa/itay Acghion, 

® See preceding note 

* Kal A^opAtos^ Corals inserts ; so the later editors 

^ [^n $€ Napffd/cjioy, lacuna of about thirteen letters sup- 
plied by Meineke; only [Nap0ci/t]tov, Du Theil, 

• Me\iTa(ay, Xy lander, for Me^ireU A, M^Xirelay other 
MSS. 

412 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 5. 9-10 

he plainly indicates that the Spercheius was a 
river of this country, not only by the assertion of 
Achilles that he ^^fosteied the giowth of Ins hair as 
an offering to Spercheius/' ^ but also by the fact 
that Menesthius, one of his commanders, was called 
the son of Spercheius and the sister of Achilles.^ 
And it IS reasonable to suppose that all the people, 
the subjects of Achilles and Patroclus, who had 
accompanied Peleus in his Right fiom Aegina, were 
called Myimidons And all the Phthiotae were 
called Achaeaiis 

10. Histonans enumerate the settlements 111 the 
Phthiotic domain that was subject to Achilles, and 
they begin with the Malians They name several, 
and among them Phthiotic Thebes, Echinus, Lamia 
(near which the Latman War arose between the 
Macedonians, under Antipater, and the Athenians, 
and in this war Leosthenes, a general of the Ath- 
enians, fell, and also Leonnatus, the comrade of 
king Alexander), and also Narthacium, Erineus, 
Coroneia (bearing the same name as the Boeotian 
city), Mehtaea, Thaumaci, Proerna, Pharsalus, Eretria 
(bearing the same name as the Euboean city), and 
Paracheloitae (this, too, beaiing the same name as 
the Aetolian city), for here too, near Lamia, is a 
river Achelous, on whose banks live the Paiaclie- 
loitae. This countiy bordered, in its stretch towards 
the north, on the country of the most westerly of 
the Asclepiadae, and on the country of Eurypylus, 

1 Iliad 23 142 2 ji^^d 2 173-175 


^ «o[l tri tJ], lacuna of about eight letters supplied by 
Muller-Dubner and Meineke, from conj. of Kramer. 


413 




STRABO 


TLpcorecriXdov, ral^ Trpog € 0 ) /c€icXifihfai<;, 'TTpo^ 
voTov Se TT) Olraia, el<^ rerT apecrtcaiBeKa 
Si7jpr)pi€vr),^ ^HpaKXeLav re Kal rrjv Apvo'TTiBa, 
TerpdiToXiv yeyovvidv ttotg, fcaddirep /cal rrjv 
AcopiSa, fjbijrpoTToXtv he r&v ev XleXoirowricrip 
ApvoTTQyv vofit^opiipr)V, S’ OlraCa^ /cal 6 

^A/cv(l>a9 iarrl Kal Ilapacra)7rtd<^ xal Olveidhac 
Kal 'AvTLKVpa,^ opLcovvfioc; rfj ev AoKpoh toZ? 
^Ec77rept069. Xeyctj he ra? htard^ecf; ravra^i ovk 
del piepL6vr)Kvia^ rd<i avrd^, dXXd 7roLKLXco<; pier a- 
^e^Xr)pieva<i* ai S’ eTncrrip^oTarai paXLcrra d^iat 

pLVi]pL7)<; elcrL 

11. Toi; 9 Se AoXo7ra9 cf)pd^€c Kal 6 7rotr)rr}<; 
iKavd)^, on iirl Ta?9 €’cr%aT4a?9 elal 3>^ta9, 
Kal on VTTO avrcp rjyepLovi 
oiroL re Kal ol ^dL&rai' evaiov ydp^ (pTjariv, 
itxxanrjv ^6Lr)<! ® AoXoirecrcnv dvdaarcov, hovro^ 
Tov n?;X€a) 9 . yeLTVta Se Uivhcp Kal to?9 ^epl 
avrrjv ')(Oi)pioi^y ©erraXt/coc? ovai roi<; 7rXetorTOt9. 
hid yap TTjp eincfidveidv re Kal t)]V iiriKpareiav 
T&v ©erraX&v Kal t&v MaKehovcov oi irXrjcrid-^ 
foi^T€9 avToh pLaXiara rw ’HTre/pcoTwi^, oi pev 
eKOvre^^ ot S’ dKOVTe*;^ fJiipr} KaOLaravTo ©eTraXwi/ 
7] yiaKehovcov, Kaddirep ^Adapdves Kal AWik€9 

1 Bt7jp‘nV'4v'r)f Mannert, for dtTip-Qixivq , so later editors 

® 'AvrlKippa Jicghlno 

® J ^olpi^, after ^dirjs, suspected by Kramer ; ejected by 
Meineke. 


1 The Trachinian Heracleia (see 9. 4 13 and 9. 2. 23) 'was 
in the Oetaeau country (9. 3 14), and, m the above passage, 
the same appears to have been true of Dryopis But some- 
thing seems to have fallen out of the MSS after “ demes ” ; 
and it IS not clear 'whether Strabo means to include Heracleia 
414 



GEOGRAPHY, 9 5 lo-n 


and also on that of Protesilaus, these countries 
inclining towards the east; and in its stretch to- 
wai’ds the south, on the Oetaean countiy, which 
was divided into fourteen denies^ and also Heracleia 
and Dryopis/ Dryopis having at one tune been a 
tetrapolis, like Doris^^ and reg aided as the metiopohs 
of the Dryopians wlio lived in the Peloponnesus. 
To the Oetaean country belong also Acyphas,® Para- 
sopiaS;,^ Oeneiadae, and Anticyra, which beais the 
same name as the city among the Western Lociians. 
But I am speaking of these divisions of the country, 
not as having always remained the same, but as 
having undergone vaiious changes However, only 
the most significant divisions ai e particularly worthy 
of mention 

11 As for the Dolopians, the poet himself says 
cleaily enough that they were situated in the 
farthermost parts of Phthia, and that both these and 
the Phthiotae were under the same leader, Peleus ; 
for dwelt,” he says, ^‘in the farthermost part of 
Phthia, being lord over the Dolopians, whom Peleus 
gave me ” ® The country borders on Pindus, and 
on the region round Pmdus, most of which belongs 
to the Thessalians For both on account of the 
fame and of the predominance of the Thessalians 
and the Macedonians, the countries of those Epei- 
rotes who were their nearest neighbours were made, 
some willingly and the others unwillingly, parts of 
Thessaly or Macedonia ; for instance, the Athainanes, 

and Dryopis in the fouiteeii denies or to name them as 
additional paits of the Oetaean country. 

2 See 9. 3 1 and 9 4. 10. ® The city Pindus (9 4 10), 

* The same as Parasopii (9 2 23) 

® lhad 9. 483-484 (Phoenix speaking) 


415 



STRABO 


Kal Takape^ ®GTTak&v, 'Opicrrat §€ /cal IleXa- 
7oz'€9 /cal 'EXip^i&rai Ma/ceSoi/oop, 

12 . Se IIlvSo<? opo^ earl //.eya, rrpo<i ap/crov 

pL€P rrjp Ma/ceSopcop, Trpo^ eairepav Se Heppac^ov^ 
pLerapdara^ dpd pdrrovq rrpo^ he pLearjji^plav 

AoXoTra?, 7rpo9 eco Be rrjp ^EanaL&TLP ^ avry] S* 
earl t^9 ®errakLa<;, err avrp Se rp UivBm <p/covv 
Td\ape<;^ Mo\orrt/cop (pvXop, r&p irepl rop To- 
pLapop ® drroarraapia, /cal Aidi/ce*;, eh ^ ov<; i^e- 
kadrjpaL (jyrjacp vrrb UetpCdov tou9 Kepravpovt; 
Q 7rocy]ryj<;* i/cXeXonreiac Be pvp iaropovvrai* rrjp 
S’ e/ckeiyjrip Bcrrm d/covareop* 7 ) yap d(f>apca0€p- 
rcop r&p dp9 pdoTTcctp /cal t^9 reXeco^; fjpr)- 

435 pLcopePT]^, f} rov opopbaro^ rov edvcKOV pur)/cerL 
0 W 09 , prjBe rod avarripbaro^ BtapbivopTO<; rocovrov. 
orap oi/p darjpop reXecof; p to Xenropbepop pvvl 
avarripbaj ov/c a^iop pbprjpbrj^ riOepbep ovr avro 
ovre rovpopa ro pi€raXr}cj>0ep, orap S’ exv tov 
pbepbprjaOat Bi/caiap 7rp6(j>aaLP, Xiyeip dpay/catop 
rr)P pbera^oXrjP, 

13. Kolttop S’ eirreLV r?)<} napaXia^ rrfp rd^cp 
T?;9 VTTO ’A^iXXeZ, drro @eppb07rvX&p dp^a- 
pepov^* r7)p yap Ao/cpi/crjp kcli \r^p Olraia'jp^ 

^ Kramer, for lxou<ra see,)Jcno. 

® irphs eat 5e tV ^ffrimStriv, inserted by Pletlio ; so Corais, 
Mtiller-Bubner and Meineke. 

® r6p.apQv n {man, sec ) for "'irp.apoy Aeghino, ''l/xapov BEH ; 
so later editors 

^ els omitted by MSS , but added later in B/i ; so Corais 
and later editors. 

416 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 5 11-13 

the Aethices, and the Talares were made paits of 
Thessaly, and the Orestae, the Pelagonians, and the 
Elimiotae of Macedonia. 

12 The Pindiis Mountain is large, having the 
country of the Macedonians on the noith, the Per- 
ihaebian immigrants on the west, the Dolopians on. 
the south, and Hestiaeotis^ on the east, and this 
last IS a part of Thessaly. The Talares, a Molossian 
tribe, a bianch of those who lived in the neighbour- 
hood of Mount Tomarus, lived on Mount Pmdus 
itself, as did also the Aethices, amongst whom, the 
poet says, the Centaurs were driven ^ by Peirithous ; 
but history now tells us that they are extinct.” 
The term extinct ” is to be taken in one of two 
meanings ; either the people vanished and their 
country has become utterly deserted, or else merely 
their ethnic name no longer exists and their political 
organisation no longer remains what it was. When, 
theiefore, any present political organisation that 
survives from an earlier time is utterly insignificant, 
I hold that it is not worth mentioning, either itselt 
or the new name it has taken , but when it affords a 
fair pretext for being mentioned, 1 must needs give 
an account of the change 

13 . It remains for me to tell the oidei of the 
places on the coast that w'ere subject to Achilles, 
beginning at Thermopylae, for I have already 
spoken of the Locrian and the Oetaean countries, 

^ See 9 5. 2 and note on Hestiaeotis ” 

2 From Pelion {Jhad 2 744), 


® [r})u Olraia]v, lacuna of about ten letters supplied by 
Memeke jji€a6yotia]v, Groskurd and Muller-Dubner. 

417 




STRABO 


elpjjfcafiev. al rolvvv ©epfioTrvkaL rov pev 
Krivaiov hi€(Trr]fcacrcv i/SBoprjKOvraaraBLqs iropOp^, 
•jrapa'rrXiovTi, S’ e^oy UuX&v rov ’Zirep^^iov co? 
crraBLov^ Se/fa*^ evOev S’ eh ^dXapa eiKoar r&p 
Se <PaXdpci)p utto ffaXdacTTj^ VTripKei^rac Trez^r??- 
fcovra (TTahLov^i ^ r&v [Aa//.t€&)z/ TroXi]*? ^ eW’ 
TrapaiiXevaavTL crraBboi^ etcarov o ’E;^iz/09 virip- 
Keirai. r^9 S’ if?;? ^irapaXia^^ iv peaoyeifp earlv 
7} Kpepacrr^ AdpLaa, eifcotn <xTaBLov<i avr^<^ 
Biexovaai r) S’ avrr) fcal UeXao-jLa Xeyophr) 
AdpLcra,^ 

14. EZra Xivovvijcro^ vrjcrcov, elr ^Avrpcov 
Be avrrj vivo UpcorecnXdcp, Toaavra pev rrepl 
T'^9 t»7ro /ieptSo?. iirel S’ 6 770477 x ^9 

€69 TToXXd fcal yvctipipa peprj Bl€[Xmv Si] a ^ to 
ovopd^etv T01J9 re r^yepova^ koX rd<; vir avroh 
7 roXei 9 Tov a-upm-avra rrj^ ©erraXia^: kvkXov 
Btera^ev, {rjpet^ dKoX^ov6ovvTe<; ^ rovr^p iraXiVt 
Scrirep iv roh eTrdpco, 'irpoaeKTrXtjpcoaopev Tfjv 
Xot7rr)v TTepLoBeiav rrj^ fcaraXeyei rolvvv 

€<jf>6|^^9 T 0 i 9 VTT ’A^iXXei TOL '9 VTTO UpcoTecTiXdfp* 
ovTOL S’ elalv oi Kal ovTe<i rfj viro r^ 

’A%iXX€i rrapaXCa peXP^ 'Avrp&vo^, opi^opivTj 
rolvvv T ^9 earlv rj vtto lipcoreacXdtpf 

efo ) pev odaa rov MaXiafcov koXitov, ere S’ ivrh 

1 SeVa (/) “ ten,” seems to be an error for k^^o}J)Kovra (o'), 
‘‘seventy,” as Kramer suggests. Cp 9. 4 14, 9 4. 17, and 
Herod. 7 198-200 

2 [Attyutewy 7r(JAt]s, Ucuna of about ten letters supplied by 
Groskurd , so the later editors. See Muller, Jiid, Var* LecL 
p 1004. 

* Ac£pt<r« A, onan, prim., and the editors, for Adpircra 

* 5i]<£, lacuna of about four letters supplied by 
Groskurd j so the later editors, 

418 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 5. 13-14 

Thermopylae^ then^ is separated from Cenaeum by a 
strait seventy stadia wide ; butj to one sailing along 
the coast beyond Pylae, it is about ten ^ stadia from 
the Speicheius ; and thence to Phalara twenty 
stadia ; and above Phalara, fifty stadia from the sea, 
is situated the city of the Lamians ; and then next, 
after sailing fifty stadia along the coast, one comes to 
Echinus, which is situated above the sea ; and in 
the interior from the next stretch of coast, twenty 
stadia distant from it, is Laiisa Ciemaste (it is also 
called Larisa Pelasgia). 

14. Then one conies to Myonnesus, a small island ; 
and then to Antroii, which was subject to Piotesi- 
laus So much, then, for the portion that was 
subject to Achilles. But since the poet, through 
naming both the leaders and the cities subject to 
them, has divided Thessaly into numerous well- 
known parts and arranged in order the whole circuit 
of it, I, following him again, as above, shall go on to 
complete the lemainder of my geographical descrip- 
tion of the country Now he enumerates next in 
Older after those who were subject to Achilles those 
who were subject to Protesilaus ; and these are also 
the people who come next in oider after the stretch 
of coast which was subject to Achilles as far as 
Antron Theiefore, the territory that was subject 
to Protesilaus is m the boundaries of the countiy 
that comes next in order, that is, it lies outside tlie 
Mahac Gulf, but still inside Phthiotis, though not 

^ See critical note. 


^ [•^fjLe7s aKo\']ov9ovvTe5, lacuna of about nine letters supplied 
by Groskurd , so the later editors 


419 



STRABO 


T^9 ^0tcoTLBo<;, ov fjLTjv T?}? [wo ’A;]^£XX66,^] rj 
jiM€v o^v ^v\dK7) iyyv<; ©rj^&v iarl t&v 3>0ici)- 
tlScov, aiTrep elal /cal avral vtto IlpcdTecriXdcp* 
/cal "^AXc ?9 Se /cal Adpcaa ^ ^ Kp€p>a<rr^ /cal to 
At]fi7]Tpcov VTT i/C€Lvq), Trdcrai 7r/oo9 eco 
''Odpvo<i* TO Be Ai]pL7]Tpiov Aripr}Tpo<i eip'qKe 
TefjLevo<; /cal i/cdXecre TLvpaaov* ?}v Be ttoXi^ 
evXtpievos rj Ilvpa<TO<}, iv Bval araBiOL^; e)(OV(xa 
A7]/jL7jTpo^ dXo‘o<f /cal lepov dyiov, Bikxpvcra ®7]/3&u, 
<TTaBLov<; eLKocri, vTrep/ceivrat Be Ilvpda-ov pev 
al ©Tj^ai, Tciiv ®y]^S>v Be ev rfj pea-oyaia to 
Kpo/ciov TreBLov Trpo<; KaraXrjyovrt 77)9 ''O0pvo9, 
Bi o5 0 ''Kp(f>pV(TQ 9 pet, TOVTov S’ vTrip/cetrat (5 
''ITCDV 09 , OTTOv TO T7]9 ^Ircovta^ lepoVi a<j!)’ ov /cal 
TO ev Tf) BotcoTt^, /cal 6 Kovdpi09 irorapo^* 
etpTjTat Be 7r[€/)l tovtov /cal^] '^Apv7]9 iv T 0 I 9 
Boto)TLa/cot9* TavTa S* iaTl ®eTTa\td)TiBo9 
ptd9 T&v TeTTCipcov pteptBcov Ttjq crvpTrdarj^ ©er^ 
TaXia^i ^9 ^ /cal ra vtt BvpvirvXtp^ /cal 6 4>vA,X[o9, 
OTTOV ’AttoXXcoJi/o? ® Tov ^vXKiov^ lepov, /cal 
"'l^vac, OTTOV 97 ®ipt9 T%mia TtpctTat, ical 
K 16/509 S’ el9 avTTfv crvvTeXet’^ /cal [raXXa /Ae%pi®] 
T^9 ^ Adapavta^, /caTct Be tov ^Avrp&va eppa ® 

v<j>aXov iv T(p TTpQ9 Bv^ota ecrrl Tropcp, /caXov- 

1 [vTri* Ty *AxtAA-??], lacuna of about twelve letters supplied 
by Falcoiiei ; so Kramer, Mtiller-Bubner and Meineke. 

® Adpicrctf the editors, for Adpurffa. 

® 7 r[epl rovrov /ca£j, lacuna of about ten letters m A supplied 
by Kramer. Corais adds a second vepi before ttJs. 

* Casaubon inserts after §5 

® 4 *» 5 x\[os Zttov •ATr<fAAw>os, lacuna of about ten letters 
supplied by bhno, except that they have €pda instead of Zvov, 
Kramer’s emendation. 

® ^vwiov, Meineke, for 4 >v\atov A, '^vKKalov other MSB 
420 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 5. 14 

inside the part of Phthiotis^ that was subject to 
Achilles. Now Phylace is near Phthiotic Thebes, 
which itself is subj'ect to Piotesilaus And Halus, 
also, and Larisa Cremast6, and Dernetrium, aie 
subject to him, all being situated to the east of the 
Othrys Mountain Demetiium he speaks of as 
sacred pi ecinct of Demeter,*’ and calls it ^^Pyr- 
asus.” Pyrasus was a city with a good harbour; 
at a distance of two stadia it had a sacred precinct 
•and a holy temple, and was twenty stadia distant 
from Thebes. Thebes is situated above Pyrasus, but 
the Grecian Plain is situated in the interior back of 
Thebes near the end of Othrys , and it is thiough 
this plain that the Amphrysus flows. Above this 
river are the Itonus, where is the temple of the 
Itonian,® after which the temple m Boeotia is named, 
and the Cuanus Rivers. But I have already spoken 
of this river and of Arn6 in niy description of 
Boeotia * These places are in Tliessaliotis, one of 
the four portions of all Thessaly, m which were not 
only the regions that were subject to Eurypylus, but 
also Phyllus, wheie is the temple of Phyllian Apollo, 
and Ichnae, where the Ichnaean Themis is held in 
honour Cierus, also, was tributary to it, and so was 
the rest of that region as far as Athamania Near 
Antron, in the Euboean strait, is a submarine reef 

1 Of. 9, 5. 10 2 2 696 

3 Itonian Athena * 9 2 3, 29, 33, 34. 


^ (TwreXei xat, Corais, for (TuvreKeLrai ; so the later editors. 
® [rSA.Aa /uexpOj laotma of about eight letters supplied by 
Meineke, following conj of Kramer 
3 *4pfia, Casauboii, for epfx (A man pmn ), aiov with ^pv^a 
above (A man, sec ), kppaiov ghi^ Mpvtxa , so the later 

editors 


421 




STRABO 


fxevov ovo^ ^ Apt p&vo^- elra UreXeov /cal o^'AXor 
elra to ArjfMrjrpo^ lepbv /cal 6 Uvpaao^ /care* 
a/capp€VO^, vTrep avrov Se ai elra d/cpa 

Ilvppa /ca\ Bvo vrjcrLa ^ TrXrjalov, a/p to pevUvppat 
TO Be AevKokicov /cakelrat, epravda Be /cal 17 
^diSyri^ 7rct)9 reXevra. 

436 15 . Se tov9 vtto t^ EvprjXq) /caraXeyei, 

rrjp avpexv TrapaXlap, rjirep ecrrlp^ ijBij Maypr]- 
aLa^ Kal t% UeXaayidbriBof; yrj^, ^epal pep ovp 
elcrl Trepan rSiV TLeXaayLK&p rreBLcop 7r/309 ti]v 
yiaypT^crLaPi a rraparelpet pexp^ tov HtjXlou 
araBLov<; ercarov e^rjKovra enripetop Be r&p 
^ep&p UayaaaL, BUxop eppevrf/copra crT«3/oi;9 
avT&Pj ^lafXKOV Be et/cocrL, r) 3’ ’Ia)X/vo9 Kare- 
(TKairrai pev e/c rraXaiov, ivrevdep S’ eareiXe top 
^I daopa /cal rrjp ^Apyob HeXta^* diro Be t?59 
pavirrjyia*; Tr}9 ^Apyov^ /cal UayaG-df; Xeyeadai 
pvdevovai top tottop, oi Be mOapcorepop 7]yovPTaL 
Tovvopa T^ Torrq/ reOrjpai tovto drrb t5)p rrrjy&p, 
at rnroXXal tb /cal Ba'^lriXelf; peovcrr irXy^o-Lop Be 
/cal ^A<f)€Tai, a>9 &p dcpenjpiop re t&p ^Apyo- 
pavT&p. Tr59 Se Ar^pr^rpidBo^ ercTa araBi'ov^ 
VTrep/ceirac rrj<? daXaTrr)^ '’Ja>X«’09. e/crcae Be 
Ar^prjTpio^ 6 VLoXtop/CTjT^^ errdvvpop eaoToS t^v 
AT jprjrpidBa pera^v NTjXla^: /cal llayaaS>p iirl 
$aXdrTrj, Ta9 'irXrfO'bOP TroXiXPa^ eZ9 avrr^p crvpoi- 
Kbora^t NrjXCap re /cal Tlayacrd<; /cal ^Oppepiop, 

^ VT^fflBia, Ticino* 

® jjwep earrivj Tzschucke, for tireffriv , SO MiiUer-Dubner, 
and Meineke* 

^ The Greek word is a compound of *‘nau(s)” (“ship”) 
422 




GEOGRAPHY, 9. 5. 14-15 

called Ass of Antron , and then one comes to 
Pteleum and Halus , and then to the temple of 
Demeter ; and to Pyrasus, which has been rased to 
the giound; and, above it, to Thebes; and then to 
Gipe Pjrrha, and to two isles near it, one of which 
IS called Pjirha and the other Deucalion And it 
is somewhere here that Phthiotis ends 

15. Next the poet enumerates the peoples that 
were subject to Eumelus, that is, the adjacent sea- 
coast, which from this point on belongs to Magnesia 
and the land of Pelasgiotis Now Pherae is at the 
end of the Pelasgian plains on the side towards 
Magnesia ; and these plains extend as far as Pel ion, 
one hundred and sixty stadia. The sea-port of 
Pherae is Pagasae, which is ninety stadia distant 
from Pherae and twenty from lolcus. lolcus has 
indeed been rased to the ground from early times, 
but ir was from there that Pelias despatched Jason 
and the Argo It was from the construction here of 
the ship^ Argo, according to mythology, that the 
place was called Pagasae, though some believe, more 
plausibly, that this name was given the place from 
its fountains,^ which are both numerous and of abun- 
dant flow. Near by is Aphetae also, so named as 
being the apheterium ” ^ of the Argonauts, lolcus 
IS situated above the sea seven stadia from Demetrias. 
Demetrias, which is on the sea between Nelia and 
Pagasae, was founded by Demetrius Poliorcetes, wdio 
named it after himself, settling in it the inhabitants of 
the near-by towns, Nelia and Pagasae and Ormeniuin, 

and “pagia’’ (“construction”), “pagia” being the Done 
spelling 

* In Greek (Doric spelling), “pagae.** 

^ ^ e, “starting-place.” 

423 



STRABO 


eTL Be 'Pi^ovvray S-J^TTiaSa, 'OXi^&vay BoL^tjVy 
^IcoXfCov, at Br} vvv elcrl fccofiaL r?;? ^rj/jbrjrpLaBo^;, 
teal Brj fcal vavaradfiov rjV rovro /cal ^aatXecov 
/iiiXP^ TToXXofl Tot? ^aaiKevai i:&v Ma^eSovcoz;, 
irre/cpdrec Be /cal tS)v Tepbiroiv /cal t&v opmv 
dfi(f>OLV, &(j‘7rep ^ etpr^rai, rov re UtjXIov /cal 
''Oo'<r779* vvv Be avveaTaXrat fiev, rSiv 8' h ry 
Mayvrjcrici 7raa&v o/Ma)<; Bca^epec. y Be 
\ifjiVY] irXycta^ei puev rah ^epahy awdirrei Be 
/cal TOA9 airoXrjyovcxL rov 1117X^01; Trepan /cal t^9 
Mayvijaia^* BoL^rj Be xcopiov eirl ry XLfivrj /cet- 
fjLevov. /caddirep Be ryv ^Ia>X/cov av^ydetaav iirl 
TrXeov KareXvaav al ardaei^ /cal al rvpavvlBe^, 
03 x 0)9 /cal Ta9 ^epd<; avvicxretXav i^apdeicraf; 
TTore Kal avy/caraXv$eLaa^ roh rvpdvvot^, TrXrj^ 
aiov Be rrj^ j^ypbrjrpcdBo^ 0 ''Avavpo^^ pet, /ca~ 
Xelrat Be /cal 6 ® avvexh^ atyiaXb<; T&)X/co9* 
evravda Be /cal rrjv YlvXai/crjv^ Travyyvpiv 
avvereXovv, 6 S’ 'ApreptiBcopo^ drrcorepco ri)? 
Aypt'/jrptdBo^ riOrjat rov TlayaatrtKov /coXttov 
eh rov<; vtto ^tXo/cryrrj roTTOv^* iv Be r^ /coXircp 
<j>r)crlv elvat rrjv K.iKvvr}9ov vycrov /cal iroXLxvyv 
opcbvvpov, 

16 . ^Ef^9 S’ at VTTO ^tXo/crrjrri ir6Xet<i /cara-^ 
Xiyovrat, rj ptev ovv MyOwvrf^ erepa earl rrj<; 
©pa/ctaf} M€d(bv7]<^, fjv Karea/cayfre <Pt\t7r7ro^' 

^ Stcrirepy CoraiS, for ^prep ; so the later editors 

® 6 ^'Ayavpos, Casaubon, for 6 vavpos , so the later editors 

* 6y before Casaubon inserts , so the other editors 

before Kramer. 

424 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 5. 15-16 

and also Rhizus, Sepias, Olizon, Boebe, and lolcus, 
which are now villages belonging to Demetiias. 
Furthermore, for a long time this was botli a naval 
station and a royal residence for the kings of the 
Macedonians , and it held the mastery over both 
Tempe and the two mountains, Pelion and Ossa, as 
I have already saidA At present it is reduced in 
power, but still it surpasses all the cities in Magnesia 
Lake Boebeis is near Pherae, and also borders on the 
foothills of Pelion and the frontiers of Magnesia; 
and Boebe is a place situated on the lake. Just as 
seditions and tyrannies destroyed lolcus aftei its 
power had been greatly mci eased, so they leduced 
Pherae also, winch had once been laised to greatness 
by its tyrants and was then destroyed along with 
them. Near Demetnas flows the Anaurus River, 
and the adjoining shore is also called lolcus. Here, 
too, they used to hold the Pylaic Festal Assembly ^ 
Artemidorus places the Pagasitic Gulf m the region 
subject to Philoctetes,faither away from Demetnas, 
and he says that the island Cicynethos and a town 
bearing the same name are in the gulf 

16 . The poet next enumerates the cities subject 
to Philoctetes. Now Methone is different from the 
Thracian Methone, which was rased to the ground 

1 9. 4. 15. 

* No other reference to a “ Pylaic ” Assembly 111 lolens has 
been found. It could haidly be identified with the “ Pylaean 
(Aniphictyonic) Assembly” (9. 3 7). Gioshurd emends 
“Pylaic” to “Peliac” {te, held m honour of Pelias), 
which IS probably right 


* [nuAai/c]i^;/, lacuna supplied in A by second hand. 
Groskurd writes UeXiaK'fiy ; and Memeke {Vmd. Stmh, 153) 
conj ArjfiTjTptaK'fiVf citing Diod Sic 20. 102. 

® Memeke, for 


4^5 




STRABO 


0437 


ifWTfaOrjixev Be koX Trporepov Ti]<; t&v ovopdrcov 
TOVTcov fcaX T&p iv UeXoTrovvijo-q) riv&v^ Ty 007 r%* 
rdXKa Be BtTjpLOfjbr^raty^ rj re ©avpLa/cia koI 6 
^OXc^cDv^ /cal 77 MeXi/SoLa^ a T 779 e^fj^ wapaXla^ 
icTTiv, irpo/cecvrat Be r&v Xiayv^jreov vijcroc (ryX” 
val pbiv, ai S’ iv ovopart 'X/cLado^i re /cal UeTrapi]- 
009 fcal ’I/C 09 , * Pi.X6vvr)<TQ<; re /cal X/cvpo'i, opm- 
vvpov^ ^ovcrac tt 0X6^9. pdXtara S’ icrrlv iv 
ovopart Xfcvpof; Bid Tr)V Av/cop^Bov<; 7rpo9 ’A%iX- 
Xea olfceiorrjTa /cal t7)v ^eoTvroXepov rod ’A%tX- 
X€Ce)9 ivravda yevecLv re koX i/cTpo<j>'/]v. varepov 
Be ^LXnnT 0 <i av^7]deL<i, op&v ^ Ps.drjvaLQv<; im/cpa- 
Tovvra^ TYfc; daXdTT7)<; /cal tcov vt^o-cov dpxovra^ 
/cal TOVToyv /cal rS>v aXXoov, irroLrjcre Ta9 tcXtictLov 
eavrcp pdXiara ivBo^ov^ iroXep&v yap nrepl Tfj<? 
rjyepovLa^ irrex^ipei 7rpd>T0i<; del roh iyyvdev, koX 
/caOdrrep avTrj<; T7)<^ TSdayv^rcBo^; rd TroXXd pepTj 
Ma/ceBoviav iiroir^cre Kal T7]<; ®pa/cr}<i /cal t»59 
dXXr)^ T^9 /cv/cXtp yfj<;, ovtq) /cal Ta9 7rpo t?} 9 
Ma7^77a’ta9 v^crov^ d<^^pelTO, Kal rd^ vir ovBe- 
j;o9 yvcopL^opeva^ irporepov rrepipax^'TOvc; koI 
yvcopLpov^ iiroLei. Tr)v S’ oiv %Kvpov Kal 
pdXiara pev al dpxcif^oXoyiai o-vviar&aLVj dXXd 
Kal rd Tocavra dpvXelcrBai iroiei, olov ai r&v 
alycov dperal r&v ^KvpLwv, Kal rd peraXXa 
TTotKiXrj^; Xidov T?79 %Kvpia^, KaOdirep T?j9 Kapv- 


1 [T«ywy], lacuna of about four letters supplied by Jones, 
Kiamer, Muller- Dubner, and others, [/iSTajTpoTrjJs ; Meineke 
conj Toiroitf, For the use of rpoirii with the same meaning 
see e*g, Eustath. on Ihad 2 729, Steph Byz, s» v ^Wd/xfi, and 
Hesyoh s, v rpoTr^/, 

® Si-, Kramer inserts j so the later editors. 

426 



GEOGEAPHY, 9. 5. i6 

by Philip. I have mentioned heretofore the change 
of the names of these places, and of certain places in 
the Peloponnesus ^ And the othei places enumer- 
ated by the poet are Thaumacia and Olizon and 
Meliboea, which are on the next stietch of sea-coast. 
Off the country of the Magnetans he numerous 
islands, but the only notable ones are Sciathos, 
Peparethos, and I cos, and also Halonnesos and 
Scyros, all having cities of the same name But 
Scyros is the most notable, because of the family- 
relation between Lycomedes and Achilles, and of 
the birth and nurture there of Neoptolemus the son 
of Achilles In later times, when Philip had waxed 
poweifiil and saw that the Athenians dominated the 
sea and luled over the islands, both these and the 
rest, he caused the islands that were near him to be 
most famous ; for, since he was fighting for the 
hegemony, he always attacked those places which 
were close to him, and^ just as he added to Macedonia 
most parts of the Magnetan country and of Thrace and 
of the rest of the land all round, so he also seized the 
islands off Magnesia and made those which were 
previously well-known to nobody objects of con- 
tention and hence well-known. Now Scyros is chiefly 
commended by the place it occupies in the ancient 
legends, but there are other things which cause it to 
be widely mentioned, as, for instance, the excellence 
of the Scynan goats, and the quarries of the Scyrian 
variegated marble, which is comparable to the Carys- 

1 See 8. 4 3-4, 8. 5. 3 and 5. 6. 15. 


® lacuna of about four letters supplied by 

Corais. 


427 




STRABO 


(rria<; /cal Ao/cifiaLa<i,^ rj ^ ItVvvaSiKrjfs, /cal 
tt)? ® ^l€pa'7ro\LTLKf](;, fiovo\i6ov<; yhp /ciova^ /cal 
7r\d/ca<; pbeyaka^; opdv eariv iv rfj ^Vcafir) 
ttoi/clXtj^ XiQia^i d<f r)<; ?; 7roXt9 /cocrpielrat Srjfiocria 
re /cal tSla* ireTroirj/ce re rd Xev/coXida ov rroXXov 
a^ia. 

17. 'O S’ o7/p rroLrjrr}^ H'^XP^ Bevpo rrpoeXdcov 
TY)^ Mayv7]Ti/cr](; 7rapaXia<i irraveLcriv sttI rrjv dvm 
©erraXLav* Kal yap raTTapareivovra r^ ^fficonSij^ 
dp^dpi€vo<i anro t^9 AoXoTvla^ /cal t^9 IltVSou, 
[/jb€')(pt T7)<; /cdrco ©erraXia^ Bii^eiaiv 

ot S’ eI%oz/ TpL/c/crjv /caViddfxrjv /cXo^fiaKoecraav, 

ravra rd %ct)jOta icrrl p^lv rrj<^ ^lariamriBo^, i/ca~ 
Xelro S’, W9 <pa<TL, rrporepov Acopl^' Karaa^ovrcov 
Be r&v Ueppai^&p avTijv, ot /cal t>)9 Ev/Soia^ rr]v 
^Icmai&riv Karecxrpey^ravro Kal rov<; dv9 pdirov^ 
eU rrjv rfireLpov dviarracrav. Bed rd 7r\^0O9 rwv 
erroi/erjadvreov ^IcrriaLcov rr)V dir i/ceivcov 

ovrco<y e/cdXeaav, /caXovai Be /cal [avr^v /cal ®] rfjv 
AoXo^rreav rr)v dveo ©erraXiaPj err evOeLac; oZaa[v 
rrj dvco Ma/ceBovia, /caddirep /cal rr)P /cdrco rfj 
/cdrco, eari S’ 7 ) fiev H^puK/crji oirov rd lepdv rod 
^ KcT/cXrjiTLOv TO dp)(ac6rarov /cal eincfoavecrarov, 

^ AoKifialaSi 0 Muller (approving conj of Reinesius, Ind, 
Vat, Lecfm p 1005), for AevKaJ^iou A, Aei/zraAtas I low, AevKoK- 
Xlas B7?i , AevKoW^las Tzschucke, AevKoWelov Oorais, Aeu/ca- 
Sfas Tyrwhitt 

» Jones, for Kal t^s, from conj of 0 Muller (^roi), 

® Kal rrjs, Jones inserts, from conj. of C* Muller 

* 4»[0i<6ri$i], lacuna supplied by Corais; so the later 
editors. 

® [jue'xpt ttJs], lacuna supplied by Corais, so the later 
editors. 

428 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 5. 16-17 

tian marble,^ and to the Docimaean or Syniiadic,^ 
and to the Hierapolitie ® For at Rome are to be 
seen monolithic columns and gieat slabs of the varie- 
gated maible ; and with this maible the city is being 
adorned both at public and at piivate expense ; and 
it has caused the quarries of white marble ^ to be of 
little worth 

17 However, the poet, after proceeding thus far 
on the Magnetan sea-coast, returns to Uppei Thes- 
saly , for, beginning at Dolopia and Pindus, he 
recounts the parts that stretch alongside Phthiotis, 
as far as Lower Thessaly: ^^And those who held 
Tricce and locky Ithome/’ ® These places belong 
in fact to Histiaeotis,® though in earlier times His- 
tiaeotis was called Doris, as they say ; but when the 
Perrhaebians took possession of it, who had already 
subdued Histiaeotis m Euboea and had forced its 
inhabitants to migrate to the mainland, they called 
the country Histiaeotis after these Histiaeans, because 
of the large number of these people who settled 
there They call Histiaeotis and Dolopia Upper 
Thessaly, which is in a straight line with Upper 
Macedonia, as is Lower Thessaly with Lower Mace- 
donia. Now Tricce, wheie is the earliest and most 
famous temple of Asclepius, holders on the country 

1 See 10 1 6 ^ gee 12 8. 14. ® See 13. 4 14. 

* But the Greek might mean, instead of “quarries of 
white marble,’’ simply “ white marble ” in general, 

® lhad 2. 729. ® See 9. 5 3 and foot-note. 


® [adrV /ca/], lacuna supplied by Du Theil , so the later 
editors 

’ ol<ra[v lacuna supplied by Du Theil ; so the later 

editors. 


429 




STRABO 


ojiopo^ ^ Toh re AoXoilrtv /cal to?<? rrepl rrjv UlpSov 
T07roA9. rrjif S" ^Idddp.'qv 6pQ)vvpLo><; rfj Mecxariviafc^ 
\eyopLiv7]v ov (f^aac Belv ovrco^ i/ccj^ipeiv, dX\a rrjv 
irpcoTipf (TvXXa/Srjv d(f>aLpeiv' outq) yap fcaXeiadai 
rrporepov, vvv Be ^ld(op7] ^ fiercovopdadat, ywpiov 
ipvpipov Kul Tw OPTL KXcopLa/coev, iBpvpepov pera^v 
rerrapcop (f>povpLcop, MtiTrep iv rtrparrXevptp fcei- 
pepcap, TpLfc/ci]^ re fcal M.7)TpoTT6Xeco<; fcal HeXip-^ 
paLov Kal Yopt^odp. rYj<; Be Br) IShjrpoTToXir&p 
earl %ce)/3a9 ^ ^Iddopr). 17 Be Myr pd'TroXc^ Trporepop 
pev eK rpiSyp avptpiciaro rToXi’yymp dcn^ponPi vare- 
pop Be /cal rrXeLov<; 7rpoa€Xij(f>dr]crap, q}P fjp /cal 77 
^Idcoprj, Ka\X//xa%09 pev ovp (j>7](rlv ip to2<: 

C 438 ldp^oL<i tA 9 ^Acj>poBLTa<; (77 deb^ yhp ov pia) T7 }p 
K aarPLTjTLP vrrtpjSdXXeadai Tvdaa^ rep (ppopeevt 
bn poprj TvapaBe'xerai rt}P r&v vS>v Bvaiav* /cal 
ptjv TToXvierreop, el n^ dXXo^, /cal rrdvra top ^iop, 
0)9 avrb<i elpTj/cev, 0 ravra pvOeLcrffai ® ^ovXopevo^* 
oi S’ varepov rfXey^av ov pLap ^AeppoBCrrjv poPov, 
dXXd /cal rrXelovf; diroBeBeypeva^ to e0o<; rovro* 
&v elvat Kal rrjp ip rrj ^IrjrpoTroXef ravrr) Be 
pLap rS>p avpoiKiadeiadyp eh avr^v rrbXeoop nrapa- 
Bovpat TO 6^09 ^OpOovpiop*^ ecrri Be Kal <l^apKa- 
Scop ip r^ 'lartaicoriSc, Kal pec Bi avr&p 6 Il7]P€io<s 

^ ofjLopos, Palmer, for 0/iopov; so the later editois. 

* ^l6<S)fXT} Bjio, ®afjt,ai Maghil, *l$dofi7}v k and Eiisbathms ; 
but Kramer conj ®ov/catojf from Steph. Byz 5 . v, ^ld(&/jL7i ; but 
see Mym, Mag^vwm s v* 

® Memeke suspects /xvBeTffBai, C. Muller conj 
for fivBiicrdais Capps con^ jjdKurra Kramer conj. romSra 
for 6 ravra* 

* 'OyflotJpior, Memeke (following Steph Byz s v*), for 
hvoipiov {djxoipiov B, hpitpiov editors before Coiais) 

430 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 5. 17 

of the Dolopians and the regions round Pindus, 
Ithome, which is called by the same name as the 
Messenicin city, ought not, they say, to be pro- 
nounced in this way^ bat without the first syllable 
for thus, they add, it was called in earlier times, 
though now its name has been changed to Ithome 
It IS a stronghold and is in reality a heap of stones 
and it IS situated betiveen four stiongholds, which 
hem a square, as it were Tiicc^, Metropolis, Pelin- 
naeum, and Gomphi. But Ithom^ belongs to the 
territory of the Metropolitans Metropolis in eailier 
times was a joint settlement composed of three 
insignificant towns; but later several otheis were 
added to it, among which was Ithom^. Now Calli- 
machus, in his Iambics, says that, ‘^of all the Aphro- 
dites (for theie was not merely one goddess of this 
name), Aphrodite Castnietis surpasses all m wisdom, 
since she alone accepts the sacrifice of swine.” ^ 
And surely he was very learned, if any other man 
was, and all his life, as he himself states, wished to 
recount these things.^ But the writeis of later 
times have discovered that not merely one Aphro- 
dite, but several, have accepted this nte, and that 
among these was the Aphrodite at Metropolis, and 
that one of the cities included m the settlement 
transmitted to it the Onthunan nte ® Pharcadon, 
also, is m Histiaeoiis ; and the Peneius and the 

^ Thom^, ® “Thomos” means “heap of stones.” 

• Frag, 82 b, Schneider 

* The text is probably corrupt. We should expect either 
“wished to tell the truth about matters of this sort,^’ or, 
as Professor Capps suggests, “preferred this branch of 
learning ” 

® “Onthurmm” was a “Thessalian city near 
(Stephanus Byzantmus, 8,v ) 


43 ^ 



STRABO 


fcal 6 Kovpakio<;* a>v 6 Koi^/DaX^o?, pveU irapa to 
tt)? ^lT 0 i)VLa<i ^Adrjvd^ lepov, et? rov Il)'jveiov e^Lr]- 
crtv, auT 09 S* 6 Tl7]V6i6<: dp^crat, pih iic UlvSov, 
Kaddirep eipTjrar iv dpLcrrepa S’ a^ei? T!pifcicr)v 
re Kal TleXtvvaLOP ^ fcal ^ap/caBopa <^eperai irapd 
re'ArpaKa koI Adptcrav,^ fcal TOi>9 iv rfj ©erra- 
XicoTiSt Be^dpLevo<i rrorapLoiP^ rrpoeia-i Scd r&v Tep- 
nr&v 67rl ra? ifc^oXd^, r{]v S’ Ol'^aXiav iroXiv 
^vpvrov Xe^opkv')']v ev re rot? totto^? rovroL<? 
iaropovcTL /cal ip EivjSoia /cal iv ^Ap/caBia, /cal 
pberovoixd^^ova-cv dXXco^, h Kal iv rol^ YleXoTTOwr)-- 
cna/col^ etprjrau rrepl Be rovrcov ^rjrovai, /cal 
pidXiara, rt? i) vtto ^Hpa/cXeov? dXovaa, /cal 
rrepl rLvo^ avveypay^ev o rroiriaa^ r^v Oi’)(aXLa<i 
dXmaiv. ravra fiev Bt] rd ^(wpLa roi<; ^AaKXrj^ 
rrtdBai^ virera^ev, 

18. 'Efr /9 Be Xeyec rrjv vrr^ 'EiVpvrrvXcp* 

di S’ exov *Opp.iviov OL re Kp^vrjv ^'Virepeiav 

oX T exov ^ Aar ipiov Tcrdvoio re Xev/cd /cdprjva, 

TO fiev ovv ^Oppueviov^ vvv ^Op/aLviov /caXelrat, 
earo S’ vtto r& ntfXl/p Kcopurj /card rov Ylayaat- 
riKOV KoXirov r&v (xvvcp/CLajxivcov et9 r^v Arjpr]- 
rpcdBa iToXecov, o)9 elp'qrai. dvdy/ci] Bi Kal rr)V 
^oi^rjLBa XipLvrjv elvac TrX'tjaLov, eTreiS?; Kal 7] 
BoijSr} r&v rrepLOLKiBcov rjv rfj9 AT/jayrpidSo^ Kal 
avro TO ^Opfieviov* to jaev ohv ^Opjaivtov direx^i 

^ XliKr)PPa7ov Acgh, UehivpairiP I, 

® AipifTcrat MSS except A 

® ’Op/teViov, Kramer, for ^p/ievov A{p.€pop wntten by man, 
sec, m A)ghno; 'Oputptov BBkl, and Eustathius, note on 
n. 2 . 734 . 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 5. 17-1 8 

Curalius flow thioiigh its territory Of these 
rivers, the Curalius flows past the temple of the 
I toman Athena and empties into the Peneius ; 
but the Peneius itself rises 111 Pindus, as I have 
already said,^ and after leaving Tricce and Pelin- 
naeum and Pharcadon on the left flows past both 
Atrax and Larisa, and after receiving the rivers in 
Thessaliotis flows on thiougli Tempe to its outlet. 
Historians place the Oeclialia which is called the 
*^city of Eurytus ^ not only in this legion, but also 
in Euboea and 111 Arcadia ; and they give its name 
in different ways, as I have alieady said m my 
description of the Peloponnesus ^ They inquire 
concerning these, and particularly in regard to what 
Oechaha it was that was captured by Heracles,^ and 
concerning what Oechaha was meant by the poet 
who wrote The Capture of Oechaha,^ These places, 
then, were classed by Homer as subject to the 
Asclepiadae. 

18 Next he speaks of the country subject to 
Eurypylus: ^^and those who held the fountain 
Hypereia, and those who held Asteiium and the 
white summits of Titanus’’® Now at the piesent 
time Ormenium is called Ormimum ; it is a village 
situated at the foot of Pelion near the Pagasitic 
Gulf, one of the cities included in the settlement 
of Demetrias, as I have said,^ And Lake Boebeis, 
also, must be near, since Boebe, as well as Ormenium 
itself, was one of the dependencies of Demetrias. 
Now Ormenium is distant by land twenty-seven 

^ Frags. 14, 15, 15a, Yol. Ill, pp 335, 337. 

® llioid 2 596. ® See 9 5. 16 and foot-note. 

* Of. 10. 1 10. 5 gee 14 1. 18. 

« lhad 2 734. 9 5. 15. 


F F 


VOL. IV 


433 



STRABO 


rfjf; Ar}iJi7)TpidBo<: crraBlovfs iirr^ koX elfcocrit 

6 Be T^9 ICoXkOV rOTTQ^ iv 6SS K€Lfl€VO<; T7}9 /X€V 

A7]fjLr]rpidBo<; eirra orraBCovf^ Bcia-TTiKe, rov S’ ’Op- 
p^evLov Toi)9 XoL7rov<; (rraBtov<; eiKoaL, <f)7}(xl S’ o 
X/crj'xlrio^ i/c rov ^Oppeviov rov ^olvi/ca etvat, /cal 
^evyeiv avrov IvOevBe Trapa tov irarpo^; ^ ApvvTopo^ 
^OppevLBao el<; rr/p ^9Lav 69 Tlrfkrja dva/cra" 
e/crL(Tdai yap vtto ^Oppivov to tovto tov 

K.€p/cd(j)ov ^ TOV AtoXov' 7raiBa<} Be tov ^Oppevov 
C 430 yevkcrdai rov t 6 'ApvvTopa /cal Evatpova, d)v tov 
pev elvai ^oLvt/ca, rov S’ ^vpvTrvXov' ^vXaxSrjvai 
Be T(p "EiVpvTTvXcp Tr)v BiaBo'xrjv /coivyjv, are ® aTreX- 
66vro<i TOV ^olvi/co^ i/c ol/ceia^* /cal Br) /cal 
ypd(f>et o£!Tft)9’ 

olov 0 T 6 irp&TOv XLttov ^OppevLov TToXvpy'jXoVf 
dvrl TOV 

Xlttop ‘EXXaSa /caXXcyvvat/ca, 

KpdTi]<; Be ^(o/cea Trotec top ^otpi/ca, reKp^aipo- 
pevo^ eK TOV Kpdpov^ tov Miyrjro^;, w i^pwaTo 
6 'OBvaaev^ /card rrjv vv/creyepaiav, irepl o5 

(pljalv 6 TrOLT^TT}^, OTV 

^EX€a>vo<$ ^ Apvvropo^ ^OppeviBao 
efeXer’ AutoXua:o9, ttv/civov Bopov dvrLTOp‘qara<;, 

TOP re yap ’EXeSm iv Xlapvaacrcp 7roXt)(Vtov 
elvai, TOP re ^OppevlBrjv ^Apvvropa ov/c dXXop 
Tipd Xeyeadai ^ top tov ^^OLPi/co^i Trarepa, /cal 
TOP AvtoXv/cop oi/covPTa iv r^ Uappaacr^ roi^o)- 
pu%eiz/ rd T&v yetrovcov, oirep kolvqv iari rot- 
,')(€t>pvxov TravTo^, ov rd t&p Troppcodev* 6 Be 

434 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 5 18 

stadia from Demetiias, whereas the site of lolciis, 
which IS situated on the load, is distant seven stadia 
from Demetrias and the remaining twenty stadia 
fiom Ormenium. The Scepsian ^ says that Phoenix 
was fiom Ormenium, and that he fled thence from 
his father Aniyntor the son of Orrnenus into Phthia 
to Peleus the king, foi this place, he adds, was 
founded by Oi menus the son of Cercaphus the son 
of Aeolus ; and he says that both Amyiitor and 
Euaemon were sons of Orrnenus, and that Phoenix 
was son of the formei and Eurypylus of the latter, 
but that the succession to the throne, to w Inch both 
had equal light, was kept for Euiypylus, inasmucli 
as Phoenix had gone away fiom Ins home-land. 
Furthermore, the Scepsian wntes thus, when 
fiist I left Ormenium rich m flocks,’' instead of 
left Hellas, land of fair women.” ^ But Ciates 
makes Phoenix a Phocian, judging this from the 
helmet of Meges, which Odysseus used at the time 
of his night-spymg, concerning which the poet says, 
Autolycus filched it from Eicon, from Amyntor the 
son of Orrnenus, having broken into his close-built 
home ” ^ For Eicon, he says, is a town of Parnassus ; 
and Aniyntor, son of Orrnenus, means no other than 
the father of Phoenix ; and Autolycus, who lived on 
Parnassus, must have broken into the house of a 
neighbour (as is the way of any housebreaker), and 
not into tliat of people far away But the Scepsian 

^ Demetrius of Scepsis. * liiad 447 

« Ihad 10 266. 


^ K.€p<piov A mmu prim , Kekdfov A mm sec, and other MSS., 
and Eustathius. 

* after Jones deletes ; &s A man, see , BHno ; 
Sre &y 

435 


p F 2 


STRABO 


jLCfjre ^EXeApa fxrjheva tottop tov 
Uappacrcrov Sel/cpvadat, aXka NeSm, Kal ravrijp 
oiKiadelcrap fiera rh T/JWi/tra, fJLrjr i/c yeiropcov 
Ta<? TOi%Gopu%/a 9 jLPeo-dai fiovop. real aXXa 8’ 
iarrivi a Xeyoi rt? ap, aX\! oZv okpA BiarptBeiv 
im rrXeop. dXXot Be ypd<j>ov<TLP e| 'EXe&vo^i* 
Tapaypifcrj Be ecrrip avTrp Kal pboXXop eXeyx^^ 
aroTTw? dp Xeyopbevop ro 

^evyov €7r€tr dirdpevOe Bl ^E\XaSo9, 

^Qir\p S’ e^LKOfA^rfv^ 

7} B* ^T^repeia Kpi^pr] ip piear) iaTi rfj ^i^epaicop 
TToXei Evp^rjXov ova”p*^ drorrop toLpvp [Bovvai 
EvpV7rv]Xq),^ Tirapo^i S’ aTro tov crvpl3eBv^OTO<; 
Avopbderdr)* XevKoyeoov ydp iari to "'Kpv'q^ 

TrXT^aLOp Kal \t&p W<pe'^T&p'^ Kal to ^AaTepiop S* 
ovK aiTGidev tovtoop iaTL, 

19. ^vpex^h Be Ty p>epiBt TavTy XiyopTai ol 

VTTO T^ IIoXoTrOtT^* 

ot S’ A pyLCTcrav exov Kal TyprApyp ipipLOVTO, 
^'Opdrjp ^WXwvriv t6 ttoXlp t ^OXoocaova 
XevKrjP, 

TavT7]p TTjv X^P^’^ irpoTepop piev Akovp IleppatBoi, 
TO 7r/)09 BaXaTTy pApo<^ vep^opiepoL Kal T(p Hripem 
MXP^ T?}9 eK^oXys avTOv Kal rvpT&po<:, 7roX€a)9 
UeppatBi'So^, eiTa 7a7reLpA<TaPTe<s iKeivov<; Kal 
uTTcocraPTe^^ €49 ttjp ev tt) pLeaoyala TroTa/nlav^^ 

^ EV^Aou oi/tTT), Kramer, for fieraKaiovffr} ; so Meineke. 
Cur* oi/cp Du Theil, fieydxp o&crp oonj Casaubon, 

fjL^ffoyed^ afjffp Pohtus, fieraWevo^crp Toup, ert fisuo^erp Corais. 
^ [SovVtti E^/>y7ri5]\y, lacuna supplied by Du Theil, who, 

436 



GEOCxRAPHY, 9, 5. 18-19 

says that there is no place called Eleon to be seen 
on Parnassus^ though there is a place called Neon, 
founded in fact after the Trojan War, and also that 
housebreakings are not confined to neighbours only. 
And there are other aiguments which one might 
give, but I hesitate to spend further time on this 
subject Others write ^^from Heleon,” ^ but Heleon 
IS a place in Tanagria, and this reading would mciease 
the absurdity of the statement, Then I fled afar 
off through Hellas and came to Phthia.’'® The 
fountain Hypereia is in the middle of the city of the 
Pheraeans, which belonged to Eitmelus. It is absuid, 
therefore, to assign the fountain to Eurypylus Ti- 
tanus ® was named from the fact in the case there ; for 
the region near Arn^ and Aphetae has white soil. 
Asterium, also, is not far fiom these. 

19. Continuous with this portion of Thessaly is 
the country of those who are called the subjects of 
Polypoetes ^^And those who held Argissa and 
dwelt in Gyiton^, Orth^, and Elon6 and the white 
city Oloosson ” ^ In earlier times the Perrhaebians 
inliabited this country, dwelling in the part near the 
sea and near the Peneius, extending as far as its 
outlet and Gyrton, a Perrhaebian city. Then the 
Lapiths humbled the Perrhaebians and thrust them 
back into the river-country m the interior, and sei^sed 

1 Instead of “from Eleon ” ^ Ihad 9. 478 

s “ White earth » * lhad 2. 738. 


however, inserts also airi\v after Zovvatt omitted by Kramer 
and Mexneke. 

® [twv ’A0e]ra>v, lacuna of about six letters supplied by 
Groskurd ; so the later editors. 

^ HoX &Tc&(rayretf Corais inserts. 

^ eis , » , voTajuiay, Momeke ejects 


437 



STRABO 


AuTTidai Karicrxop avr^ rot x^pia, ^I^lcov kuI o 
VI o<; TLeipidov^t Kal ro IlTjKtov Karmn^aarOi 
^lacrdpLevofi rov<^ fcaraaxovra^ KevTavpov(i^ dypiov 
TL (pvXov*^ rovTOVf; puev ovv 

ire UrfKiov Siae fcal AWiKecFcTt TreXaorcre, 

440 Toh Se AaTTidai^ ra TreSia irapeZooKe* rivd S’ 
avToyv Kol oi Heppai^ol KaTelxov, ra Trpb^ rf 
^OXvfiTTtp* eart, S’ ottov fcal oXoi dvapl^ T 049 
AairLdai^ wkovv. r) pubv oiv *^ApyLacra,^ r] vvv 
Apyovpa,^ eVi tlriveicp fcetrar viripKeurat 
S’ avrrj^ ^Arpa^ iv rerrapaKOvra erraSiOLt^, rm 
TTorap^ 7rXr]<nd^ovcra /cal aijTTj* rrjv S’ dvd piaov 
TTorapiav ^Ixov TleppaL^oL ''Opdrjv Si rive^ rrjv 
aKporroXiv r&v ^aXavvaict/v dprjKaeiv' fj Si 
^dXavva TLeppai^CKr) iroXt^ tt / jo ? Tlrjvei^* 
'n-Xrjcriov r&v Te/ATrwz/. oi fih oJ/v Xleppai^ol 
KaraSvvaaOivre^i vrro r&v AaTn65>v eh r^v opeivrjv 
drravia-rrjcrav oi rrXeLov^ r^v Trepl UivSov /cal 
Adapdva<i /cal AoXoTra?, ri^v Se 
vrroXeK^divraf; rmv TLeppai^&v /cariaxov Aape- 
craloi,^ 7rXi]<Tcov pev ol/covpr€<? rov IlTjveiov, 
yeirvi&vre^ S’ e/ceivoi^t vepiopuevoi Se rd euSat- 
pLovierrara pepi) r&v rreSicov, TtXrjv ei rv a<p6Spa 
kolXov 7r/?09 XipLvrj rfi Necrcrcaj/tSi, eh fjv 
virepKXv^cov 6 irorap,o<^ d<^r)pelr6 ri rri<; dpoaipov 
TOV9 Aapicraiov^' dXX* iorepov Trapaxd)p^a<nv 
iTtrjV&pOoocrav Aapicraioi^ oSroi S’ ovv Karelx^v 
760)9 r7}v Heppat^iav /cal <f>6pov^ enrpdrrovro, em 

^ aeghno add tjv j also A man, prim 
® *'Apyt<rcra {Hmd 2, 738), the editors, for ^'Apytera B, 
"'Apyei<ra, A, with ter over m man, see, 

438 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 5. 19 

their country — I mean the Lapiths Ixion and his son 
Peirithoiis, the latter of whom also took possession 
of Pelion, forcing out the Centaurs, a wild folk, who 
had seized it Now these ^^he thrust from Pelion 
and made them draw near to the Aethices,’’ ^ and he 
gave over the plains to the Lapiths, though the 
Perrhaebians kept possession of some of them, those 
near Olympus, and also in some places lived 
completely intermingled with the Lapiths. Now 
Argissa, the present Argura, is situated on the 
Peneius ; and forty stadia above it lies Atiax, which 
also IS close to the river , and the Perrhaebians held 
the river-country between the two places. Some 
have called Orth^ the acropolis of the Plialannaeans , 
and Phalanna is a Perrhaebian city close to the 
Peneius near Temp^. Now the Perrhaebians, being 
overpowered by the Lapiths, for the most part 
emigrated to the mountainous country about Pindus 
and to the countries of the Athamanians and Dolo- 
pians, but their country and all Perrhaebians who 
were left behind there were seized by the Larisaeans, 
who lived near the Peneius and were their iieiglibours 
and dwelt m the most fertile parts of the plains, 
though not in the very low region near the lake 
called Nessonis, into which the river, when it over- 
flowed, would carry away a portion of the arable soil 
belonging to the Larisaeans. Later, however, they 
corrected this by means of embankments The 
Larisaeans, then, kept possession of Perriiaebia and 
exacted tribute until Philip established himself as 

1 Iltad 2 . 744 


® *'Apypvpaf Xylander, for "'Apyoucra ; so the later editors. 

® Aapiffoioi, Kramer, fop Aapitrfffiiot ; so the later editors. 

439 



STRABO 


<I>tXt 7 r 7 ro 9 /caTecrr) fcvpLO^ t&v tottcop, Adpicra 
icrrl /cal ip tt) ''Octcxt) ')(mpLop* /cal t; Kpe- 
jULacTTij, vTTo TLPcop Be UeXacrfyLa^ Xeyopiepr}* /cal 
ip ry KpijTj) htoXl^ 17 pvp eU ^lepdirvrpap crvvoi- 
viadeio-af ^9 /cal to viro/ceLpcevop TreBiov pvp^ 
Xapiaiop^ KaXelrat* /cal ip UeXoTropv'/ja-tp ^ re 
T&p ^Apyeicop d/cpa koX 6 rrjp ^UXeiav diro 
Biopi^cop Adpc(TO<;^ irorafio^, ©eoTroyLtTro? Se /cal 
TToXip Xiyei ip rf) avrrj pcedopLci /ceip^epTjp Adpcaav* 
/cal ip rfj ^AcrLa f] re ^pi/cooph r) rrepi rrjv K.vfMr}p 
/cal 97 Kara ^Apba^trop rfj^ TpcodBo<;" Kal 77 
’E<)E>€0'ta Adpicrd icrri Kal rj ip Xvpiat rr)^ Be 
MtTuX77i/779 aTTo rceprrjKOPra araBioDP elcrl Aapi- 
cracat TTirpai Kara rrjp irrl ]^li]dvp,p}’}<; 6B6p* Kal 
ip rf) ^ArriKT) ® S’ iarl Adpicra* Kal rS>p UpdXKeoap 
BUxovcra KcopLt'i rpidKOPra a-raBiov<^ vnep rrj^ 
TToXeco^ irrl Kavarpov rreSlop Bed Mea-a>7iSo9 
ioprwp Kara ro rij^ ^IcroBpop')]^ Myrpo? lepop, 
opoiap rrjp 6eaip Kal rrjp dperr/p e^ovaa rf) 
K.pepLa<Trf) Aapicrrj' koX yap evvBpo<i Kal dprre- 
Xo^vro^* tcro)^ Be Kal 6 AapLcrio^ Zeu? iKeldep 
irrciwopiacrraL* Kal ip rol^ dpLa‘r€po2<; Be rov 
Uoprov KclopLT} Tt9 KaXetrai Adpica pera^v Nai^- 

[Xo^ov ®] rrXrjcrLop rcop aKpcop rov 

Aipov, Kal ^OXoorcrcbv^ Be, XevKT) rrpocrayopev- 
Seicra diro rov X€VKdpyiXo<; elvai, Kal 'H.Xd>P7], 

1 TleXaffyittf Xylander, for Trhdyia ; so the later editors. 

* ir^Biov icrrl h vvv Aghino 

® Aaptcriov, Kramer, for Aapicnriop ; so the later editors. 

* AdpLffoSf Kramer, for Aaplcrcros , so the later editors 

® On *ATTtK% see C. Muller, Ind Var. LecL p 1005 . 

® Naw\(^[xov], lacuna supplied by Kramer; so the later 
editors. 

440 



GEOGRAPHY, 9, 5. 19 

lord over the region, Larisa is also the name of a 
place on Ossa; anothei is Larisa Cremaste, by some 
called Pelasgia ; ^ and m Crete is a city Larisa, now 
joined to Hierapytna, whence the plain that lies 
below is now called Larisian Plain , and, in the 
Peloponnesus both Larisa, the citadel of the Argives, 
and the Larisus River, which is the boundary bet%veen 
the Eleian countiy and Dym6. Theopompus speaks 
of another city Larisa situated on the same common 
boundary; and m Asia is a Larisa Phryconis near 
Cym6, and also the Larisa near Haniaxitis in the 
Troad, and there is the Ephesian Lansa, and the 
Larisa in Syria , and theie aie Lansaean Rocks fifty 
stadia from Mitylene on the road to Methynine ; and 
there is a Lansa in Attica, and a village Larisa 
thirty stadia distant from Tralleis, above the city, on 
the road which runs through Mesogis towards the 
Cayster Plain near the temple of the Isodromian 
Mother,^ which 111 its topographical position and its 
goodly attributes is like Larisa Cremast^, for it has 
an abundance of water and of vineyaids ; and perhaps 
the Lansaean Zeus received his epithet from this 
place , and also on the left of the Pontus is a village 
called Larisa, between Naulochus and . . . near the 
end of Mount Haemus And Oloosson, called 
white’' from the fact that its soil is a white clay, 

1 See 9. 5 la. ^ Cybel6. 

® “ Odessa ” seems to be the lost word 


’ It IS almost certain that the remainder of the lacuna 
(about eight letters) should be supplied with kuI 'O^crtrov 
® *0\off(r6v AghtlnOf Memeke, See *0\oo<r(r6pa at beginning 
of 9. 5 m 


441 




STRABO 


Ueppai^ifcal TToXe^?, fcal Tovvo^, rj S’ ^EXoovy} 
p^ere^aXe rovvop^a, AeipoovTj pLerovopLaaOelaa* 
/cariafcaTTrat Se vvp' ap.^co S’ vtto r<p ^OXvpuTTcp 
C 441 fcelvrai, ov ttoXv ciTrcoOev tov EvpcoTrov ^ mrorapbov, 
ov 6 Troir}Tr)<; TLTapi](nQV KoXel. 

20. Aeyei Be koX Trepl tovtov koi irepl r&v 
Tleppai/S&v iv roi<? €^7j<? 6 orav (f>§* 

Fovveiff; S’ e/c Kv<f)OV fjye Bvco koX etfcoai vyja<;, 

S’ ^Evi^V€9 eiTOvro pieveTrroXepLoi re Uepai^oii 
ot Trepl AcoSdovrjv Bva'x^eipbepov oltcC Wevro, 

01 T apb(p' ipLeprov TcrapT^criov spy ivipLovro. 

Xeyet pbev oifv rovrov^; tov? tottoi/? r&v Ueppai^&v, 
airo pipov<> rrj^ ^Eo-riaccoriBo^ ^ eTreiXrj^ora^^*^ 
^crav Se fcal ai^ vtto IIoXuTrotT^ e/c pbipov^ 
Ueppai^tfcai, to?? pt^evroi AaTTiSais Trpoaiveipie 
TO avapl^ ol/ceiv /cal rh jMev ir^Bla /carex^iv 
Toi}^ Aarri6a^ KaX to ivravda Heppai^iKov vtto 
T0UT049 rera^^ai co? €7rl TrXeoi', ra S’ opttvorepa 
^cDpta TTpo? T(p ^OXvpLrrcp /cal TO 69 TepLireat Toi /9 
Tl€ppatl3ov<;i Kaddirep rov Kixpov Kal rrjv AtoSco- 
V7}V Kal rd ire pi rov Tcrapijaiov, 09 opov^ 
TirapLov^ avp^vov<i r^ ^OXvpirtp pecov 669 rd 
rrXqaLov r&v Fepvir&v XcopLa r7j<; neppa6/36a9 
avrov TTOV rd^ <rvpLl3o\d<; rroLelraL rrpo<; rov 
TJrjveiov, rd p^ev oiv rov Hrjveiov xaBapov iariv 

^ 'Eifp(&irov, Kramer, for 'Evpc&Tov ; so the later editors 
® *lcrTtaL(»)riSos Aid , Corais 
® ivetKiix^raSf eonj. of Meineke, for iv€i\7i<p6Tas ; 

<p6roiVt Groskurd. 

* ati after Kal, Oorais inserts. 

’^*Ki.rapiov Agi, 


442 



GEOGRAPHY, 9 , 5 19-20 

and Elone, and Gonnus are Perrhaebian cities But 
Elon^ changed its name to Leimone, and is now in 
rums. Both aie situated below Olympus, not very 
far from the Europus River, which the poet calls the 
Titaresius.^ 

20. The poet next mentions both Titaresius and 
the Perrhaebians, when he says, ^^And Guneus led 
from Cyphus twenty-two ships. And theie followed 
him the Enienians,^ and the Perrhaebians steadfast 
m war, who had established then homes round 
wintry Dodona,^ and dwelt in the fields about lovely 
Titaresius/’^ Now he speaks of these places as 
belonging to the Perrhaebians, places which fell into 
their possession as a part of Hestiaeotis. ® And also 
the cities subject to Polypoetes were in part Perr- 
haebian, However, he assigned them to the Lapiths 
because the two peoples lived intermingled with one 
another,® and also because, although the Lapiths 
held possession of the plains and the Perrhaebian 
element there were for the most part subject to the 
Lapiths, the Peirliaebians held possession of the 
more mountainous parts near Olympus and Temp^, 
as, for example, Cyphus, and Dodona, and the region 
about the Titaresius , this river rises in the Titarius 
Mountain, which connects with Olympus, and flows 
into the territory of Perrhaebia which is near Temp^, 
and somewhere in that neighbourhood unites with 
the Peneius- Now the water of the Peneius is pure, 

1 Iliad % 751. 

® The Homeiic spelling of “ Aemanians” (9, 4. 11 ) 

® The Thessalian Bodona mentioned in Frags* 1, la, Ih, Ic, 
Vol. Ill, pp 321, 323. 

* Jhad 2 748. 

® The Perrhaebians had seized Hestiaeotis (9 5 17) 

® See 9. 5. 19. 


443 



STRABO 


vBoDp, TO Be Tov TtTapTjcriov Xiirapov e/c rivo^ 
vXrj^i &(TT ov (TvpbptcryeTaLt 

dWd re pLLv Kadvirepdev iirLTpexei rjvr eXaiov. 

Bid Be TO dvapX^ olKelv '^ttpcoviBrj^ Heppaiffov^ fcaX 
Aairidm tcaXei to 1)9 Tl6\a(TyL(l>Ta<; diravra^, Toy? 
rd €(pa /carexovra^ rd nrepl Vvpr&va fcai rd^ 
iK/3o\d^ TOV YlTjvetov fcal "'Ocrcrav kclI n?JXtoz^ 
Kal Td Trepi ArjpbriTpidBa /cal Ta iv t^ ireBlm, 
Kdpiaav, TSipawS/va, 'SifCOTOvacrav, Moyfriov, 
'' At pa/ca, /cal Td Trepi ttjv Ne/xcrcoplBa XipLvrjv Kal 
TY}v ^OL^rjiBa* &v 6 ttoitjty}^ oXiycov piepivyjTaL Bid 
TO pbrj olKia-Orjvai tto) TdWa rj (j>avXG)<; olKiadrjvaL 
Bid T 009 KaTaK\vcrfiov<; aXXoT dXkov<; yivofiivov^* 
iirel ovBe t^ 9 N€o*<ja)z/tSo 9 pepvrjTai XipiVT)^, dWd 
T?j9 Boij8y?cBo<f pLovov, TToXv iXdjTovoT ovcrt}^* 
TavTrj^ Be pi6vrj<; pLevovarf^s, eKeivr}^ §€> <09 e6«09> 
TOTe pev TrXrjpovjiievrj^ cLTdKTW, Tore S’ eKXenro- 
p€vr}<f* T7]<; Be XKOTOvcrcrrj^: ipbvrjaOi'fpev Kal iv TOi9 
Trepi Aft)Scoi^?79 Xoyoi^ Kal tov piavTeiov tov iv 
©eTTaXta, SiOT£ irepl tovtov V7rP}p^e tov tottov, 
eCTTL S’ iv TT} %KOTOV(Jarj ^OJptOZ^ TL Kyi/09 
K€<f>aXal KaXovpievov, Trepi o ^Pcopaioi pueT 
AItcoX&v Kal TtT09 KoiVTA09 ivUcov pidxv 
ydX'p ^LXittttov tov ArjpbrjTpLov^ yiaKeBovwv 
^acriXea, 

21. HerrovOe Be tl toiovto^ Kal f} ’M.ayvrjTi^i* 
KaTrfpidpbTjpievcov yap tjBt] ttoXX&v avTrj<i TOTra/v^ 
C 4:42 ouSeva 9 tovtcov mvopuaKe yidyv7iTa<i^^Opvr}po<;i oXk! 

^ rotovrOf Meineke, for roiovrov. 


444 


1 Jlmd 2. 754 . 


* 7 . 7 12 . 




GEOGRAPHY, 9. 5. 20-21 


but that of the Titaresius is oily^, because of some 
substance or other, so that it does not mingle with 
that of the Peneius, ''but iiins over it on the top 
like oil.” ^ Because of the fact that the two peoples 
lived intermingled, Simonides uses the terms Per- 
ihaebians and Lapiths of all the Pelasgiotes who 
occupy the legion about Gy 1 ton and the outlets of 
the Peneuis and Mount Ossa and Mount Pel ion, and 
the region about Demetnas, and the region in the 
plain, I mean Larisa, Crannon, Scotussa, Mopsium, 
Atiax, and the region about Lake Nessonis and 
Lake Boebeis Of these places the poet mentions 
only a few, because the lest of them had not yet 
been settled, or else were only wi etched settlements, 
on account of the inundations which took place at 
various times. Indeed, he does not mention Lake 
Nessonis either, but Lake Boebeis only (though it is 
much smaller), because the latter alone persisted, 
whereas the former, in all probability, was at times 
filled at irregular intervals and at times gave out 
altogether. Scotussa I have already mentioned in 
my account of Dodona and of the oracle in Thessaly, 
saying that originally it was near this place. ^ In 
the territory of Scotussa there is a place called 
Cynoscephalae,^ near which Titus Quintius^ and 
the Romans, along with the Aetohaiis, in a great 
battle ® conquered Pliilip the son of Demetrius, king 
of the Macedonians. 

21. Magnetis, also, has been treated by Homer in 
about the same way. For although he has already 
enumerated many of the places in Magnetis, none of 
these are called Magnetan by him except those two 

® "Dogs’ Heads,” a low range of hills. 

^ Titus Quxntius Plammmus. ® 197 b a 


445 



STRABO 


i/ceLVOV<i fiovov^, oy? rv<pX&<; koX ov yvcopi/jbco^ 
Bcct(Ta(j>€i, 

oi irepl Hrjvecov Kal Ilr]\LOv eivo(Ti(f>vWov 
vaieaKOV, 

dXXa pbfjv nrepl rov Tl'i'iveLov Kal to T[i]Xlov oIkov(TI 
Kal ol rrjv Vvpr&va e)(pvTe<ii oi)<? fjhri KareXe^e, 
Kal TO 'OpfjbevLov Kal dXXoi irXeLovq, Kal eri 
drctorepco rov TliyXlov opLa)<? Mdyi^7)T€9 fjcrav, 
dp^dpievoi diro tcov vtt Ev/LL7]X(p, Kara ye TOv<i 
varepov dvdpcoTrov^- ioLKaa-tv oZv Sid 
<rvi^6^ec<f peraardaeif; Kal i^aXXd^ei^ t&p ttoX^- 
T€i&v Kal einpii^ei^ cvyxeiv Kal rd ovopara Kal 
Ta edpT], &(TT€ 7049 vvv eau ore diropiav Trape^e^y,^ 
KaOdirep tqvto to irp&Tov pev eirl lLpavv&vo<; Kal 
TTj^s TvpTdvo^ yeyevTjTai. rov<; pev yhp Tvproiy- 
VL 0 V 9 ^Xeyva^^ Trporepov ckoXovv utto ^Xeyvov 
rov ’If/oz^o? dS€X(j) 0 Vf Toy? Bk Kpawcoviov^ ^E(j>v- 
pov^f &aT€ SiaTTopeiv, orav (j>f) 6 Troirjr'qv 

TO) pep ap' eK &p^K7]<} ’Et^y/joy? pera dcopT^a- 
aeadov 

rje percL ^Xeyva<; peyaXr^ropa^^ 

riva^ TTore ^ovXerai Xiyeiv, 

22. Esre^Ta tovto Kal iirl t&p Ueppai/3S>p Kal 
T&p Alvidvoop ^ crvve^q* "'0/x?7po? pev yap crvve- 
^ev^ep avToy?, co? TrXrjcrLOP dXX'qXoov olKQvvra^* 
Kal Sr} Kal Xeyerai viro t&p vcrrepov errl %poyoy 

^ irapex®*^> Pletho, for irapetxey A, irapeix^ a and other 
MBS. 

® Ahidvmf Pletho, for ^ABafAdvay, so the later editors. 

446 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 5. 21-22 

places, and even these are designated by him in a 
dim and indistinct way : ^ who dwelt about Peneius 
and Pelion with its shaking foliage ” ^ Assuredly 
however, about the Peneius and Pelion lived those 
who held Gyrton, whom he had already named,® as 
also those who held Ornienmm/ and several other 
Perrhaebian peoples; and yet farther away from 
Pelion there were still Magnetans, beginning with 
those subject to Eumelus, at least ^'coiding to the 
waters of later times These writers, however, on 
account of the continual migrations, changes of 
political administrations, and inteimivtuie of tribes, 
seem to have confused both the names and the 
tribes, so* that they sometimes present difficult ques- 
tions for the writers of to day. For example, this has 
proved true, in the first place, in the case of Crannon 
and Gyrton ; for m earlier times the Gyrtonians were 
called " Phlegyae,” from Phlegyas, the brother of 
Ixion, and the Crannonians ^‘^Ephyri,” so that it is a 
difficult question who can be meant by the poet when 
he says, Verily tliese twain, going forth from 
Thrace, arm themselves to pursue the Ephyri, or to 
pursue the great-hearted Phlegyae/'® 

22. Again, the same thing is true in the case of the 
Perrhaebians and Aenianians. For Homer ^ con- 
nected the two, as living near one another ; and in fact 
we are told by the writers of later times that for a long 

1 Homer nowhere specifically names either the Magnetans 
or their country except in. Ili^xd 2. 756, where he says, 
“Prothous, son of Tenthredon, was the leader of the 
Magnetans.” 

a /had 2. 757, * /had 2 738. * Ihad 2. 734 

* Some modern scholars question the authenticity of this 
passage See Leafs note ad Uc, 

« H%ad 2. 749. 


447 



STRABO 


crv)(vov 17 OLKY]arL<; rS)V Alvidvccv^ iv toS Acort^ 
jevidOai ttsS/w, toOto S’ icrrl TrXrjaiov 77)9 dpri 
Tl6ppai^La<; Kal "'Oaa-rjf; fcaX en 
B0//377/S09 Xi/iv7]^ iv p^earj fxev Trto? rff 
©erraXta, X6<boL^ Se iSooi<; ^ TrepifcXetouevov irepl 
ow rlcrtooo? owTW? eiprjicGv^ 

•Pj 017] AtSi//xoi /9 i€pov<; vaiovaa KoXcovom 
AcoTLqy iv TreBiq) rroXv^orpvo^ avr ^Apbvpoco 
vi'\(raro Bof/StaSo? X[jLLvr](^ iroSa 7rapdivo<; 

ol fiev odv Alvidve<i^ ol irXeiovf} eh Tr)p Otrrjv 
i^rfXdOrjaav viro r&v AairLddiVi /cdvravda Se 
iSvvdcrevcrav d<^eX6pi,evoi r&v re Aooptecov riva 
fiepr] Kal r&v MaXUcov fJLexpi> ‘Hpa/cXe/a? Kal 
’E%6i/ou, Tcvh S’ avr&v episcvav rrepl Kv<j>oVf 
rieppaL^iKov opo<; oficowpLOv Karoulav e%oj'. oi 
Se ]leppat^ol^ rivh pev crvcTraXevre^ rrepl rh 
eaTripia rov ^OXvpiTov pepT) Karepevov avroOi^ 
rrpoax^poi ovre^ Ma/ceSocrt, to Se rroXv pipo<i eh 
rd rrepl rijv ^AdapavCav oprj koX ri^v IltVSo?/ 
i^eirece* vvvl Se piKpov y) ovhev avr&v I'xt^og 
cr&^erar rov^ S’ ouv vtto rov Tvoir^rov Xex^evra^ 
yidf^vr}ra^ vcrrdrov^ iv r^ ©erraXiK^ KaraX6<^cp 
443 vopiareov rov? ivro^ r&v ^epTT&v diro rovYlrjveLOv 
Kal T /)9 "'Ocrcry]^ €co<; H^'iXlov^ MaKeS6vG)v roh 
JjLepi&rai^ opopov^, roh exovcrc rrjv rov Uy^vetov 
rrepaiav p^XP^ daXdrrrjs;. ro pev ovv ^OpoXt^ov 
^ rr]V^Op6Xr}v {Xeyerai yap dptjyorepm) dTToSoreov 

1 Alm^vcop, Pletho, for "Aea^dvcov , so the later editors. 

® Tor 5e iBiois, Meineke conj Si5t5jMots. 

448 



GEOGRAPHY, 9 S 22 

time the habitation of the Aemaniaiis was in the 
Dotian Plain. This plain is near the Perrhaebia just 
mentioned above, and Ossa and Lake Boebeis , and 
while it IS situated in the middle of Thessaly, yet it is 
enclosed all round by hills of its own. Concerning 
this plain Hesiod has spoken thus. ^^Or as the 
unwedded virgin^ who, dwelling on the holy Didyman 
Hills, in the Dotian Plain, in front of Amyrus, bathed 
her foot in Lake Boebeis.” ^ Now as for the Aeni- 
anians, most of them were driven into Oeta by the 
Lapiths , and there too they became predominant, 
having taken away certain parts of the country^ from 
the Dorians and the Malians as far as Heiacleia and 
Echinus, although some remained m the neighbour- 
hood of Cyphus, a Perrhaebian mountain which had 
a settlement of the same name. As for the Perrhae- 
bians, some of them drew together round tlie western 
paits of Olympus and stayed there, being neighbouis 
to the Macedonians, but the gi eater part of them 
were diiven out of their countiy into the mountains 
round Athamania and Pindus. But to day little or no 
trace of them is preserved At any rate, the 
Magnetans mentioned last by the poet in the 
Thessalian Catalogue should be regarded as those 
inside Temp^, extending from the Peneius and Ossa 
as far as Pelion, and bordering on the Pienotae in 
Macedonia, who held the country on the far side of 
the Peneius as far as the sea. Now Homobum, or 
Homol^ (for it is spelled both ways), should be 

^ Coronis, mother of Asclepxus 

® Frmj 122 (Pmoh) : agam quoted in 14. 1. 40. 


s Pletho, for ' , so the later editors. 


VOL. IV. 


G G 


449 



STRABO 


avToh* 6ip’i]raL S’ iv roh IsJlafceloviKol^, on earl 
Trpo^ rj} '^Ocrcrrj tcara rrjv ap')(Y}v t% ^ tov IlTjvtLov 
Bia tS>v 'YepnrS>v hLeK^o\r}<;, ei he /cal pLe^pi' 
irapaXia^i irpocreov r/;? i^yurdrco rod ^Op.o\ioVj 
Xoyov 6%€i, &(7T€^ TOV ^Vt^ovvTa TTpoavepeiv koX 
’Eyov/AZ^a 9 ev rfj vtto ^i.Xo/cr7]T7j irapaXia /ceipeva^ 
Kal T7} vtto ^vpL7jX(p> TOVTO pL€v oZv iv da‘a<f>€L 
fceiaBco. /cal r) Td^i<f Se r&v tottcov p^%pi 

ll7]vecov ov Sia(j>avm Xeyeraiy aSo^cov S* ovrcov 
T&v TOTTcov, ovS’ fjpbiv TTepl TToXXov Qereov, f) 
pievTOL 'SiTjTTid^ d/crrf /cal Terpay/phrjraL perd ravra 
/cal e^vpvTjrai Sid tov evTavda d(f>avicrp6v tov 
UepaiKOv aToXov ecTTi S’ avTi] pep d/crr] Trerpco^ 
hrj^j peTa^v S’ avri]^ /cal K-aadavaia^; fcoi>p7j<; i/tto 
T^ tlTjXCq) KeipevT)^ alyiaXo^ iaTiv, ev & 6 Sip^ov 
(TToXo^ vavXox&v, dwriXicoTov iroXXov wvevaravTO^y 
0 pev evdv^ avTov Tcpo^ to ^7]pbv i^co/ceiXe /cat 
hieXvdT] TrapaxpVf^cLy 6 S’ eh ^l7rvov<;,^ tottov 
Tpax^v T&v Trepl to Tl'qXtoVy Trapevex^^hy 6 h^ eh 
MeXi/Soiav, 6 S’ eh Tr]v KaaOavaiav hie^Odpr). 
Tpaxv^ S ’ icTTlv 6 irapaTrXov^ 7 ra 9 o tov HrfxLov,^ 
oaov (JTaSicov oyhorj/covTa* toctovto^ S’ ecrTt /cal 
TOCOVT09 fcal 6 T ?}9 "'Oacrr}<; peTa^v he /coXtto^ 
cTTaSlcov TrXeiovoov ^ Sia/cocricov, iv (S 17 MeXi/Soia. 
0 Se 7ra9 citto ArjprjTpidSo^; iy/coXiri^ovTi, eTrl tov 
Urjveiov pei^cov t&v dno he STrepx^iov 

^ t5)s, tiansferred here from position after Bid, 

* Meineke inserts Ka( after &orr€, 

® 'lirvo6s, Kramer and Meineke (see Herod 7. 188) for 
^Ittvovp AB^ghis, ^Tttvovv Zm, ^lirvovpra, ckno; "‘Iwodpra cor- 
rection in B, and so Coiais, 

* nijA/ouj Palmer, for Ilijveiov , so later editors, 

450 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 5. 22 

assigned to the Magnetans ; as I have said m my 
description of Macedonia,^ it is close to Ossa, situated 
where the Peneius begins to discharge its waters 
through Temp6. And if one were to proceed as far 
as the sea-coast nearest to Homohum, there is reason 
for assigning to them Rhizus and Erjmnae, which 
were situated on that part of the sea-coast which was 
subject to Philoctetes and on that which was subject 
to Eumelus. However, let this question remain 
undecided And also the order of the places next 
thereafter as far as the Peneius is not plainly told by 
the poet ; but since these places are without repute, 
neither should I myself regard the matter as of great 
importance. Cape Sepias, however, was afterwards 
celebrated both in tragedies and in hymns on account 
of the total destruction there of the Persian fleet. 
Sepias itself is a rocky cape, but between it and 
Casthanaea, a village situated at the foot of Pelion, 
is a beach where the fleet of Xerxes was lying in wait 
when, a violent east wind bursting forth, some of the 
ships w^ere immediately driven high and dry on the 
beach and broken to pieces on the spot, and the 
others were carried along the coast to Ipni, one of the 
rugged places in the region of Pelion, or to Meliboea, 
or to Casthanaea, and destroyed The whole voyage 
along the coast of Pelion is rough, a distance of about 
eighty stadia ; and that along the coast of Ossa is 
equally long and rough. Between the two mountains 
is a gulf more than two hundred stadia in circuit, on 
which is Meliboea. The whole voyage along the 
coast from Demetrias to the Peneius, following the 
sinuosities of the gulfs, is more than one thousand 
stadia in length, and from the Sperchius eight hun- 

1 Fmg, 165 (see also 16c), VoL III., p 337. 


G G 2 


451 



STRABO 


Kal dXXcov 6xTa/co(XLa>v, d'iro Be EvptTrov BiaX^Xccov 
Tpia/coorCcov ^ 7revr7]KOvra. ^lepcovvpo^ Be Tre- 
BidBo^ ©erraXia? fcal TSlayvijriBof; top kvkXov 
rpicrx^Xitav diro<paLP€Tai (rraStcov dfcrjcrdac S’ vtto 
H eXacry&v* i^eXaOfjvatBe rovrov^ ek rrjv ^IraXtav ^ 
vrro Aatrtd&v* elvai Be to vvp fcaXovp^vov lie- 
XaayCKOV ireBiov^ iv ^ Adpcaa ^ fcal rvprcovr} ^fcal 
^epal /cal Mo'^cov /cal /cal "'Ocrcra Kal 

^OpoXrj Kal n^fXiov Kal Mayvijn^i' Moyjnov S’ 
divopcacrrai ovk diro Mo^lrou rov MavTov^ 
TetpecLOv, aXX’ a7ro toO A air id ov tov avpirXev- 
a’avro<irQi<i^ApyovavTaiv dXXos:B^ icrrl Mo'v/ro7ro9,^ 
d(j> o5 77 ^Attiktj Mo^froiria, 

28. KaS^ e^Kacrra pbh ravra irepl ©erraXia^, 
KaO^ oXov B\ Brt VLvppaia irporepov eKaXeiro diro 
Ilvppa<^ T7}<; AevKaXimvo<; yvvatKQ<i, AlpLovia Sk 
diro Atpovo<^, ®€TTaX(a Be dirb ©erraXov rov 
Atpopo^, evtOL Be, SieXopre^ Srj^a, tt^p pev rrpo^ 

voTOP Xax^^P <j>acrl AevKaXicoptj Kal KaXiaat 
IlapBcopap drrb t 7]<; pr^rpo^^ rrjv S’ eripap ATpovij 
C 44:4 d(^ o5 Alpopiav Xe^di^var percovopdo'daL Be rrjp 
pep ^EXXaSa dirb ^^EXXrjvo^ rov AevKaXtcopo^}, 
rrjp Be ©erraXiap drro rov vcov AXpopo^ ripe<i Be 
d7rb*E<j)vpa^ t?} 9 @€<r7r/?<yT/So9 drroyovov^ *Apri(j>ov 

^ 6icroLico<ria)Vf editors before Kramer ; see his note. 

^ ^Irahiav, Kramer, instead of hlraKtav (BEMc? and 
editors before Kramer), A has alroj in man, see above , and 
ck have both. 

^ h $ AApKra^ Politus, for 4v Aapfererp ; so the editors 

452 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 5. 22-^23 

dred more, and from the Euripus two thousand three 
hundred and fifty. Hieronymus ^ declares that the 
plain-country of Thessaly and Magnetis is three 
thousand stadia in circuit, and that it was inhabited 
by Pelasgians, and that these were driven out of 
their country by the Lapiths, and that the present 
Pelasgian Plain, as it is called, is that m which are 
situated Larisa, Gyrton6, Pherae, Mopsium, Boebeis, 
Ossa, Homole, Pelion, and Magnetis. Mopsiuni is 
named, not after Mopsus, the son of Maiito the 
daughter of Teiresias, but after Mopsus the Lapith 
who sailed with the Argonauts But Mopsopus, 
after whom the Attic Mopsopia is named, is a 
different person.^ 

23. So much, then, for the several parts of Thessaly. 
But speaking of it as a whole, I may say that in 
earlier times it was called Pyrrhaea, after Py rrha the 
wife of Deucalion, and Haemonia after Haemon^ and 
Thessaly after Thessalus the son of Haemon But 
some writers, dividing it into two parts, say that 
Deucalion obtained the portion towards the south 
and called it Pandora after his mother, and that the 
other part fell to Haemon, after whom it was called 
Haemonia, but that the former name was changed to 
Hellas, after Hellen the son of Deucalion, and the 
latter to Thessaly, after the son of Haemon Some, 
however, say that descendants of Antiphus and 

1 Apparently Hieronymus of Rhodes (see note on 8 6 21). 

2 See 9. 1. 18 


* Instead of rvprt&vTj IBEklno have ^epais. 

® MOfVrovs 'TTfs, Tzschueke, from oonj of Kuhn, for ii&vrecas 
rov 5 so the later editors, 

* All MSS,, except have see 9, 1. 18. 

453 



STRABO 


fcal ^eiBiTnrov,^ r&v ©erraXov rov ^HpaKXeov^ 
i7reXd6vra<; utto SerraXoCf rov eavr&v rrpoyovoV) 
rrjv ’xmpav ovopidaat. etpy^rai 8e /cal Nea/rcovlf; 
ovopuacrdijvaL rrore drrb Ne<T(7Ct)z/09 rov @£rraXov, 
fcaddrrep /cal Xl/jlv)]. 

^ #€z5/7rifrov, Lipsius, for ^iKtinrou ; SO the editors. 


454 



GEOGRAPHY, 9. 5. 33 

Pheidippus, the sons of Thessalus the son of Heiacles, 
invaded the country from Tliesprotiaii Ephyra and 
named it after Thessalus, then own ancestor And 
it has been said that the country too was once named 
Nessonis, like the lake, aftei Nesson the son of 
Thessalus. 


455 




A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER 
NAMES 1 

A. Alas, 203, 255, 331 

Alalcomenae, S23, 831, 333 


Acamanians, the, 5, 17, 1S3, 229, 
345, 393, 395 

Achaean League, the, 185, 215, 357 
Achaeans, the, 133, 135, 137, 161, 
167, 169, 185, 207, 209, 211, 215, 
217, 219, 223, 341, 401, 413 
Acheloils River, the, 17, 48, 77 
Achilles, domain of, 349, 379, 399, 
403, 405, 407, 409, 411, 413, 417, 
419, 427 

Acidou River, the, 65, 67, 79 
Acrocormthus, 119, 187, 191, 193, 217 
Actmm, victoiy of Romans at, 225, 
347 

Aegialus, the, 185, 207, 209, 219 
Aegma, 149, 163, 177, 179, ISl, 183, 
261, 413 

Aegium, 186, 219, 223, 226, 233 
Aeolians, the, 367, 369 
Aeolic dialect, the, 6 
Aeschylus, the tragic poet, on Oypros 
and Paphos, 37, on Bura and 
Rhypes, 225 , on Aegma, 261 
Aethices, the, 397, 417, 439 
Aetohaiis, the, 5, 17, 91, 229, 345, 
367, 385, 387, 389, 393, 395 
Aetolus, 101, 103 

Agamedes, designer of temple at 
Delphi, SGI 

Agamemnon, 109, 111, 115, 167, 177, 
255, 347, 349 

Agis, son of Burysthenes, 136, 139 
Agoraciitus, the Parian sculptor (fl. 
440“'128 B,0., favourite pupil of 
Phexdias), by some thought to have 
made the statue of Nemesis at 
Rhamnus, 263 

Agrippa (see Bictmnary m vol. £i), 
put to death Bogus, Icing of the 
Haurusians, at MethonS, 111 


Alcaeus (see JOimmory in lol i), 
on the Ooralius River, 323, S25, 
wrong on the bite of Onchestus, 
329 

Aleman of Sardis (il, about 625 B C ), 
the founder of Donan lyric poetry, 
37 

Alopc, 381, 38 7, 401, 409 
Alpheius River, the, 21, 33, 17, 53, 
61, 65, 73, SI, 85, 87, 99, 101, 231, 
23 (> 

Amarium, where the Achaean Leagoc 
convened, 216, 223 
Ambracian Quit, the, 11, 13, 389 
Amphiaraus, 273, 293, 295 
Amphictyonic Council, the, 327 
Amphictyonlo Leame, the, 173,357 
Amphictyonic Rights, the, 357 
Amphictyons, the, 353, 361, 385, 
393 

Andron, author of a work on the 
Zand of Atthu, on the limita of 
Megans, 247 

Anthedon, 279, 297, 299, 313, 313, 
321 

Anticyra, 343, 351, 369, 391, 415 
Antigonus donatas, Acrocormthus 
wrested from, by Aratus, 217 
Antimachus of Colophon, author of 
an epic poem entitled Thebais and 
an el^iao poem entitled Lyd^, 55, 
apocopS in, 131 , calls Dyme 
"Oauconian,** 225, spells “Thes- 
piae ” Thespeia,” 316 
Antirrhium, 17, 19, 241, 385 
Antony, Maxous, the tnumvir, 111 
Autron, 407, 411, 419, 421 
Aphrodite, temples of, 49 , her 
temple at Oonuth, 191, 193, 
temple of Aphrodite Oolias, 271 


1 A complete index will appear m the last volume. 


457 




A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 


Apollo, tho Tenoatnn, 199, <^anctiiirj 
of, at Delium, 289 , tlic Tilphobbian, 
32B, father of Tenerus, S20, the 
Pvthian, 173, 271, 317, 319, 339, 
365, the Phjlluii, 421 
ApoUofloriH (■“voe Dictumnry in vol i), 
on Ephvra, 29 , on Epidaiirus 
“ Limon.,” 151, on. the term 
TTellencte,” 157 , on the Homciic 
“ Nisa,” 299 

Aratuw, the astronomer of Soli, on 
the goat that nnr&ed Zeub, 233 
Aiatus, tyrant of Sicyon and general 
of the Achaean League, 207, 217 
Araxus, Cape, 15, 17, 47, 227 
Arcadia, 101, 161, 217, 227 
Arcadians, the, 7, 23, 73 
Archias of Thurii, the commander 
sent by the Macedonian Antipater 
to arrest Demosthenes, 175 
Aregon (fl sixth century B 0 appai- 
ently), the Oormthian painter, 49 
Aren§ (Hypaesia), 61, 63, 69, 71, 81, 
117 

Argeia, 153, 155, 161, 163, 205, 231 
Argives, the, 151, 169, 163, 171, 175, 
181, 183, 185, 187, 206, 296 
Argonauts, the, 63, 335, 428, 458 
Argos, 135, 137, 161, the various 
uses of the term, 165 , description 
of, 159, 163, 166, 167, 176, 181, 
185, 187, 217, 295, 331, 403 
Argura (see Ai^^ssa) 

Aristeides of Thebes, the painter, 201 
Aristotle of Stageira (384-322 BO), 
55, calls Dryops settler of AsinS, 
173, on the occupation of Epi- 
dauius by the Oanans, 175, on 
the kinship of peoples of Tenedos 
and Tenea, 199 
Arn6, 323, 331, 431, 437 
Artemidorus (see vol ni, p 130, 
footnote 1), on the perimeter of 
the Peloponnesus, 13 , on Bpi- 
daurus *'Limera,” 151, on the 
distance from Gape Maleae to the 
Ister, 353, on Halus, 411, on 
the Pagasitic Q-iilf, 435 
Artemis, 43, 49, 76, 131 
Asolepius, 177, 219, 429 
Ascr^ 316, 331, 369 
Asin§, 109, 113, 117, 137, 153, 171, 
173, 181 

Asopus Bayer, the, four rivers so 


ninied, 203, 209, 313, 315, 325, 
391 

Athamamans 389, 303, 397, 115, 489 
Athem, io, 51, 57, SJ, 229, 253, 257, 
261, 323, 331 

Ithcnian^, the, 5, 7, 179, 181, 187, 
209, 24o, 217, 219, 253, 255, 261, 
267, 2G9, 289, 325, 333, US, 427 
Athen-, 175, 209, 241, 261, 805, 325 
Atrax, 433, 439, 445 
Attic dialect, the, 5 
Attica, 179, 195, 207, 239, 241, 243, 
245, 247, 249, 261, 253, 257, 263, 
265, 273, 276, 277, 279, 289, 301, 325 
Auhs, 181, 279, 289, 295, 313 

B 

Boebeis Lake, 397, 425, 433, 445, 
449 

Boeotia, 17, 105, 239, 243, 251, 278, 
277, 279, 281, 297, 307, 309, 319, 
321, 325, 341, 343, 349, 373, 375 
Boeotians, the, 6, 19, 247, 267, 283, 
285, 287, 305, 823, 833, 407, 421 
Bupiasium, 36, 37, 39, 69, 101, 225 
Bora, 161, 219, 221, 223 

0 

Oadmeia, acropolis of Thebes, 283, 
327 

Caesar, Julius, his fnendship abused 
by Burycles, 137, restored Oonnth, 
203 

Calauria, the island, 163, 173, 175 
Oallunachus (see Dittxmary m voL i), 
on the impurity of the waters of 
the Bndanus River, 265, on 
Aphiodite Oastiuetis, 431 
Oanans, tho, 157, 175, 267 
Carthaginian'!, the, 217, 223 
Oa-'faander, son of Antipater, Athens 
best governed duimg his ten years* 
leign over Macedonia, 269 
Oauconiaus, the, 23, 43, 45, 65, 57, 
59, 85, 95 

Cecrops the coloniser, 205, 267, 307 
Oenaeum, 393, 419 
Oenchreae, 153, 183, 197 
Centaurs, the, 417, 439 
Oephissus River, the, 276, 297, 306, 
307, 309, 373, 387 
Oeryneia (see Oeraunia) 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 


Ohaeroneia, 307, 331, 333, 373 
Ohalcis, 291, 305, SS5, 391 
Ohalcis Eiyer, the, 19, 77, 79 
Ohelonatas, Cape, 13, 27, 45, 47, 65 
Oithaeron, Mt , 193, 251, 260, 297, 
299, 301, 313, 325 

Oleanthes (fl sixth century B c ), the 
Oormthian painter, made the paint- 
ings entitled '^Capture of Troy’* 
and ** Birth of Athens,” 49 
Oleonae, 185, 187, 205 
Oodridae, the, sent forth Ionian 
colony to Asia, 209 
Oopae, 305, 321, 323 
Oopals Lake, the, 305, 307, 309, S21, 
326, 329, 339, 373 

Oorinth, 119, 121, 185, 189, 197, 199, 
201, 203, 205, 217, 249 
Oormth, Isthmus of (see Isthmus) 
Corinthian Gulf, the, 5, 9, 15, 17, 77, 
197, 241, 279, 317 

Corinthians, the, 153, 197, 199, 203, 
333 

Ooroneia, 307, 321, 323, 325, 333, 
413 

Ooryphasium, 65, 69, 79, 85, 109 
Crates of Ohalcis, the mining engineer, 
806 

Orates of Mallus (see DtcHonurj/ in 
vol i), makes Phoenix a Phocian, 
433 

Oreusa (Oreusis), 279, 209, 315, 317 
Onsa, 343, 351, 353 
Orisaean Gulf, the, 11, 17, 19, 195, 
239, 279, 299, 315, 317, 321, 343, 
347, 351 

Orisaean War, the, 351, 361 
Crommyon, 197, 241, 243 
Ouarius Eivei, the, 323, 329, 421, 
433 

Oyclopeian caverns and labyrinths, 
153 

Oypanssia, 67, 109, 111, 117, 129 
Oypselus, tyrant of Oormth (reigned 
655-625 BO), dedicated the JZeus 
of beaten gold at Olympia, 89, 
overthrew the Bacohiadae at 
Cormth, 189 
Oythera, 161 

D 

Daaaiis, the daughters of, 163, 
founded the acropohs of 163 


Daplmus, 341, 375, 381 
Deceleia, base of operations of the 
Peloponnesians, 263, 267 
Deiphontes, coloiii''er of region about 
Act6, 235 

Delphi, 295, 343, 347, 349, 351, 355, 
359, 361, 8C5, 367, 369, 371 
Demeter, 61, 53, 131, 263, 257, 357, 
393, 421 

Demetrias, 391, 393, 423, 425, 133, 
435, 445, 451 

Demetrius of Phalerum, disciple 
of Thcophiabtus, ** Saviour” of 
Athens, 269 

Demetrius of Pharos, advised Philip 
on strategy, 119 

Demetrius of Scepsis (see Dictimary 
in vol i), on Oechalia and the 
Selleeis River, 31 , on a temple of 
Hades, 53, on Methone, 177, on 
the birthplace of Phoenix, 435 
Demetrius Poliorcetes (see Dtctxmani 
in vol i), rebuilt Sicyon, 207, 
founder of Demetrias, 423 
Demosthenes (see Dicttonary in vol i), 
suicided at Oalauria, 176, on the 
site of Elateia, 373 

Diodotus, the sculptor, by some 
thought to have been the maker 
of the statue of Kemesis at Eham- 
nus, 263 

Diolous, the, 13, 155, 197 
Dolopians, the, 401, 409, 415, 41 7, 
431, 439 

Donans, the, 5, 7, 119, 137, 209, 249, 
251, 345, 887, 395, 449 
Dons, 173, 415, 429 
Dym6, 23, 39, 41, 43, 46, 55, 59, 207, 
211, 219, 226, 227, 391 


E 

Echinus 413, 419, 449 
Blateia, 307, 347, 349, 373, 381 
Bleia (or the Eleian country), 55, 79, 
81, 95, 103, 107, 207, 225, 22 7, 

Eleians, the, 7, 15, 23, 27, 36, 39, 79, 
85, 87, 91, 93, 95, 105, 107 
Eleon, 321, 435, 437 
Eleusls, 253, 257, 261, 267 
Bhs, 19, 21, 23, 33, 35, 37, 39, 41, S3, 
55, 75, 83, 87, 91, 101, 143 


459 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 


Empedocles (see Dictionary in vol iii), 
the philosopher, apocopS m, 131 
Epameinondas, conqueror of the 
Lacedaemonians, 229, 281, 287, 335 
Epeians, the, 19, 21, 23, 35, 39, 55, 
77, 81, 83, 91, 103, 105 
Ephorus (see Dictionary in vol i), 
discusses topography, 3 ; makes 
the sea his guide, 9, on King 
Aetolus, 109, on the Heradeidae, 
133, 139, on the first coinage of 
silver, 181, names the colonisers 
of the Peloponnesus, 235 ; on 
Boeotia, 279, 281, on the attack 
upon the Boeotians by the Thra- 
cians, 283 , on the oracular response 
to the Felasgians, 285 , on Apollo, 
363, on the name Naupactus,** 
385 

Ephyra, 27, 29, 31 

Epichaxmus of Cos (about 54(M83 
B.O), the comic poet, apocopS in, 
131 

Epidaurus (Epicarus), 169, 171, 175 
Eratosthenes of OyxenS (see Dictionary 
in vol i), on the bronae Poseidon 
at Helice, 215 , on the Anias River 
near Pheneus, 231 

Erginus, tyrant of the Orchomenians, 
335 

Erythrae, 297, 316, 321 
Euboea, 259, 275, 279, 281, 289, 301, 
347, 371, 377, 379, 395 
Eudoxus of Onidus (see Dictionary 
in vol i), on Corinth, 191 , on the 
Q-reek peninsulas, 239, 241, on 
Ascrc, 331 

Eumelu<=!, domain of, 423, 437, 447, 
451 

Eumolpus, leader of the Thracians, 
209 

Buphonon, apparently Euphonon of 
Chalcis, grammanan, poet, and 
librarian, of whose works only 
fragments remain, apocope m, 
131 

Euphronius (see footnote 1, p. 205), 
author of the Pnapeia^ 206 
Euripides, 97, 99, on Laconia, 141, 
on DanaUs, 163; on Argos and 
Mycenae, 187; on Acrocorinthus, 
193 

Euripus, the, 279, 281, 289, 291, 393, 
453 

460 


Eurotas River, the, 47, 129, 133, 23X 
Burycles, the Lacedaemonian roler, 
made Oythera his private property, 
127, abused the friendship of 
Julius Caesar, 137 
Eurylochus, drove out the serpent 
“ Oychreides, ”263, destroyed Orisa, 
351, 361 

Eurvmedon, commander in the expe- 
dition to Sicily in 414 B.O. (see 
Thucydides, 7 62), 111 
Eurypylus, Greek hero, 407, 413, 421, 
433, 435, 437 

Burysthenes, one of the Heradeidae, 
133, 139, 185, 187, 236 

G 

Graea, 183, 293, 819 
Gyrton, 437, 446, 447 

H 

Hades, 61, 63, 171, 326 

Halae, 273, 297, 877 

Haliartus, 307, 309, 321, 323, 326, 

Halus (AIus), 409, 411, 421, 423 
Harma, 293, 295, 301, 321 
Heoataeus of Miletus (see Dictionary 
in vol. i), on the Epeians and 
Eleians, 39 

Hegesias of Magnesia (fi. about 250 
BO), historian and rhetorician, 
wiote a Eistory of Alexander the 
Great , on the splendour of Athens, 
261, 263 

HeheS, 185, 213, 215, 219, 221, 223 
Helicon, Mt , 195, 301, 307, 315, 317, 
319, 323, 333, 369 

Hellanicus (see Dictionary in vol 1 ), 
Ignores Lycuigus as Spartan Law- 
givei, 139, wrongly spelled Hap 6 
*' Lapp,” 383 

Hellas, the meanmg of the term, 157, 
401, 403, 437 

Hellen, son of Deucalion, lord of the 
coimtry between the Peneius and 
the Asopus, 200, 405 
Helots, the, 135, 139 
Helus, 73, 129, 135, 303 
Heracleia, 233, 313, 391, 415, 449 
Heradeidae, the, 91, 103, 107, 133, 
137, 143, 167, 175, 187, 209, 211 
235, 249, 385, 387 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 


Heradeides of Pontus (see Dictionary 
xn vol i), oa the submersion of 
HelicS, 215 

Heracles, 27, 39, 66, 81, 83, 91, 93, 105, 
127, 161, 173, 187, 201, 335, 379, 
387, 389, 391, 433 

HermioaS (Henaion), 153, 171, 175, 
181, 217 

Hermionic Gulf, the, 149, 153, 197, 
241 

Herodotus (see Dictionary in yol. i), 
on the course of the Asopus Eiver, 
391 

Hesiod (see Dictxcnary in vol i), 
apocope in, 131 , used term “ Pan- 
hellenes,” 157, mentions a Helice 
in Thessaly, 215, on the serpent 
fostered by Oychreus, 253 , born at 
AscrS, 331 , on the Oephissus Eiver, 
375, on the Dotian Plam, 449 
Hestiaeotis (Histiaeotis), 397, 399, 
417, 429, 431, 443 

Hieronymus, of Ehodes ( ?), on 
Oorinth, 191; on the circuit of 
Thessaly and Magnetis, 453 
Hipparchus (see Dictionary in vol i), 
inserted geographical matters in 
his mathematics, 3 

Hipponax of Ephesus (fl 546-520 
BO), the iambic poet, used the 
poetic figure of '* part with the 
whole,” 37 

Histiaeotis (see He&tiaeotis) 

Homer, 3, 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 31, 33, 
39, 51, 55, 67, 67, 69, 71, 73, 75, 
85, 89, 93, 97, 129, 147, 149, 151, 
153, 161, 165, 181, 1S3, 185, 187, 

213, 225, 245, 247, 235, 273, 283, 

307, 311, 319, 321, 323, 325, 327, 

335, 359, 369, 371, 373, 379, 383, 

385, 393, 399, 401, 403, 411, 433, 

443, 445, 447 
Hyl5, 309, 311, 321 
Hyria, 181, 295, 313 
Hysiac, 183, 295, 297 

I 

lardanus Eiver, the, 45, 63, 65 
lotmus, builder of the Parthenon, 
267, 261 

lolcus, 335, 423, 435 
Ion of Chios, the tragic poet (fl. about 
440 B.O ), apocope in, 131 


Ion the son of Xuthus , Ionia named 
after, 207, 209 

Ionian colonisation, the, 213 
lonians, the, 5, 7, 137, 107, 175, 213, 
215, 217, 219, 245, 251, 407 
Ionic dialect, the, 6 
Isthmian Games, the, 189, 197 
Ethmus of Oonnth, the, 5, 7, 11, 13, 
17, 19, 117, 103, 197, 241, 245, 247, 
279, 355 

Ithaca, 15, 77, 183 
Ithomd, 107, 119, 429, 431 

L 

Lacedaemon, 145, 147, 209, 211 
Lacedaemonians, the, 135, 137, 175, 
181, 183, 185, 273, 336 
Laconia, 107, 123, 125, 131, 133, ]35, 
137, 141, 143, 147, 167 
Ladon Kiver, the, 47, 231, 233 
Lamia, 411, 413, 419 
Lapiths, the, 439, 445, 449, 453 
Larisa, 159, 233, 399, 403, 419, 421, 
433, 441, 453 
Lebadeia, 331, 333, 371 
Leonidas, the Spartan hero, 393 
Lepreum, 46, 63, 66, 67, 95 
Leuctia, 211, 215, 331, 335 
Leucullus (consul 74 BO.)» builder 
of Temple of Good Fortune, 201 
Lilaea, 307, 373, 389 
Loernns, the, 259, 349, 379, 385, 387, 
389, 407, 409 

Locnans, the Epicnemidian, 239, 341, 
375, 377, 381, 387 

Locriaiis, the Ozohan or Western, 5, 
345, 349, 353, 377, 415 
Looris, 305, 341, 343, 345, 377, 393 
Lycurgus, the lawgiver, 137, 139, 141 

M 

Macedonia, 201, 281, 396, S99, 415, 
417, 427, 429, 451 

Macedonians, the, 137, 175, 211, 287, 
319, 389, 413, 449 

Machaereus, the Delphian, slayei of 
Neoptolemus, 361 
Magnesia, 407, 423, 425 
Magnetans, the, 396, 427, 447, 449, 
451 

Maleae, Cape, 127, 129, 149, 161, 155, 
189, 233 ? » » » 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 


Maliac aulf, the, 291, 881, 893, 397, 
407, 409, 419 

Malians, the, 343, 395, 409, 413, 449 
Marathon, 187, 209, 203, 273 
Mardonms, the I>ei»ian commander, 
335 

Megaloroli««, 47, 217, 229 
Megara, 245, 251, 257, 299, 301, 325 
Meganans, the, 245, 253, 255, 257 
Mogaiib, 17, 19, 179, 195, 197, 239, 
241, 243, 247, 249, 251, 277, 325 
Melampus, first physician, and 
founder of the -worship of Dionysus 
in Greece, 61 

Melanthns, king of the Messenians, 
109, 249 

Menedemus, the Eretrian philosopher, 
251 

Menelaus, 87, 107, 109, 137, 149, 167, 
185 

MessenS, 107, 109, 121, 131, 149, 
249 

Messenia, 51, 55, 67, 67, 87, 107, 125, 
141, 143, 145, 147 

Messenians, the, 16, 19, 83, 45, 111, 
117, 119, 121 

Methonfi, 111, 113, 117, 425 
Minyans, the, 23, 283, 885 
Minyeius (Anigrus) Biver, the, 61, 
63, 81 

Mithridatic War, the, 269 
Mnasalces the poet, his home at 
Plataeae in Sicyonia, 827 
Mummius, Leucius, the consul, la^ed 
Oonnth to the ground (146 B C ), 
199, loaned Corinthian -works, of 
art to Leucullus, 203 
Munychia, desciiption of, 269, 201 
Mycalessn®, 293, 301, 319 
Mycenae, 151, 166, 167, 185, 187, 317, 
369 

Myrrcudons, the, 179, 401, 413 


N 

Neda Biver, the, 51, 67, 115 
Kemean Games, the, 187 
Hessonis Lake, the, 397, 439, 443, 
455 

B'estor, 19, 21, 23, 29, 31, 33, 61, 57, 
69, 63, 67, 71, 75, 79, 81, 85, 91, 
96, 113, 401 
Hisaea, 245, 251, 255 

462 


0 

Odyssens, 255, 265, 349 
Oeta, Mt , 387, 389, 397, 401, 449 
Olenus 213, 219, 221, 227 
Olvmpia, 28, 41, 47, 49, 51, 87, 91, 
95, 97, 99, 101, 103, 233 
Olympian Games, the, 87, 93, 106 
Olympus, Mt , 439, 443, 419 
Onchestus, 321, 327, 329 
Onomarchus, the Phocian general, 
robbed temple at Delphi, 359, 361 
Orchomenus, 29, 175, 229, 305, 307, 
323, 333, 336, 341, 375 
Ormenmm (Oiminium), 407, 433, 447 
Oropus in Boeotia, 243, 273, 279, 289, 
293 

Ossa, Mt , 393, 397, 426, 449, 451 
Othrys, Mt , 99, 405, 409, 421 
Oxjlus, the commander, 9, 91, 103, 
235 


P 

Pagae, 197, 243, 251, 279, 317 
Pamisus Biver, the, 61, 87, 117, 143, 
145 

Panaenus, the painter, nephew of 
Phcidias, 89 

Panopeus (Phanoteus), 307, 841, 371 
Parapotanui, 307, 341, 373, 375 
Parnassus, Mt , 196, 209, 288, 319, 
343, 345, 849, 371, 877, 389, 395 
Patrae, 28, 211, 219, 226, 227 
Patiocluc, 271, 379, 381 
Pciraeus, the, 241, 243, 259, 261, 271, 
277 

Pela<?gians, the, 55, 163, 2G5, 283, 
285, 319, 453 

Pehon, Mt , 393, 395, 897, 425, 433, 
439, 447, 449 
Pellene, 185, 219, 221 
Peloponnesus, the, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 19, 
33, 107, 110, 185, 137, 157, 167, 
179, 189, 209, 211, 217, 227, 289, 
243, 247 

Pelops, king of Pisatis, 95, 113, 135 
Peneius Bner, the, 11, 27, 23, 31, 
209, 233, 396, 397, 405, 411, 431, 
433, 437, 489, 443, 446, 447, 449, 
451 

Pericles, superintendent of the build- 
ing of the Parthenon, 257 
Perrhaebians, the, 417, 429, 437, 439, 
443, 447, 449 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 


Perseus, founder of Mycenae, 185, 
325 

Phaiiotcus (Panopeus), 307, 373 
Phar»alus, 99, 399, 405, 413 
Plioia (aKo spell eil Phea by Homer), 
Cape, 45, 47, 49, G9, 79 
Pheidns the sculptoi (d 4C0 BC), 
69, 107, 201 

Plieidon the A.rgive, inventor of tlie 
Plieidoman nieas-mo-g,” 105, 107, 
181 

PhemonoS, fir&t Pjthian pne&tebs, 
353 

Pherae (Pharae, Pharis), 109, 113, 
115, 117, 133, 147 

Philetas, scholar, poet, and tutor of 
Ptolemy Philadelphus (fi about 
285 BO), apocope m, 131 
Philip the son of Amyntas (reigned 
359-336 BO), rebtoied Corinth, 
121 , victor at Chaeioneia, 333 , in 
the Phocian War, 359, assigned 
Naupactus to the Aetolians, 385, 
called Ohalcis and Oonnth ** the 
fetters of Q-reece,** 391, assigned 
Halus to the Pharsalions, 411, 
rased Methon6, 427, overmastered 
the Lari'^aeaus, 439 
Philip the son of Demetrius (reigned 
220-178 BO), advised by Demetrius 
of Pharos to lay hold of the tv o 
horns of Greece," 119, favoured 
by the Corinthians in ins quarrel 
■with the Homans, 199 
Plulochonis (see Dictionary in vol iii), 
calK Tyitaeus an Atheunn, 123, 
on the iunits of Megarm, 247, on 
the settlements of Oecrops, 267, 
on Adrastufr, 295 
Philoctetes, 405, 407, 425, 451 
Philon, builder of the aisenal at 
Munjehia, 259 

Phocian (Sacred) War, the, 359 
Phocians, the, 5, 17, 287, 345, 349, 
359, 369, 371, 373 

Phocis, 195, 239, 301, 307, 317, 341, 
843, 347, 349, 376, 377 
Pholod, Mt , 19, 101, 231 
Phthia, 209, 401, 403, 407, 416, 436 
Phttiiotae, the, 211, 396, 413, 415 
Phthiotis, 335, 387, 397, 409, 413, 
419, 421, 423, 429 

Phyle, refuge of the popular party of 
the Athenians, 263 


Pindar, on the biriliplace of Oiion, 
295, on Lake Cephissis, 323, on 
Apollo’'! “sacred gio’ves," 329, on 
the two eagles set free by’ Zeus, 
355, on Plioenu, 401 
Pindus (Aevphas), the city, 387, 43 7, 
433, 439, 449 

Pi-^atis 23, 33, 45, 47, 49 , 87, 93 , 93, 
95, 97, 101,307,175,187 
Platacae (Plataea), 287, 3U3, 315, 323, 
325 

Plato, lauds a fountain m Attica, 
277 

Polemon, the Periegete, viote Troik 
on the dedicatoij offermgs on the 
Acropolis, 2G3 

Polybm«, the historian (see Dictionary 
in vol i), inc laded gccgrapliv in 
hib Instorie'-, 3, on the perimetei 
of the Peloponnebii*^, 13, on the 
captuie of Cormlh, 201, on the 
distance fiom Capo Malcae to the 
Ister, 233 , on Ephoms, 363 
Polycleitus the Elder, of Irgos the 
sculptor (11 about 462-412 B C ), 
maker of statues in the Heraeum, 
167 

Pompej, coloni&od D3mS, 225 
Poseidon, 49, 58, 57, 173, 221, 207, 
329 

Poseidonius (“ee Dictionaiy in vol i), 
included geogiaphicai divcussaons 
m his w oiks, 3 

Piavitelcs, the Eros of, at The^pzae, 
319 

Procles, one of the Eeracleidac, 333, 
139, 141, 235 

ProtesilaUs, 256, 406, 407, 411, 415, 
419, 421 

Pylus, 21, 23, 31, 33, 49, 51, 63, 55, 
57, 69, 61, 63, 65, 69, 71, 79, 81, 
83, 85, 96, 109, 111, 117 
Pythian Games, the, 363, 361 
pjthian ISTome, the, 363 

It 

Rhadamanthys, 871 
Bhamnus, 263, 273 
Rhea, mother of Zeus, 67 
Rhium, 17, 225, 241 
Bhisus, 425, 451 
Rhodes, 259 
Rhypes, 219, 226 


463 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 


Komans, the, 135, 191, 199, 201, 217, 
226, 271, 281, 300, 325, 333, 835 
Rome, 137, 185, 203 


S 

Salanuss, 179, 187, 251, 257, 271 
Salgaueus, 279, 291, 297 
Salmoneus, king of the Epeians and 
Pisatans, 97, 103 

Sceironian Rocks, the, 195, 245, 251 
Scheduis, tomb of, in Daphnus, 377 
Schoenos, 153, 183, 197, 241, 243, 
313 

Scollis, Mt. (Olenian Rock), 41, 225 
Scolus, 183, 313, 315 
Soyrian marble, the, 427 
Sicily, 217, 279, 351 
Sicyon, 167, 185, 207, 219, 323, 351 
Sicyonia, 195, 205, 207, 313, 327 
Simmias of Rhodes (fl about 300 
B C ), poet and grammanan of the 
Alexandrian school, apocopS m, 
131 

Simonides of Geo's, the perfeotei of 
Elegy and the rival of Pindar in 
the Epinician Ode (b 556 BO), 
on the Perrhaebians and Lapiths, 
445 

Socrates, the philosopher, rescuer of 
Xenophon, 289 

Solon, as interpolator of the TZiod, 
265 

Sophocles, the tragic poet, on Mysia, 
99 , apocopi in, 131 , oath quoted 
from, 133, etymological quotation 
from, 159, on the asbigimicnth by 
Pandion to his sons, 249, on 
Amphiaraus, 273, on Trachinia, 
411 

Sotades of Maroneia in Thrace, author 
of abusive satiric poems (fl at 
Alexandna about 280 B C ), on the 
direction of the journey of Tele- 
maohus, 57 

Sparta, 47, 111, 126, 133, 139, 149, 
185 

Spercheius River, the, 173, 391, 893, 
411, 413, 419, 461 

Stesichorus (see JDtctimary m vol. i), 
reputed autnor of the poem entitled 
RhadinS^ 65 , uses term ** city ** 
for the territory of Pisa, 97 

464 


Sthenelus, king of Mycenae, successor 
of Perseus, 185 

Stratocles, Athenian archon, 111 
Stymphalus, 161, 206, 229 
Styx, the, near Pheneus, 233 
Sulla, the Roman commander, 271 
Sunium, Cape, 241, 243, 271, 273, 
275, 277, 279, 281, 289 


T 

Taenarum, Gape, 15, 117, 125, 127, 
145 

Tanagra, 279, 287, 297, 301, 315 
Taygetus, Mt., 125, 145 
Tegea, 183, 229 
Teiresias, tomb of, 323, 333 
Telemachus, 29, 63, 57, 75, 77, 147 
Temp5, 233, 393, 425, 433, 443, 449, 
461 

Tetrapolis, the Attic, 175, 181, 209 
Thebes, 226, 283, 295, 301, 309, 311, 
313, 316, 323, 825, 837 
Thebes, the Phthiotic, 4Q5, 409, 413, 
421 

Themis, 365, 867, 421 
Theopompus, on Methon§, 177, on 
Parapotamii, 378, on Larisa, 441 
Thermopylae (Pylae), 11, 13, 357, 379, 
383, 389, 391, 393, 396, 411, 417, 
419 

Theseus, killed Sceiron, 246 
^espeia (bee Thespiae) 

Thebpiae, 287, 316, 317, 319 
The«saliotis, 397, 421, 433 
Theto'^aloniceu, 233, 277, 347 
Thessaly, 373, 395, 397, 399, 415, 
417, 421, 449, 403 

Thucydides, on Pylus, 111, on the 
term “ Ilellenes,” 157 , on Methone, 
177, on Thyreae, 183, on the 
mjth of Philomela and ProenS, 
309 

Tunototheues, admiral of Ptolemy II, 
composer of the melody of the 
Pythian Nome, 363 
Titus Quiiitius Flamminus, conqueior 
of Philip the son of Demetrius, 
445 

Tityus, 169, 181 

Trachm, 371, 393, 401, 409, 411 

Tncc6, 177, 429, 431, 433 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 


Tricorynthus, 187, 209, 273 
Triphylia, 23, 33, 43, 46, 47, 49, 53, 
66, 69, es, 67, 101, 107, 109, 143 
Tnpodes (Tripodiscium), 255, 267 
Troezen, 163, 109, 173, 177, 181 
T^aeus, the elegiac poet, on the 
conquest of Messenia, 121 , on the 
fertility of Laconia, 143 


X 

Xanthus, king of the Boeotians, 249 
Xenophon, bought sacred plot of 


land on the Selinus Rivei for 
Aitemis, 223 

Xerxes, defeated by the Q-reeks at 
Salainis, 263, 451 ; tried to build 
mole at Salamis, 267 

Xuthus, son of Hellen, 209 

Z 

Zenodotus of Ephesus (fl. 208 B.O ), 
librarian under Ptolemy Phila- 
delphus, scholar and leviser of text 
of Homer, 331 

Zeus, 229, 233, 261, 295, 327, 333 


STRABO, VOL. IV. 


H H 


465